Orwell wrote animal farm as an allegory of the Russian Revolution in the form of animal fable.
The main theme of this novel is that all revolutions fail because the leaders forget the ideas of revolution. They are interested in taking the power in their hands and keeping their privileges.
Tyranny is evil, regardless of its political nature. The protagonists are animals, but they are connected to historical and political events.
In the novel, the animals are described as a simbols, but they also possess the trait of their species. For exemple, in the story, boxer put out his hoof to catch a dog in mid air and this represent his being against repressive power. (He is dependent on his master when he looks napoleon to know whether he should crush the dog.)
Old major stands for a mixture of Marx and Lenin; Farmer jones is Czar Nicolas II, Orwell describes him as a drunk farmer who does not care about his animals; The three pigs are Snowball, Squealer and Napoleon. Snowball represent Trotsky ; Napoleon is Stalin who used terror and force in order to assert and maintain his power over the animals; Squealer represent the propaganda. Boxer is the Animalism; the dogs are the metaphor for the terror state.
Summary Text: The execution
The leader, Napoleon, purges his farm of all traitors and he spreads propaganda to justify his action and he gets rid of all those animals who do not obey him. He calls a meeting in which the dogs attack four pigs who had difended Snowball and, under pressure, they confess to be spies of Snowball and the dogs tore out their throats. Then the hen ringleader of the strike confess as do the other animals and they are promptly killed. The animals fells shaken and miserable because a pile of corpses lay in front of Napoleon’s feet. Boxer feels restless, he doesn’t understand what is gone; he doesn’t question the principle of Animalism and he thinks that the solution is working hard. HE says he would get up earlier in the moorning. Thas he made for the quarry and he collected two loads of stone and dragged them to the windmill. Clover can be regarded as Orwell’s spokesman. He says that this execution was not what they had aimed at when they had rebelled against the human race. The scenes of the terror and slaughter where not what they had expected. When they had first met in the barn to listen to Old Major’s speach. She expected a society of animals free from hunger and whip, all equal, where the strong would protect the weak. INstead, now, no one dared speak their mind and their had to watch their comrades torn to prieces, after confessing to shocking crimes. When they started singing “Beats of England” they are interrupted by Squealer who tell them that they are not allowed to sing it any more because the song had no longer any purpose. It was the song of rebellion but the rebellion had been completed and the society that had dreamt of had been established