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1) A TT is determined by its skopos

2) A good translation of ST in a TT taking account of the cultural contexts

3) A translatum in its target culture is not necesssarily the same as in the source


4) The TT must be internally coherent means that TT must be translated in such a

way that is coherent for the TT receivers, given their circustamstances and


5) A TT must be coherent with the ST (fidelity rule)

6) The five points listed above are ordered hierarchically with the Skopos rule


An important advantage of skopos theory is that it allows the possibility of the same

text being translated in different ways according to the purpose of the TT.


Nord discuss about criticism of skopos theory, first the theory is valid only for non-

literary text, who the aim are general.

Secondly the two theory ( Reiss’s text approach and Vermeer’s skopos theory cannot

join together).

Finally skopos theory does not pay sufficient attention to the linguistic nature of ST.

For Nord need understand the function of ST features and the translation strategies

approppriate to the purpose of translation.

Nord presents a more detailed model incorporating elements of text analysis. Nord

first make a distinction between two basic types of translation (product and process):

documentary translation In this kind of translation the TT reader already know

that the text he’s reading has been translated from another language\culture.

an instrumental translation Contrary to the previous one, the instrumental

translation let the reader know that the text has never been translated. In

addition the translator should try to turn the translation suitable for the target

culture, context and time.

Nord pays more attention to features of the ST, and describe the three aspect of

functionalist approaches:

1) the translator needs to compare ST and TT. the main features to pay

attention to are:text functions; sender and recipient; the time and place

of text reception; the way the text will be exposed (speech and writing);

why the ST was written and why it is being translated.

2) The importance of ST analysis ( non verbal elements , the register of

lexis, presuppositions)

3) The functional hierarchy of translation problems

a) The intended function of translation should be decided

(documentary or instrumental)

b) Those functional elements that will need to be adapted to the TT

addressees’ situations have to be determined.

c) The translation type decides the translation studies ( source-

culture or target-culture oriented)

d) The analysis of ST


The 1970s-1990s saws the growrh of discourse analysis in applied linguistics


This model based on systemic functional grammar, study tha language as

communication. For him fist of all the linguistic choise depend from the sociocultural

framework, than the genre ( the conventional text type is associated with a specific

communication function) is conditionated by sociocultural environment THE REGISTER

which comprises three variable elements:

1) Field what is being written about (ARGOMENTO) metafunctions


2) Tenor who is communicating and to whom metafunctions

interpersonal through modals verbs

3) Mode the form of communication for example written metafunctions


HOUSE the model involve s a systematic comparison of the textual profile of the ST

and TT

In this model there are additional elements than halliday’s model


Field subject and social action

Tenor the partecipant relatioship

Mode the channel and the particpation between

Addesser and addressee ( monologue/dialogue)

House introduce two type of translation:

An overt translation is one in which the addrssees of translation are “overtly” not

being direcly addessed.

A covert translation, the ST is not linked to the ST audience or culture, the function of

a covert translation is to recreate reproduce in the translated text the function of its


BAKER looks at the equivalence a series of levels; at word , grammar ,thematic

structure, cohesion and pragmatic levels.

In particular in this chapter we talks about the pragmatics.

For Baker pragmatics is the study of the language in use. It is the study of meaning,

not as generated by the linguistics system but as conveyed and manipulated by

participants in a communicative situation.

The three pragmatic concepts: coherence, presupposition,implicature.

Coherence of the text deoends on the receiver’s experience of the world .

Presupposition relates to the linguistic and extra linguistic knowledge the senders

assumes the receiver to have in order to retrieve the sender’s message.

Implicature what the speaker means or implies rather than what she/he says. The

rules of implicature are quantity ( give the amount of information that is necessary),

quality (say only which you know can be true), relevance ( what you say should be

relevant to the conversation), manner (what you say shold be appropiate to the

message and so that will be understood by the receiver.


Language and text are considered to be realizations of sociocultural message.

DISCOURSE modes of speaking and writing which involve social groups in

adopting a particular attitude towards areas of social events.




POLYSYSTEM is a conglometate of systems which interact to bring about a process of


The polysystem is hierarchized , where in the highest position is occupied by an

innovative literary type, the lower lever is conservative type.On the other hand, if the

conservative forms are on the top, the innovative are the lower level.the relationship

between the two form are very important in the polysystem theory.

The translation literature may occupy a primary or a secondary position.

For Even-Zohar if translated literature occupies a primary position the translators

mustn’t follow target literature models, on the other hand if translated literature is

secondary translators tend to use the target culture models.



• Literature COMPRENDE the •

social, historical and cultural The universal law based on little

forces. evidence

• •

E.Zohar moves away from the Focus on abstract model rather

isolated study of individual texts than the “real life”

althogh the cultural and literaty If the model is really objective


• The cincept of equivalence

change in according to the

historical and cultural situation of

the text


For toury translations occupy a position in the social and literary system of the target

culture. With this approach he follow the polysystem theory, the DTS( descriptive

translation studies) consist on a description of the product the role of sociocultural


1. Situate the text within the target cuture system

2. cmpare the ST and TT


The definition of norms used by Toury is “translation general values or ideas shared

by a community( what is wrong or right) into performance instruction for and

applicable situations.

Toury considers translation to be an activity governed by norms, for him the norms

can be reconstructed from two type of source:

1 From examination of text: although which we need understand the relationship

between ST ans TT segments.

2 From the statements made about norms by translator publishers...

Toury sees different kinds of norms operating in a different stages of the translation


Initial norm refers to general choice made by translator

The translator can follow the norms realized in the ST TT will be adequate

If vthe target culture prevail TT will be acceptable

Preliminary norm

Translation policy directness of translation

The translation theory refers to factors determinig the selection of the text for

translation in a specific language, culture or time.

The directness of translation is when a translation occurs through an intermediate


Operational norms describe the presentation and linguistic matter of the TT

Matricial norms Textual linguistic norms

Whole ST (addition or use of linguistic material like

omission of textual segmentation) lexical items, phrases

Than Toury join (unifica) the norms in a descriptive translation in “LAWS”

The law of growing standardization the states original are modified in

o favour of option offered by a target

The law of interference that refers to ST linguistic feature being copied

o in the TT



The use of equivalence

The involvement of literary tendencies within the target cultural system in the

production of any translated text

The integration of both thr original text and translated text.

The main critic to the toury’s work is

• The two toury’s law are contradictory in fact, the law of standardization

are TL oriented and the law of interference are ST oriented.


Chesterman proposes another set of norms:

• Product or expectancy norms concerning what a translatiob should be

like, the readers should have a notion of what is an appropriate


• Professional norms regulate the process itself, in particular there are the

ethical norm, though which the translator will accept resposability for the

work produced for the commissioner and the reader, social the translator

should assure the communication between the parties, linguistic norm

deals about the relation between the ST and TT.

Lambert and Van Gorp (they are in contradiction with Toury and Even-Zohar)

They accept that is impossible to summarize all relationship involved in the activity of

translation but suggest a systematic scheme that avoids superficial and intuitive

commentaries and judgements and convictions.

Chapter 8

Varieties of cultural studies

Bassnett and Lefevere go beyond language and focus on the interaction between

translation between translations and culture, on the way in which culture impacts and

constraints translation and on the larger issue of context, history and convention.


The people involved in such power positions are the ones Lefevere sees as rewriting

literature and governing its consumption by the general public.

The motivation for such rewriting can be ideological or poetological. He claims that

“the same basic process of rewriting is a work in translation, historiography,

onthologization, criticism and editing.

He said “translation is the most obviously recognizable type of rewriting and … it is

potentially the most influential because it is able to project the image of an author

and/or those work beyond the boundaries of their culture of origin”.

The most important consideration is the ideological one. The poetological

consideration refers to the dominant poetics in the target language culture.


She’s approaches translation from a gender studies angle. She sees a language of

sexism in translation studies, with its image of dominance, fidelity, faithfulness and

betrayal (tradimento). Simon paint out that the classicism of Russian literature were

initially made available in English in translations produced mainly by one woman (ex.

Dostoevsky, Tolstoy).

Post colonial translation theory

Spivak’s view is often expressed in “translationese” which eliminates the identity of

politically less powerful individuals and cultures.

Spivak’s critique of western feminism and publishing is most biting when she suggests

that feminists from the egemonic countries should show solidarity with woman in

postcolonial contexts by learning the language in which those women speak and write.

Brazilian cannibalism

Another important postcolonial movement in translation has come from Brazil from

the famous story of the ritual of cannibalization of Portuguese bishop by native


It’s based on the metaphor of anthropophagy or cannibalism with the Andrade’s

“Manifesto Antropofago”. The metaphor has been used by the strong Brazilian

translation studies community to stand for the experience of colonization and

translation. Colonizers and their language are devoured, their life force invigorating

the devourers but in a new purified and energized farm that is appropriate to the

needs of the native peoples.

The Irish context (by Cronin)

Cronin himself concentrate on the role of translation in the linguistic and political

battle between the Irish and English languages, examining how Irish translaters have

discussed and presented their work in preface, commentaries and other writings. He

uses the metaphor of Translation to draw a parallel with what was happening

physically to the Irish (translation at a cultural level)

Chapter 9

Translating the foreign: the (in)visibility of translation

Venuti: Domestication and Foreignization

Lawrence Venuti is a cultural theorist who influenced the nature of the translation. In

particular he focused his attention on what he calls “Invisibility of the translator”.

Venuti argued that in Anglo-American culture the translators tend to translate the

texts in a “fluent” way in order to make an easy-readable Target Text and giving the

text an illusion of transparency, this kind of behavior ,nevertheless, hide the original

nature of foreign text deleting sometimes important elements.

Furthermore Venuti described two different methods to translate a text:

Domestication: In this method the translator is hidden, the text is adapted to the

target culture minimizing the foreignness of the original text. The final result is a

fluent text which give the reader the illusion that the text has been originally written

in his language.

Foreignization: Is the Venuti’s favourite way to work on a foreign text, in this case the

translator tries to convey the TT reader all the impressions, the forms and the

contents the writer wanted to communicate. This method brings out the work of the

translator whose strategies are centred create a text which respect the original idea of

the text even in a target language.

Despite his preference to the foreignization, Venuti highlight that the first method as

the second one are not perfect models and that they were created to promote

research in translation field.

Antoine Berman

Berman’s works had greatly influence on Venuti’s theories.

As Venuti he noted how the foreignness of the texts are given up for a major fluency

on the TT. He invented a term which became afterward the Venuti’s Domestication:

Negative analytic.

In order to explain how many difficulties the translator meets translating a foreign

text in a foreign-oriented way, Berman identifies twelve “Deforming tendencies” that


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Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea in lingue e letterature straniere
Università: Verona - Univr
A.A.: 2008-2009

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher melody_gio di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Lingua inglese III e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Verona - Univr o del prof Scienze letterarie Prof.

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