The second half of 1600 and the first decades of the 1700s are characterized by the strengthening of nation-states that in turn are divided into Absolute State and Parliamentary State.
The most common form was that of the state overall and to be the example par excellence was the France of Louis XIV, which was opposed by the model of absolute monarchy (parliamentary) English. The lifestyle adopted in 1600 is the anciene scheme that had as its center the King features a power given to him directly by God. He rules in a rigid and keeps more to its glory for the good of his subjects: "From God King by King laws ". Another important task of the sovereign is to the promulgation of laws.
At the social level the Ancien Regime is intended as a real inequality. In fact there is a stratification of society: Clero- Nobiltà- Third Estate.
On the economic front it required the pursuit of full autonomy by the ruler.
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The formation of the Ancien Regime brought the nobility in a serious and irreversible crisis, only to submit to the will of the king. It not only found himself increasingly indebted but also discredited politically and socially. However, the nobility lost all its functions in fact the court nobility was able to exercise a specified function: that of a social state essential intermediate affirmation and glorification of the sovereign, so defending the social climbing of the Third!
Only after the mid-1700s Europe was a major advance: the expansion of the monetary economy, the renewed population growth and the increase of workers. At the end of the century, especially England and France were radically transformed by the industrial revolution, and were characterized by mercantilism, a system of production and circulation of wealth. The main objective of this is, in fact, the enrichment of the state.
To this it is opposed by the physiocrats, because for the Physiocrats the land is the only source of wealth. To boost the development, they consider essential an economic policy based on free trade.