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aim: keep eng from coming to Canada / advise and warn them / wants potential newcomers to

• be aware of the difficulties


• (i) intro

(ii) why emigrate

wealthy people don’t leave their mother country unless they “have to”, urgent cause

• sometimes you’re obliged to emigrate because it’s a shame for your family/you to stay if

• you can’t keep living in your social status

middle-class educated to tell people what to do, didn’t know how to do it

(iii) choice of country →

depends on fashion (at 1st Australia people weren’t satisfied, came back in a worst

• condition) / 1830 Canada

no taxes! / is advertised, even by political parties

• →

real fashion lot of middle-class + army people emigrated these but weren’t prepared for

• how life was →

Victorian idea of classes consider normal that lower classes owe obedience to middle-

• class, were shocked that normal people in Canada talked normally to them

many people were convinced by parties, who lied/only advertised the positive aspects

• without mentioning the negative

wants to portrait what emigration means on =/= classes

• - poems → →

1 stanza idyllic desc of nature/landscape positive / tone: victorian poetry

• →

2 stanza 3 words: idea of loneliness / man + woman alone facing nature of which

• they felt they were no part of →

2. Life in the Clearings versus the Bush (1853) life in Belleville

3. other books from 1853 to 1868

Video/Documentary 3 levels:

1) silent film life of Susanna Moodie →

2) actress impersonating Susanna Moodie comments

3) interviews with 3 writers/scholars from Canada Atwood, …

→ → →

difficult conquest of C arrival at cabin / canadian muse after 1 month, muse appears can start writing /

• difficulty with workers

→ →

indian ask him help, he does hep doesn’t come from pioneers, but from native/local people

• → →

37 John goes to war + she writes for Literary ??? she needs money

• → → →

• style pedestrian prose plain victorian prose, not particular approval of c + relationship and wilderness

becomes truly canadian only after kid dies (up with the bio)

end: 3 main episodes

1) fire house on fire → → →

2) coming back home of husband prize: Sheriff of Belleville life of Moodies will change

end of pioneer life → →

3) contemporary Toronto Margaret Atwood’s Journals of Susanna Moodie she imagines SM

living in her contemporary (1930s) Toronto

M. Atwood’s book about SM personal experience with book, she kept coming back to it

SM is telling a story as if she was expected to do it victorian way: had to express emotion in an interior way

• →

MA is interested in what0s in between the lines what SM wrote = what she had to think as a victorian lady =/

• = from what she wanted to write = what she thought

LITERARY HISTORY main genre: poetry / more recent then USA, conflict between Eden &

wilderness (~ Am) → →

Richard Hakluyt Principle Navigation (1598-1600) 1st Canadian writer

• →

1600 to 1867 C literature paralleled UK movements

• 2 anthologies (insp: Whitman)

• →

1. selection from canadian poets (1864) some works from SM + creation of national literature

=/= from others

2. songs of the great dominion

→Acadia → →

Joseph Howe (1874) deals with Native culture 1st time pos natives, not pioneers

• → → →

Isabella Valancy Crawford Malcom’s Katie (1884) fusion with wilderness nature =

• →

positive, fuels imagination / story (victorian style) / set in anthropomorphic landscape

nature’s elements speak and express feelings (! new)

poets of the confederation made possible transition from 19-20th centuries / created basis for

• → →

contemporary literature / idea of nature beauty + threat /good + bad) romantic + cruel

nature / idea of survivor

• still victorians insp: Tennyson (most famous victorian poet)/Morris + pre-raffaelites (writers +

painters, characterized end of century, draw back from Rafaelite’s period) / Darwin’s theories

(influenced by Verism in it, Hardy in eng) / USA influences (Emerson + Whitman)

• writers: lampmann + roberts + carman + campbell scott

E.J. Pratt last victorian + 1st modern poet / between positivism/modernism, links 2 centuries /

• →

grew up in Terranova knew hostility of Nature / poem: Titanic (1935) ,based on personal


experience + journalistic reports

→ →

J.M. Smith + F.R. Scott towards modernism / met at McHill Uni (Montreal) / travelled to eu

• →

read Georgian poets (uk, beginning of 20th centuries) + T.S. Elliott (The Wastelands key point

of br modernism) + Ezra Pound (half american half eu: emigrates to eu, founder of Imagism) /

went back to Canada, brings news there

20th centuries

• →

(a) group of 7 canadian painters / =/= styles: influenced by fr impressionism /worked outdoors)

+ landscape painters / worked for a private company in Toronto / 2 new members: Jackson +

Harris didn’t work for the firm but cooperated + sponsored / +2: Tom Thompson (cooperated

+ Emily Carr not in the group but linked to it /

with them) (lived on the opposite sides of Canada / *)

splits during ww1, come back together after, name themselves / 1920 1st collective exhibition

→ reviews at 1st diverse, then they were recognized as a new school (insp from Ontario) / from

1920s: =/= themes British Columbia/Nova Scotia/Quebec/Artic / 1926 Casson entered group

/ 8 exhibitions together, then group closed

(b) canadian group (1933) most members were from group of 7 / 1st exhibition 1943

Jackson desolated lands / Arctic and its desertedness / goes there, prepares sketches,

• ♡

paints in Toronto / sketches only what he’s interested in

Harris Arctic / ~ Jackson but paints in a modern, ~ Cubism

• ♡

• Lister expressionism + education: Children’s Art Center, where children could express

themselves/their feelings through painting (Montreal) / away from reality/stylized

→ →

Varley use of colors + observer of natural landscape drawings + watercolor / bohemian

• →

CarMichael =/= landscaped

• →

Johnston extreme realism / will leave the group

• →

MacDonald forest/woods / realism given through details / wide range of color

• →

(c) Emily Carr * (1871 - 1945) born in victoria (Vancouver Island, West Coast) / member of a big

family / parents died when she was young / considered “rebel” of the family / ~ victorian middle

class family (in uk) / strong + willful character

• 1891-3 started studying art in San Francisco Art School

• 1898 moved back to Victoria, then started moving around / 1st trip to Aboriginal villages,

she started making sketches

• 1899 moved to LDN, Westminster Art School: started to become more skillful

• came back / moved to Vancouver, where for 4 years she got a teaching position at the Ladies

Art Club

→ →

• 1907 1st holiday in Alaska with sister met aboriginal people

• 1910 went to Paris, where cultural life was active / met painters from Modernism +


• came back, painted =/= because of post-impressionism influences in Paris / painted her

emotional experience in the canvas

• her paintings weren’t seen well resigned her teaching position, went back to Victoria /

→ →

needed money transformed her house in a boarding house 11 years where she didn’t

paint →

• end of artistic isolation: 1927 some critics come to know her paintings and appreciate them

/ ottawa wants her works for National Museum, so she sends oil paintings and sketches // 1928

→ →

travels to Ottawa, where she meets Group of 7 interest in HarrisArctic + Cubism / she

was highly appreciated // 1930s many exhibitions in Canada, US (Washington), EU (LDN,

Patis, Amsterdam // 1939 heart attack: stops painting, concentrates on writing

she wrote mostly memoir, using present tense, where she rediscovered her life with the eyes of

a mature lady she perceives things as if she were a child (adapted perspective)

main texts: →

i. Klee Wick (1941) expression in native language = the laughing one / she felt happier

with native people and they called her that, the laughing woman

ii. The Books of Small (1942)

iii. House of All Sorts (1944) about years she spent looking after the boarding boards /

short stories →

iv. Growing Paints (1945) posthumous / autobiographic text

NATIVES • Emily Carr had a lead role in native culture

natives weren’t considered canadian citizens / british even tried to uniform all territories they

controlled in canada and tried to prevent potlach, a ritual/series of ceremonies through which

cultural heritage was exchanged from old to young people

EC sided with natives she explored the wilderness / never painted indians, painted only what

she thought she had assimilated / painted totem poles / on canvas symbolic representation of her

experience / will to understand the other / focus on trees, no sky only after 1927-8 sky appears

→ symbolic: something new happens, there is something out there worth looking for

1937 preoccupation on the culture of canada reason why they created expos in Ottawa


there was one in uk to educate people (~ italy) / in canada is used to help create national identity

and to educate →

(a) Grierson (1898-1972) founder of documentary film board of canada / in uk had collaborators

/ worked with bbc / also wanted to deal with cartoons, thought they were important to educate

people / he left cartoons to ….

→ →

(b) … MacLaren already produced cartoons for uk film board / drew directly on films not

based on real shooting, but on the movement created by animation itself (step-by-step

shooting) / created 24 frames to be seen in 1 second, so the image remains in the human eye

and created the illusion of movement / =/= from disney philosophy homologation + great

economic investment used all means to create best possible work, while he wanted a result

→ →

from poor means simple materials to create quality animation movies / became famous

1938 went to china to teach them how to make films with poor means, the went to india to

produce a movie / discreet + shy person / won Nobel Prize / technical result on the verge of

attraction appreciated by Picasso

• The Blackbird (1958) based on old french song, is part of a series of cartoons aimed at

retrieving songs and getting kids a chance to know them / cut-out technique ~ decoupage:

white paper striped combined together to make shapes

• A chairy tale democratic + pacifistic view / person cannot sit, chair comes near but won’t let

him sit, then he understands the chair has a soul, they start dialoguing and they come to

understand each other so he can sit / pixelation technique real actor used as if he’s a frame

of the cartoon →

• The Neighbors (1957) when a flower springs between their properties they start fighting

and eventually kill each other and their families for it, along with the flower / pixelation

technique → →

(c) Caroline Leaf MacLaren collaborator, interested in native people many shorts on

aborigine culture → →

• The Owl Who Married the Goose (1974) eskimo song + language to rebuild a national

idea they have to start from the 1st people who lived there / silence was also an attempt to go

back to the origins of canada / table glass technique light from below the glass + creates

figures with sand

(d) Frederick Back McLaren collaborator, dutch origin / largest number of shirts + won 2

Oscars / history, environment, culture / duality native environment + non-transformed

environment →

• Crack (1981) attempt to link past and present / through story of a chair, he goes through

different steps of history of canada / chair becomes an animate object, links past to present /

each frame is a =/= drawing quaking effect

• The Man who Planted the Tree ecological concern / drawn from one of Jean Glorio’s short

stories / this man wants to recreate nature where others have destroyed it / quaking effect


1960s decade of protest, progressive anti-conformism / 1968 peak: hippies + women liberation

movements / Vietnam war (US) traumatic experience, considered a dystopia events (=/= from

am dream)

1970s changes in eu + us + ca (ita referendum on abortions + divorce) / consideration of

woman as an individual with rights and desires / acceptance of =/= ways of thinking and of =/=

cultures →

60s - 70s post-modern board movement was born, a non-specific term

victorian lit ( ) modernism (1920) post-modernism

narrator omniscent 1st person, subjective individual conscience is

shattered, multiple povs,

not a consistent/unitarian


time [*] chrono kairos

way of narration punctuation, reader stream of consciousness writing shattered, often

guided open-ending, =/=

narrative styles

politormic narrative

characters round features presented by inconsistent, 2

characters themselves, contrasting features in

subjective self-narration the same character, split

in 2, contradictory


innovation destruction of point of reference / wide use of irony (say 1 thing, mean the opposite

) + parody (post modernism artists tried to rewrite someone else’s

[hutchion wrote an essay on this]

writing by turning it into a parody) / open-ending / 3 main properties

→ →

1. metatextuality reflection of the text itself makes reference to the novel being written /

writer breaks mutual agreement that what was being written was true

2. intertextuality relationship established between 2 texts (reference to other books with

quotations, etc)

3. intratextuality internal reference, within the same work / makes reference to what has been

written before →

Thomas Pynchon, The crying of lot 49 most famous us post-modernist, protagonist with

• unpredictable behaviors →

critical trend: Deconstructionism based on Heidegger philosophy (pessimist/almost nihilist) /

• →

Derrida brings his theories in the critical universe / based on close + deep reading to spot out

the contrasting/contradictoriness, the hidden meaning the writer didn’t explicitly pass through. At

Yale many were influenced (1966), particularly Hartman, Miller, De Man, Bloom (most famous,

but didn’t want to be recognized as one of them) they thoughts through close reading you

could destroy the text to find the inner meaning


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Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea in lingue e letterature straniere
Università: Bologna - Unibo
A.A.: 2016-2017

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher ironlux di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Letteratura canadese e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Bologna - Unibo o del prof Gardellini Giuliana.

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