Riassunto esame Principi di Linguistica modulo 2, prof. Giulia Sarullo, Libro consigliato Esercizi di fonologia dell’inglese, Giulia Sarullo
In some circumstances the diﬀerence between /uː/ and /ʊ/ is becoming blurred or neutralised:
some speakers use /uː/, some speakers use /ʊ/, and some use a vowel which is neither but
somewhere in between.
The same is true for /iː/ and /ɪ/.
In these cases we shall use the neutralisation symbols /u/ and /i/.
/ʌ/ as in love, up, son, mother, come, country, double, blood.
/ɜː/ as in girl, word, work, turn, urgent, heard, earth, learn.
/ə/ as in ago, above, doctor, answer, sister, surprise, famous. 14 Marzo 2017
– dittonghi a chiusura terminanti in /ɪ/.
– dittonghi a chiusura terminanti in /ʊ/.
– dittonghi centripeti terminanti in /ə/.
DIPHTONGS IN /ɪ/
/eɪ/ as in name, make, day, rain, they, break, steak, eight, gaol.
/aɪ/ as in sky, nine, why, child, lie, height, identity, buy, eye
/ɔɪ/ as in joy, boy, noise, coin, toy, annoy, voice.
DIPHTONGS IN /ʊ/
/əʊ/ as in go, so, rose, home, soap, cold, post, blow, folk, sew, toe.
/aʊ/ as in cow, house, out, now, down, plough, doubt, crowd.
DIPHTONGS IN /ə/
/ɪə/ as in near, dear, hear, here, sincere, cheer, Shakespeare.
/eə/ as in wear, chair, bear, there, where, air, vary, care, mayor.
/ʊə/ as in moor, tour, pure, cure, secure, tourist, cruel, furious.
The diphtong /ʊə/ is slowly disappearing from modern RP and is being replaced by the long, back
rounded monophthong /ɔː/.
The only words which consistently use the /ʊə/ diphthong are those spelled with -ewer: brewer,
When a word ending with /uː/ and spelled with -ue has the ending -r attached to it we have a
diphthong: /ʊə/ or /uə/. 16 Marzo 2017
/aɪə/ as in wire, fire, tired, quiet, diet, choir, lyre.
/eɪə/ as in payer, layer.
/ɔɪə/ as in royal, joyous.
/aʊə/ as in our, flour, flower, power.
/əʊə/ as in slower, blower.
In the triphthongs /eɪə/, /aɪə/, /aʊə/, the second vowel may disappear to ease articulation:
Layer ––> /ˈleɪər/ ––> /leər/
Fire ––> /ˈfaɪər/ ––> /faər/
Power ––> /paʊər/ ––> /paər/
The smoothing of /əʊə/ results in a monophthong:
Mower ––> /məʊər/ ––> /mɜːr/
Voiced: /b d ɡ v z ð ʒ dʒ l r m n ŋ w j/
Voiceless: /p t k f s θ ʃ ʧ h/
Place of articulation:
Bilabial /p b m w/ –> le labbra si serrano o si accostano l'una contro l'altra.
Labiodentale /f v/ –> gli incisivi superiori toccano il labbro inferiore
Interdental /θ ð/ –> l'apice della lingua poggia sotto i denti superiori
Apicodental (it) /t d n s (z) l r ts (dz)/ –> l'apice della lingua si oppone ai denti superiori sotto
Alveolar (ingl) /t d s z n l r/ –> l'apice della lingua si appoggia alle gengive superiori interne
Palato-alveolar /ʃ ʒ/ –> l’apice della lingua poggia sul confine tra palato e alveoli
Palatal /ʧ dʒ j/ –> il dorso della lingua si appoggia al palato duro
Velar /k g ŋ/ –> il dorso della lingua si appoggia al palato molle
Glottal /h/ –> respiro rumoroso con occlusione della glottide
Manner of articulation:
Plosives or stops /p b t d k ɡ/ –> ostruzione completa seguita da rapido rilascio
Fricatives /f v s z ð ʒ h ʃ θ/ –>forte restringimento, ma l’aria esce con continuità, come fruscio
Affricates /t ʃ dʒ/ –> ostruzione con rilascio graduale, fruscio analogo a quello delle fricatives
Nasals /m n ŋ/ –> si abbassa il velo palatino e l’aria esce dal naso
Trills /r/ –> contatti rapidi tra la lingua e un organo fisso
Laterals /l/ –> deflusso dell’aria ai lati della lingua
Approximants /j w/ –> suoni continui ma senza frizione, simili a /iː/ e /uː/ ma più tese e più chiuse
PLOSIVES OR STOPS
/p/ as in pen, pot, play, apple, stop
/b/ as in bed, boy, tab, cable
/t/ as in tea, table, looked, missed
/d/ as in day, doll, lady, glad
/k/ as in key, clock, chemist, fox
/g/ as in game, beg, signal, exam
In initial position, in pronouncing /p/, /t/, /k/ there is, in the post-release phase, a period during
which air escapes through the vocal folds, making a sound like /h/. This is called aspiration. If the
plosive is preceded or followed by another consonant there is no aspiration.
In final position, /b/, /d/, /g/ normally have little voicing.
The difference between /p/, /t/, /k/ and /b/, /d/, /g/ is primarily the fact that vowels preceding /p t k/
are much shorter. The shortening effect of /p t k/ is most noticeable when the vowel is one of the
long vowels or diphthongs.
/f/ as in fit, offer, photo, laugh, off
/v/ as in veal, save, have, of
/s/ as in sea, class, cent, castle, ps
/z/ as in zone, pens, rose, scissors
/ʃ/ as in ship, sure, nation, Asia
/ʒ/ as in vision, pleasure, garage
/θ/ as in thin, bath, author, three
/ð/ as in the, this, mother, smooth
/h/ as in hot, perhaps, who, ahead
The voiceless fricatives have the effect of shortening a preceding vowel, as do voiceless plosives.
The shortening effect is most noticeable when the vowel is one of the long vowels or diphthongs:
Ice /ais/ ––– eyes /aiz/
The alveolar fricative is always voiceless in the groups <si, sn, sl, sw>. In italian /z/ is usually an
allophone so /s/, whereas it is a phoneme in English, in that it distinguishes pairs such as:
Peace /pi:s/ ––– peas /pi:z/
BBC speakers pronounce the sound of initial <wh> as /w/. Other speakers, instead, pronounce it
as a voiceless fricative with the same articulation as /w/. The symbol for this fricative is /ʍ/.
The sound of initial /hu/ is a voiceless palatal fricative. The symbol for this fricative is /ç/. However,
it is usual to treat this sound as /h/ plus /j/.
/tʃ/ as in chat, rich, match, nature
/dʒ/ as in jet, gym, large, bridge, gradual
Affricates begin with a plosive that is followed immediately by fricative noise.
––BUT–– We would not class all sequences of plosive plus fricative as affricates.
The plosive and the following fricative must be of the same place of articulation: they must be
Daniel Jones lists among the affricates these four sounds:
/ts/ as in cats, but not outside
/dz/ as in beds, decides, but not headset
/tr/ as in tree, country, but not outreach
/dr/ as in drink, but not headrest 28 Marzo 2017
/n/ as in nose, know, input, sign, in, reign, gnu
/m/ as in my, me, miss, comfort, comb, autumn, lamb
/ŋ/ as in sing, bang, long, bank, singer
In italian /ŋ/ is an allophone of /n/, whereas it is a phoneme in English in
that it distinguishes pairs such as:
sing /sɪŋ/ vs. sin /sɪn/
/ŋ/ never occurs in initial position
/ŋ/ occurs frequently in medial position
<-nk-> is always /ŋk/
<-ng-> can be: /ŋ/ without following /g/ if it occurs at the end of the morpheme
/ŋg/ with a following /g/ if it occurs in the middle of a morpheme
/ŋ/ is never followed by /g/ in final position
When a suffix is added to a word ending with /ŋ/ no /g/ is added but not for the comparative and
/r/ as in red, narrow, write, rhotic, very
Suono soggetto a variazioni regionali o individuali
/r/ as in "my car is new, here it is"
Nel BBC English si trova /r/ solo in posizione prevocalica e intervocalica: read, story
Ma se <r> o <re> in fine di parole è seguita da parola che inizia per vocale allora troviamo /r/, che
viene a trovarsi in posizione intervocalica e viene detta linking-r
My sister has many rings on her hands
Rita reached the centro of the square
/l/ as in lamp, look, always, fill
9 mesi fa
I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher giorgiaaka1997 di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Principi di linguistica e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Libera Università di Lingue e Comunicazione - Iulm o del prof Sarullo Giulia.
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