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Appunti di Lingua inglese III . Gli argomenti trattati sono i seguenti: the concept of translation, the source language or SL, the target language or TL, what is translation studies, the British Centre for Literary translation. Scarica il file in formato PDF!

Esame di Lingua inglese III docente Prof. P. Scienze letterarie






1.1 The concept of translation

In the first chapter is clear the concept of translation. The writer has been decided to focus the

approach on written translation rather than oral translation (interpreting or interpretation).

The term translation can refer to the general field, the product or the process. The product is the

text that has been translated, the process is the act of producing the translation otherwise

knows as translating. There are three categories of translation described by Jakobson Roman,

the Russian-American structuralist, they are:

Intralingual: translation, or rewording: an interpretation of verbal signs by means of other signs

of the same language; it occur, for example, when we rephrase an expression or text in the same

language to explain or clarify something we might have said or written.

Interlingual: translation or translation proper: an interpretation of verbal signs by means of

some other language; It is the process of translation between two different written languages

involves the translator changing an original written text (the source text or ST , in the in the

original verbal language, the source language or SL, into a written text, the target text or TT in

a different verbal language the target language or TL).

Intersemiotic: translation or transmutation: an interpretation of verbal signs by means of signs

of non-verbal sign systems. It occur if a written text is translated, for example, into music, film

or painting.

1.2 What is translation studies?

Written and spoken translations have played a crucial role in interhuman communication, but

the study of translation as an academic subject has only really begun in the past fifty years. In

the English-speaking world, this discipline is now generally known as translation studies,

thanks to the Dutch-based US scholar James S.Holmes, 1972, but the translation studies

didn’t are as an independent discipline yet.

Now, at the beginning of the twenty-first century, the discipline of translation studies

continues to develop from strength to strength across the globe. The translation studies has

become more prominent, when there has been a proliferation of specialized translating and

interpreting courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. In the UK, the first

specialized university postgraduate courses in interpreting and translating were set up in the


In Europe, there is now a network of British Centre for Literary translation is studied, practised

and promoted. A part from Norwich, these include Amsterdam (the Netherlands), Arles

(France), Bratislave(Slovakia), Dublin(Ireland),R hodes (Greece), Sineffe (Belgium),

Strälen(Germany),Tarazona(Spain), and Visby(Sweden).

The 1990s saw a proliferation of conferences, books and journals on translation in many


There are various professional publications dedicated to the practice of translation, as in the UK

The Linguistic, other smaller periodicals such as TRANSST(Israel) and BET (Spain), now

disseminated through the internet, give details of forthcoming events, conferences and

translation prize.

1.3 A brief history of the discipline

The practice of translation was discussed by Cicero and Horace (first century BCE) and

St.Jerome (fourth century CE), their writings were exert an important influence up until the

twentieth century . The translation of the Bibles of St. Jerome by Greek into Latin was for over

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a thousand years and especially during the Reformation in the sixteenth century, the

battleground of conflicting ideologies in western Europe.

However , although the practice of translating is long established, the study of the field

developed into an academic discipline only in the second half of the twentieth century. From the

late eighteenth century to the 1960s, language learning in secondary schools in many countries

had come to be dominated by what was known as the grammar-translation method. This

method, which was applied to the classical Latin and Greek and then to modern foreign

languages, centred on the rote study of the grammatical rules and structures of the foreign

language. These rules were both practised and tested by the translation of a series of usually

unconnected and artificially constructed sentences exemplifying the structures being studied, an

approach that persist even nowadays in certain countries and contexts. Translation exercises

were regarded as a means of learning a new language or of reading a foreign language text until

one had the linguistic ability to read the original. The academy considered it to be of secondary

status. Translation exercises were regarded as a means of learning a new language or of reading

a foreign language text until one had the linguistic ability to read the original. In the 1960s 1970s

the grammar translation method fell into increasing disrepute, in many English-language

countries with the rise of the direct method or communicative approach to English language

teaching. This approach places stress on students’ natural capacity to learn language and

attempts to replicate “authentic” language learning conditions in the classroom. It often

privileges spoken over written forms, initially, and tends to shun the use of the students’ mother

tongue. The translation tended to become restricted to higher-level and university language

courses and professional translator training to the extent that present first-year undergraduates

in the UK are unlikely to have had any real practice in the skill. In the 1920s began Richards'

reading workshops and practical criticism approach and in other later creative writing

workshops, these translation workshops were first established in the universities of Iowa and

Princeton. They were intended as a platform for the introduction of new translations into the

target culture and for the discussion of the finer principles of the translation process and of

understanding a text. Running parallel to this approach was that of comparative literature,

where literature is studied and compared transnationally and transculturally, necessitating the

reading of some literature in translation. Another area in which translation became the subject

of research was contrastive analysis. This is the study of two languages in contrast in an

attempt to identify general and specific differences between them. It does not incorporate

sociocultural and pragmatic factors, nor the role of translation as a communicative act.

Nevertheless, the continued application of a linguistic approach in general, and specific

linguistic model such as generative grammar or functional grammar (see chapter 3, 5 and 6), has

demonstrated an inherent and gut link with translation. In some universities, translation

continues to be studied as a module on applied linguistic courses, the evolving field of

translation studies can point to its own systematic models that have incorporated other

linguistic models and developed them for its own purposes. The construction of the new

discipline has involved moving away from considering translation as primarily connected to

language teaching and learning. Instead , the new focus is the specific study of what happens in

and around translating and translation. The approach to the study of translation began to

emerge in the 1950s and 1960s. One example of now classic is “Stylistique comparée du

français et de l’anglais 1958”of Jean-Paul Vinay and Jean Darbelnet . This is a contrastive

approach that categorized what they saw happening in the practice of between French and


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+1 anno fa

Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea in lingue e letterature straniere
Università: Verona - Univr
A.A.: 2008-2009

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher melody_gio di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Lingua inglese III e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Verona - Univr o del prof Scienze letterarie Prof.

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