Post-Impressionism and Cubism
The term Post-Impressionism was coined for the first exhibition organized in London in 1911, by the critic and painter Roger Fry (1860-1934) with the title "Monet and the Post-Impressionists". It included several artistic movements, such "fauvism" ,"cubism", "expressionism"(a term usually reserved for the German movement),"vorticism".
According to the new vision of art, the artist was free to distort the form of nature, trying to reach the essentially or inner significance of his7her subject. Roger Fry fostered the artistic search for the spiritual inner meaning of a material subject, for instance, as he said, the "terseness of a tree".
In 1905 the French painter Henri Matisse (1969-1954), the leader of a new group of artists, exhibited their works in Paris at the "salon des independents". These works had such brilliant colors that third authors were called "Les Fauves"("wild beasts"). They found sources of inspiration in African masks, Persian and Indian paintings, Japanese prints, Chinese materials, such as textiles and porcelain, etc. Among the British "fauvists" are generally numbered Duncan Grant, and Matthew Smith, with his vigorous, almost wild colors.
Cubism is a development of Post-impressionism. Cubism consists in the search for the geometrical understructure of natural forms. This mode of painting began with the Spanish painter Pablo Picasso and the French artist Georges Braque. Characteristic of Cubism was the device know as "simultaneity", that is the simultaneous vision of a figure from different points of view, having nothing to do with apparent reality and practical appearances, while, since the Renaissance, painters had always used a centralized technique.