The age of anxiety
At the end of 19th century the Victorian values come to an end and the positivistic faith in science and progress had led people to believe that all human misery would be swept away (spazzati via) and economy was affected by this believe.
The first World World left the country in a cynic mood and there was a contradictory development because the 1920s there were comfortable only for the privileged classes. A lot of soldiers died, some survivors returned home with a frantic (disperata) search of pleasure, other were hunted by a sense of guilty for the horror of war. There was a increasing feeling of rootlessness (pedita delle proprie radici) due to the slow dissolution of Empire into Commonwealth.
Nothing seemed to be right or certain even if religion science offer comfort or security. Scientist destroyed the old Victorian concepts and put the man and the centre of universe.
Freud gave the new idea that the man’s action could be motivated by irrational forces, and this concept w disturbed the common think. Freud also put great importance to libido in child that sees the father as a rival for his mother’s affection. In this vision changed all the effect into the sphere of family life , the relationship between parents and child , he put attention on the importance of early development and childhood, the conventional model of relationship between sexes were readjusted .
Freud proposed a new method of investigation of human mind through the analysis of dream. and concept of “free association “ which influenced the modern writers.
Jund continued Freud'studies and added the concept of “Collective unconscious” a sort of cultural memory containing universal myths and beliefs.. That meants that common things of everyday world had a great symbolic power and people responded to them unconsciously.
The concept of Relativity introduced by Einstain , caused the growing crisis of confidence (crisi di fiducia dei valori) because he discarded the concept of time and space , so the world lost his solidity and there was complemented by rebellion against a lot of form of art.
the idea of time
Bergson made a distinction:
• historical time: external, linear and measured in term of the spatial distance travelled by a pendulum or the hands of a clock.
• psychological time: internal, subjective and measured by the relative emotional intensity of a moment.
in the social sphere increasing knowledge tended to shake faith essential rightness of western ways of behavior.
for Freud man was a part of nature, a biological and psychological phenomenon. Under the influence of the idea of Nietzsche that substituted Christian morality with a belief in human power and perfectibility, the Christian notions of man that can be save by God’s graces. lost it former strength.
very people so turned to esoteric beliefs. The English philosophy became analytic, focusing on the study of language: rectify (rettificare) the knowledge possessed.
Centrality of literature as a guide to the perplexities of an age whose keywords were isolation, alienation.
through elaborate structure, allusion, literary references, images and myths, the modern writer expressed the impossibility of mastering (padroneggiare) the chaotic universe.