Lingua inglese III - i translation studies
1) A TT is determined by its skopos
2) A good translation of ST in a TT taking account of the cultural contexts
3) A translatum in its target culture is not necesssarily the same as in the source
4) The TT must be internally coherent means that TT must be translated in such a
way that is coherent for the TT receivers, given their circustamstances and
5) A TT must be coherent with the ST (fidelity rule)
6) The five points listed above are ordered hierarchically with the Skopos rule
An important advantage of skopos theory is that it allows the possibility of the same
text being translated in different ways according to the purpose of the TT.
CRISTIANE NORD TRANSLATION-ORIENTED TEXT ANALYSIS
Nord discuss about criticism of skopos theory, first the theory is valid only for non-
literary text, who the aim are general.
Secondly the two theory ( Reiss’s text approach and Vermeer’s skopos theory cannot
Finally skopos theory does not pay sufficient attention to the linguistic nature of ST.
For Nord need understand the function of ST features and the translation strategies
approppriate to the purpose of translation.
Nord presents a more detailed model incorporating elements of text analysis. Nord
first make a distinction between two basic types of translation (product and process):
documentary translation In this kind of translation the TT reader already know
that the text he’s reading has been translated from another language\culture.
an instrumental translation Contrary to the previous one, the instrumental
translation let the reader know that the text has never been translated. In
addition the translator should try to turn the translation suitable for the target
culture, context and time.
Nord pays more attention to features of the ST, and describe the three aspect of
1) the translator needs to compare ST and TT. the main features to pay
attention to are:text functions; sender and recipient; the time and place
of text reception; the way the text will be exposed (speech and writing);
why the ST was written and why it is being translated.
2) The importance of ST analysis ( non verbal elements , the register of
3) The functional hierarchy of translation problems
a) The intended function of translation should be decided
(documentary or instrumental)
b) Those functional elements that will need to be adapted to the TT
addressees’ situations have to be determined.
c) The translation type decides the translation studies ( source-
culture or target-culture oriented)
d) The analysis of ST
CHAPTER 6 DISCOURSE AND REGISTER ANALYSIS APPROACHES
The 1970s-1990s saws the growrh of discourse analysis in applied linguistics
Halliday MODEL OF DISCOURSE ANALYSIS
This model based on systemic functional grammar, study tha language as
communication. For him fist of all the linguistic choise depend from the sociocultural
framework, than the genre ( the conventional text type is associated with a specific
communication function) is conditionated by sociocultural environment THE REGISTER
which comprises three variable elements:
1) Field what is being written about (ARGOMENTO) metafunctions
2) Tenor who is communicating and to whom metafunctions
interpersonal through modals verbs
3) Mode the form of communication for example written metafunctions
HOUSE the model involve s a systematic comparison of the textual profile of the ST
In this model there are additional elements than halliday’s model
Field subject and social action
Tenor the partecipant relatioship
Mode the channel and the particpation between
Addesser and addressee ( monologue/dialogue)
House introduce two type of translation:
An overt translation is one in which the addrssees of translation are “overtly” not
being direcly addessed.
A covert translation, the ST is not linked to the ST audience or culture, the function of
a covert translation is to recreate reproduce in the translated text the function of its
BAKER looks at the equivalence a series of levels; at word , grammar ,thematic
structure, cohesion and pragmatic levels.
In particular in this chapter we talks about the pragmatics.
For Baker pragmatics is the study of the language in use. It is the study of meaning,
not as generated by the linguistics system but as conveyed and manipulated by
participants in a communicative situation.
The three pragmatic concepts: coherence, presupposition,implicature.
Coherence of the text deoends on the receiver’s experience of the world .
Presupposition relates to the linguistic and extra linguistic knowledge the senders
assumes the receiver to have in order to retrieve the sender’s message.
Implicature what the speaker means or implies rather than what she/he says. The
rules of implicature are quantity ( give the amount of information that is necessary),
quality (say only which you know can be true), relevance ( what you say should be
relevant to the conversation), manner (what you say shold be appropiate to the
message and so that will be understood by the receiver.
HATIM AND MASON THE SEMIOTIC LEVEL OF CONTEXT
Language and text are considered to be realizations of sociocultural message.
DISCOURSE modes of speaking and writing which involve social groups in
adopting a particular attitude towards areas of social events.
CHAPTER 7 SYSTEM THEORIES
1 POLYSYSTEM THEORY
POLYSYSTEM is a conglometate of systems which interact to bring about a process of
The polysystem is hierarchized , where in the highest position is occupied by an
innovative literary type, the lower lever is conservative type.On the other hand, if the
conservative forms are on the top, the innovative are the lower level.the relationship
between the two form are very important in the polysystem theory.
The translation literature may occupy a primary or a secondary position.
For Even-Zohar if translated literature occupies a primary position the translators
mustn’t follow target literature models, on the other hand if translated literature is
secondary translators tend to use the target culture models.
ADVANTAGES OF POLYSYSTEM CRITICISM OF POLYSYSTEM
• Literature COMPRENDE the •
social, historical and cultural The universal law based on little
E.Zohar moves away from the Focus on abstract model rather
isolated study of individual texts than the “real life”
althogh the cultural and literaty If the model is really objective
• The cincept of equivalence
change in according to the
historical and cultural situation of
TOURY AND DESCRIPTIVE TRANSLATION STUDIES
For toury translations occupy a position in the social and literary system of the target
culture. With this approach he follow the polysystem theory, the DTS( descriptive
translation studies) consist on a description of the product the role of sociocultural
1. Situate the text within the target cuture system
2. cmpare the ST and TT
The definition of norms used by Toury is “translation general values or ideas shared
by a community( what is wrong or right) into performance instruction for and
Toury considers translation to be an activity governed by norms, for him the norms
can be reconstructed from two type of source:
1 From examination of text: although which we need understand the relationship
between ST ans TT segments.
2 From the statements made about norms by translator publishers...
Toury sees different kinds of norms operating in a different stages of the translation
Initial norm refers to general choice made by translator
The translator can follow the norms realized in the ST TT will be adequate
If vthe target culture prevail TT will be acceptable
Translation policy directness of translation
The translation theory refers to factors determinig the selection of the text for
translation in a specific language, culture or time.
The directness of translation is when a translation occurs through an intermediate
Operational norms describe the presentation and linguistic matter of the TT
Matricial norms Textual linguistic norms
Whole ST (addition or use of linguistic material like
omission of textual segmentation) lexical items, phrases
Than Toury join (unifica) the norms in a descriptive translation in “LAWS”
The law of growing standardization the states original are modified in
o favour of option offered by a target
The law of interference that refers to ST linguistic feature being copied
o in the TT
DISCUSSION OF TOURY ‘S WORK
The use of equivalence
The involvement of literary tendencies within the target cultural system in the
production of any translated text
The integration of both thr original text and translated text.
The main critic to the toury’s work is
• The two toury’s law are contradictory in fact, the law of standardization
are TL oriented and the law of interference are ST oriented.
CHESTERMAN’S TRANSLATION NORMS
Chesterman proposes another set of norms:
• Product or expectancy norms concerning what a translatiob should be
like, the readers should have a notion of what is an appropriate
• Professional norms regulate the process itself, in particular there are the
ethical norm, though which the translator will accept resposability for the
work produced for the commissioner and the reader, social the translator
should assure the communication between the parties, linguistic norm
deals about the relation between the ST and TT.
Lambert and Van Gorp (they are in contradiction with Toury and Even-Zohar)
They accept that is impossible to summarize all relationship involved in the activity of
translation but suggest a systematic scheme that avoids superficial and intuitive
commentaries and judgements and convictions.
Varieties of cultural studies
Bassnett and Lefevere go beyond language and focus on the interaction between
translation between translations and culture, on the way in which culture impacts and
constraints translation and on the larger issue of context, history and convention.
The people involved in such power positions are the ones Lefevere sees as rewriting
literature and governing its consumption by the general public.
The motivation for such rewriting can be ideological or poetological. He claims that
“the same basic process of rewriting is a work in translation, historiography,
onthologization, criticism and editing.
He said “translation is the most obviously recognizable type of rewriting and … it is
potentially the most influential because it is able to project the image of an author
and/or those work beyond the boundaries of their culture of origin”.
The most important consideration is the ideological one. The poetological
consideration refers to the dominant poetics in the target language culture.
She’s approaches translation from a gender studies angle. She sees a language of
sexism in translation studies, with its image of dominance, fidelity, faithfulness and
betrayal (tradimento). Simon paint out that the classicism of Russian literature were
initially made available in English in translations produced mainly by one woman (ex.
Post colonial translation theory
Spivak’s view is often expressed in “translationese” which eliminates the identity of
politically less powerful individuals and cultures.
Spivak’s critique of western feminism and publishing is most biting when she suggests
that feminists from the egemonic countries should show solidarity with woman in
postcolonial contexts by learning the language in which those women speak and write.
Another important postcolonial movement in translation has come from Brazil from
the famous story of the ritual of cannibalization of Portuguese bishop by native
It’s based on the metaphor of anthropophagy or cannibalism with the Andrade’s
“Manifesto Antropofago”. The metaphor has been used by the strong Brazilian
translation studies community to stand for the experience of colonization and
translation. Colonizers and their language are devoured, their life force invigorating
the devourers but in a new purified and energized farm that is appropriate to the
needs of the native peoples.
The Irish context (by Cronin)
Cronin himself concentrate on the role of translation in the linguistic and political
battle between the Irish and English languages, examining how Irish translaters have
discussed and presented their work in preface, commentaries and other writings. He
uses the metaphor of Translation to draw a parallel with what was happening
physically to the Irish (translation at a cultural level)
Translating the foreign: the (in)visibility of translation
Venuti: Domestication and Foreignization
Lawrence Venuti is a cultural theorist who influenced the nature of the translation. In
particular he focused his attention on what he calls “Invisibility of the translator”.
Venuti argued that in Anglo-American culture the translators tend to translate the
texts in a “fluent” way in order to make an easy-readable Target Text and giving the
text an illusion of transparency, this kind of behavior ,nevertheless, hide the original
nature of foreign text deleting sometimes important elements.
Furthermore Venuti described two different methods to translate a text:
Domestication: In this method the translator is hidden, the text is adapted to the
target culture minimizing the foreignness of the original text. The final result is a
fluent text which give the reader the illusion that the text has been originally written
in his language.
Foreignization: Is the Venuti’s favourite way to work on a foreign text, in this case the
translator tries to convey the TT reader all the impressions, the forms and the
contents the writer wanted to communicate. This method brings out the work of the
translator whose strategies are centred create a text which respect the original idea of
the text even in a target language.
Despite his preference to the foreignization, Venuti highlight that the first method as
the second one are not perfect models and that they were created to promote
research in translation field.
Berman’s works had greatly influence on Venuti’s theories.
As Venuti he noted how the foreignness of the texts are given up for a major fluency
on the TT. He invented a term which became afterward the Venuti’s Domestication:
In order to explain how many difficulties the translator meets translating a foreign
text in a foreign-oriented way, Berman identifies twelve “Deforming tendencies” that
+1 anno fa
I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher melody_gio di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Lingua inglese III e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Verona - Univr o del prof Scienze letterarie Prof.
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