Linga inglese - Translation studies - Appunti
Translation theory before the twentieth century
A central debate in the history of translation theory has been between “word for word” and “sense for sense”.
Until the second half of the 20s , translation theory seems locked in what Steiner calls “sterile debate” over
the triad of “literal”, “free” and “faithful” translation. The distinction between “word for word” (literal) and
“sense for sense”(free) translation goes back to Cicero and S Jerome. Cicero said that he didn’t translate as
an interpreter but as an orator, trying to preserve the general style and force of the original language.
Within western society, issues of free and literal translation were for over a thousand years after St
Jerome bound up with the translation of the Bible and other religious and philosophical text. Any translation
diverging from the accepted interpretation was to be deemed (ritenere) heretical an to be censured or banned.
The most famous example of this is Martin Luther’s crucially influential translation into East middle German
of the New Testament and later of the Old Testament. Luther followed St Jerome in rejecting word-for-word
The key concepts investigated by Louis Kelly in the True Interpreter were: fidelity, truth and spirit.
The most important authors in attempt at systematic translation theory were Dryden, Dolet and
Tytler. Tytler reduced all translation to three categories:
1. Metaphrase: word for word translation
2. Paraphrase: a translation in which is kept the point of view of the original author
3. Imitation: a very free translation
On the other hand Dolet set out five principles in order of importance:
The translator must perfectly understand the sense and the material of the original author
The translator should have a perfect knowledge of both language
The translator should avoid word for word rendering
The translator should avoid latin or obscure forms
The translator should avoid clumsiness
Tytler has three general laws:
The translation should give a complete transcript of the ideas of the original work
The style and manner of writing should be of the same character of the original
+1 anno fa
I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher Exxodus di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Lingua Inglese III e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università La Sapienza - Uniroma1 o del prof Scienze letterarie Prof.
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