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Dreyfus affair in France between 1870 and 1914 in Germany and in the Austro Hungarian anti-Semitism was widespread although it was France to exemplify this new web of politics and anti-Semitism. The defeat by Prussia and industrialization had caused many disgruntled that they found a scapegoat Jews. E. Drumont, editor of La Libre Parole) fueled anti-Semitism by publishing "The Jewish France" in which with many references to Christianity (much to be appreciated by conservative Catholics), as well as Hitler's Mein Kampf, opposed the Aryan race or Indo-European (only to have the notion of justice, freedom and beautiful) to Semitic. In 1894, Captain Alfred Dreyfys was accused of passing military secrets to the Germans, he was arrested and sentenced. He was of Jewish origin and was confirmed by Drumont of what is written.

They emerged in 1897 when the evidence of the innocence of the officer public opinion was split: on the one hand many intellectuals who wanted a France true to the revolutionary ideals (secular, democratic, republican) fought for the release of Dreyfus (including Emile Zola, who published an open letter to "J'accuse" in which took up the defense of Captain Innocent and attacked all the military leadership which did not admit the error), the other others who believed that France would never be resumed the Prussian defeat if he had been questioned the prestige of the army and religion. Dreyfus was eventually released from prison with a pardon of the president.

Anti-Semitism in Russia: anti-Semitism played an important role also in Russia where Jews were discriminated against and subjected to repressive emergency laws. Tsar replied to a campaign of terrorist acts (which sought to push the peasants to action against the monarch and nobles) with a smart strategy: it accentuated the police measures but also chose to channel popular anger towards other targets, the Jews. Exploiting the traditional religious hatred of the Russians, the police began to organize pogroms, that massacres of Jews: the troublemakers were at the pogroms and incited the people to kill Jews, guilty of all the evils of the Russian people, on the orders of Tsar . This scapegoat strategy was characterized by traditional elements of anti-Semitism as the participation of the masses and religious hatred which were joined by modern elements which directed the actions by the state police. They were then manipulated by the authorities for their own ends anti-Semitic prejudices of the masses.
Positivism crisis: the revolt against positivism occupies important philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche who expressed his ideas, often simplified and misinterpreted (eg: Prophet of Nazism), through a poetic language rather than logical arguments. Nietzsche rejects the principle of superiority of the state over the individual: he was absolutely not anti-Semitic. He says that you need to live fully their existence, through irrational atheism (in "The Gay Science") which puts the superman, able to rebel against any authority, above God, struggling with conventional morality, creating new values ​​in condition of absolute freedom, beyond good and evil. His thinking is undoubtedly individualist and aristocrat. Eduard Bernstein believed the consideration of Marx wrong: the social reality was more complex than that described in the schemes scientific: proposes to abandon the ultimate goal of socialism to conquer concrete partial reforms. Sigmund Freud created psychoanalysis, contrasting sharply with positivism: according to him the identity is divided into eg (home of the impulses and desires), I (the seat of reason that limits the pulses) and superego (conditionings of society that deny the instincts of 'I). According to Freud's most desired they were sexual in nature and also covered children. they were not repressed, since it would be spelled out in trauma and disorders, but if anything channeled into other activities

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