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European trade imbalance German unification

- Paris Commune [1871]
- Revenge French

Victorian Britain
Queen Victoria [1837-1901]:
1. married Albert of Saxe-Coburg → style "human"
2. beloved by the British
-Idea Extreme decorum and style public ← largest English
- Alternating Whigs (Liberals) and Tories (Conservatives) - 60 - 70
Leader of Liberals Gladstone
2. Leaders of the Conservative Benjamin Disraeli
3. Social reforms and for the work, which helped develop English
4. Reforms sometimes approved by the opposing side after the fall of government
5. Electoral enlargement of the right to vote
6. liberalization of Trade unions: right to strike (1875)
7. public elementary education
- Question Irish (unresolved in 800):
1. Irish members in London (both Catholic and Protestant)
2. call for autonomy
3. Liberals proposed a "home rule" - granting greater autonomy (not independence) - not approved
4. development of both autonomist movements, both separatists (illegal) in Ireland (including terrorist)
5. boycott: mr. Boycott, administrator of estates, complaining to the boss through him by employees
6. Irish Members: filibuster (O'Connell - long speeches - block parliamentary work impossible for the head of government to remove the word)
7. Independence Ireland in 1915: Republic of Ireland - Eire.
- Colonial Empire (more after '70):
1. No longer just commercial, but real colonial empire
2. 1876: Victoria, Empress of India (sympathy with Disraeli)

- Head of the interim government: A. Thiers (Bordeaux)
Third Republic:
- 1871: Treaty of Frankfurt - the Parisian insurrection → Municipality (revolutionary government, from March to May) of socialist - bloody repression (20 thousand dead, many sentenced to forced labor in French Guyana)
- Radical parties (Democrats and anti-clerical): up to World War II (Ferry - Clemeancean)
- Extreme secularism
- Crisis Boulangist hope for the people of a coup by Boulange - flight abroad
- Captain Dreyfuss (jew): accused of being a spy tedesca- life sentence in Guyana - case study by various intellectuals, including Zola- publication of a provocative article on the aurora (J'accuse) - reopening of the case - split public opinion - liberation and reintegration in the army - the discovery of the real culprit, poor aristocrat of Hungarian origin (family Esteraczy) - participation in an Austrian journalist, Theodor Herzl - the birth of the Zionist movement - support of Rotchild (rich bankers They wanted to buy Palestinian territories - Jewish colonies).

Dynasty Романов
- Alexander I
- Nicholas I
- Alexander II (1855)
- Alexander III
- Nicholas II (1894-1917)
After the Crimean War → big wound to national pride - closing in internal politics - Alexander II (1861) - reforms from above:
• abolition of serfdom
• legal equality of every citizen
• beginning of land reform → subdivision of large estates to give farmers - failed (no expropriation - the Tsar gave in exchange for lands bonds estates were given to the village communities medieval heritage) in exchange for heavy redemptions - subdivision lots (even 15% of farmers had land unsatisfactory, most land that had barely enough to feed them)
Revival of agrarian reform by Столыпин in 1914
60: considerable social expectations on the part of young people - 70 - 80 - (clandestine) populist movement - improvement of the fate of the people - the failure of the movement - division:
- Anarchy → Бакунин
- Nihilistic [→ Тургенев, Fathers and Sons]
- Assassins of Alexander II and III
1898: establishment of the Social Democratic Party in Russia (Marxist)
1900: establishment of the social-revolutionary party
Владимир Ильич Ульянов
End '800: early industrialization Russian [ocalizzata in big cities like St. Petersburg or Moscow, or even near the Urals, for the steel industry, thanks to foreign investment, especially by France (diplomatic relations - understood anti-Germanic).
War against Japan → heavy defeat, destruction of the fleet - conquest of some ports - weakening of the Tsarist regime - bloody repression of peaceful demonstrators for trade union rights by the Cossacks - revolution (even with the mutiny of the army potionki) - concession parliament [Дума] - creation of parties: wire Tsarist, liberal (center right), revolutionary socialists, social-democratic) - Agrarian Reform (failed).

Austro - Hungarian Empire
Hungarian statute with great autonomy, while remaining under the Habsburg Empire. Desire for autonomy on the part of the Bohemians above.

Internal policy of Bismarck:
- State aid for industries (Bayer, Krupp, Siemens ...)
- Excellent education system, also in VET schools
- Read about the disease and pensions
Kulturkampf: downsizing of the Catholic Church [for their support of the Zentrum]
- Fight against socialism (SPD, Social Democratic Party) - anti-socialist and anti-union laws against freedom of the press etc. - Social laws (the first comprehensive set of State of the end '800) - establishment of a pension system (retirement age according to Bismarck: 65)
Foreign policy of Bismarck (balance in favor of Germany):
- Isolation of France → Triple Alliance of 1882 (Italy, Germany, Austria)
- Defensive alliance
- Purpose: to avoid war on two fronts
- Pact between the Austrian empire, Russian, German and almost useless
- Direct agreement with Russia by Germany: Treaty against - insurance (no intervention on the part of the two in the event of war in the other State)
- Free colonialism of Great Britain and France → because you would certainly find a contrast between the two powers in favor of Germany
two congresses - Bismarck mediator in tensions, to avoid any kind of alliance between the enemies of Germany
- Renunciation of Italy irredentism [against Trentino and Trieste]
Foreign policy post-Bismarck (balance becomes unbalanced)
- Chancellors not up to Bismarck
- Militarist line by William II
- No renewal of the treaty with Russia
- Construction of a battle fleet → annoyance of the British
- Schlieffen plan to avoid war on two fronts: by defeating one of the two powers [France] and then go on the attack of the other (Russia), with no room for diplomatic negotiations - heterogenesis ends
England: enactment of "Two powers Standard" (applying the two powers, that the fleets of other nations) - fleet exceeds the sum of the two most powerful fleets in Europe, ie the French or German
French Connection - Russian (French investments in Russia) '900: Understanding between great Britain and France - the Triple Entente (France, Russia, England).
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