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Most manufacturers produce a large number of products, often divided into product lines. Most

product lines consist of several products, often distinguished by brand names. Several different

items may share the same brand name. 4

Companies whose objectives include high market share and market growth generally have long

product lines. Companies whose objective is high profitability will have shorter lines.

Additions to product lines can be the result of either line-stretching or line-filling. Line-stretching

means lengthening a product line by moving either up-market or down-market. Line-filling might

be done in order to compete in competitors’ niches, or simply to utilize excess production capacity.


The centrally of marketing 1

Most management and marketing writers now distinguish between selling and marketing. The

‘selling concept’ assumes that resisting consumers have to be persuaded by vigorous hard-selling

techniques to buy non-essential goods or services.

The ‘marketing concept’, on the contrary, assumes that the producer’s task is to find wants and fill

them. 2

Marketers are consequently always looking for market opportunities.

Market opportunities are generally isolated by market segmentation. Once a target market has been

identified, a company has to decide what goods or service to offer.

The company must also take account of the existence of competitors, who always have to be

identified, monitored and defeated in the search for loyal customers.


Rather than risk launching a product or service solely on the basis of intuition or guesswork, most

companies undertake market research (GB) or marketing research (US). They collect and analyse

information about the size of a potential market, about consumers’ reactions to particular product or

( )

service features, and so on. Sales representatives, are another important source of information .


Once the basic offer, has been established, the company has to think about the marketing mix, i.e.

all the various elements of a marketing programme, their integration, and the amount of effort that a

company can expend on them in order to influence the target market. The best-known classification

of these elements is the ‘Four Ps’: product, place, promotion and price.


It must be remembered that quite apart from consumer markets there exists an enormous producer

or industrial or business market, consisting of all the individuals and organizations that acquire

goods and services that are used in the production of other goods.


How companies advertise

Advertising informs consumers about the existence and benefits of products and services, and

attempts to persuade them to by them. The best form of advertising is probably word-of-mouth

advertising. Yet virtually no providers of goods or services rely on this alone, but use paid

advertising instead. Indeed, many organizations tend to use the services of large advertising


Agencies often produce alternative ads or commercials that are pre-tested in newspapers, television,

stations, etc.

How much to spend on advertising is always problematic. Some companies use the comparative-

parity method – they simple match their competitor’s spending, thereby avoiding advertising wars.

Others set their ad budget at a certain percentage of current sales revenue.


Types of bank 1

Commercial or retail banks are businesses that trade in money. They receive and hold deposits, lend

money, offer investment advice, and so on. They make a profit from the difference between the

interest rates they pay to lenders or depositors and those they charge to borrowers. Banks also create

credit, and when lending money, they have to find a balance between yield and risk, and between

liquidity and different maturities. 2

Investment banks, often called merchant banks in Britain, raise funds for industry on the various

financial markets, finance international trade, issue and underwrite securities, and issue government


Investment banks make their profits from the fees and commissions they charge for their services.


In some European countries (Germany, Austria) there have always been universal banks combining

deposit and loan banking with share and bond dealing and investment services.


Banks lend to blue chip borrowers at the base rate or the prime rate; all other borrowers pay more,

depending on their credit standing: the lender’s estimation of their present and future solvency.

Borrowers can usually get a lower interest rate if the loan is secured or guaranteed by some kind of

asset, known as collateral. 5

A Eurocurrency is any currency held outside its country of origin. The first significant

Eurocurrency market was for US dollars in Europe, but the name is now used for foreign currencies

held anywhere in the world.




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+1 anno fa

Esame: Inglese
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea in lingue e letterature moderne
A.A.: 2009-2010

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher Exxodus di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Inglese e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Tor Vergata - Uniroma2 o del prof Marino Elisabetta.

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