Children if not adequately taken care of they are exposed to various types of deadly diseases and it is the responsibility of their parents to take them to the clinic centres, hospital or to a private doctor for monthly check up and most especially to receive his or her first process of disease prevention vaccines administration known as "immunization".
Immunization prevents children against disease. Children can be immunized against the following diseases: diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, polio, smallpox, measles and tuberculosis. Immunization is given to Children in infant welfare clinics. Immunization centres and hospitals.
Types of Immunization
1. Tripple vaccine (D.T.P): This is w mixture of three vaccines - the tetanus, whooping cough and diphtheria vaccines. It is given by injection for protection against the three diseases.
2. Polio vaccines: This is for protection against polio.
3. Quadruple vaccine: This contains four vaccines-diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough and polio vaccines. It protects the child from the four diseases.
4. Smallpox vaccine: This is given by injection to protect against smallpox.
5. Measles vaccine: This is given by injection to protect against measles.
6. B.C.G. vaccine: This protects against tuberculosis.
According to the immunization schedule, children are immunized following some steps:
• At birth - B.C.G
• At 2 months - first dose of D.T.P and first dose of polio vaccine.
• At 3 months - second dose of D.T.P and second dose of polio vaccine.
• At 4 months - Third dose of D.T.P and third dose of polio vaccine.
• At 9 months - Measles vaccine.
The Expanded Programme on Immunization (E.P.I) is a health programme designed to protect children of 0-2 years of age from six deadly diseases. These are tetanus, whooping cough, diphtheria, polio, measles and tuberculosis.