Riassunto esame Lingua e traduzione inglese 1, docente Christiansen, libro consigliato The future of English, Graddol
The world of English
During the fifth century, the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes invaded Britain. Their closely related
Germanic languages formed the basis of English. Much of the Anglo-Saxon vocabulary remains in
In 793 AD started the Norse raids and a mass migrations of Scandinavians, which continued until
1050 AD. By the middle of the ninth century, almost half of country was in the hands of the Norse-
speaking Vikings. It was only the uprising of Alfred, King of Wessex, who used English as a political
tool to weld his forces and kingdom together, that saved the language.
After 1066 for the next 300 years, the luggage of the court, , law, science, religion and literature
was French or Latin. English remained amongst the people.
The period 1337-1454, known as the Hundred Years War between England and France, provided a
major impetus for people to speak English. By the middle of this period, English was being used at
By the end of the eighteenth century, the East India Company controlled virtually all aspects of
Indian administration, and English was the language used on a daily basis. The slave trade led to
the introduction of 'Black English' into the USA. The broken English spoken between the slaves and
their masters became known as 'pidgin English'.
The 'First Fleet' arrived in Port Jackson in Australia in 1788. It consisted of 11 ships which held
about 1000 English people , many of whom were criminals 'transported for life'. Before being
transported, the criminals used a common slang called 'Flash'. South Africa also received an influx
of settlers around the same time trek and veldt into English.
Immigrant is an American word used to describe the huge influx of people to the States between
1800 and 1910. This included five million Germans, four million Irish, and five million Central
Europeans and Italians. Even now, many Americans are bilingual.
The Government encouraged immigration from the Commonwealth countries, especially the
Caribbean and Asia. All these new Britons bought with them distinctive ways of speaking English.
During the 20th century, English has spread from Hong Kong and the USA into the Philippines and
Hawaii as the USA established military bases in these areas.
English in the 20th century
The rise of the US
By the end of the 19th century, communities of English speakers settled around the world. The US
is today the world's third most populous country with around 260 million inhabitants with a lot of
English speakers. For the spread of English, the aftermath of World War II was decisive. American
influence was extended around the world.
After the war, several international agencies were established to help manage global
reconstruction and future governance. The key one has proved to be the United Nations and its
subsidiary organisation. In Europe, the hegemony of English is surprisingly high. French is still the
only real rival to English as a working language of world institutions.
Cultural, economic and technological dependency on America were soon a concern for nations
across the world. As more countries have been rendered "open" to global flows of finance, goods,
knowledge and culture, so the influence of English has spread.
English is now the international currency of science and technology. The Renaissance of British
science in the 17th century put English language science publications at the forefront of the world
scientific community. But the position was soon lost to German. The growing role of the US then
ensured that English became, once again, the global language of experiment and discovery.
English is the most popular language of publication.
English in the 21st century
The position of English in the world today is thus the joint outcome of Britain's colonial expansion
and the more recent activity of the US.
Who speaks English?
Three types of English speaker
There are three types of English speaker:
-FIRST LANGUAGE (L1) speakers are the Native one whom English is a first language;
-SECOND LANGUAGE (L2) speakers have English as a second or additional language;
-EFL speakers are English speakers who learn English as a foreign language.
Leith (1996) argues that the first 2 kinds of English community result from different colonial
-The first type created a diaspora of Native speakers of English with their national variety of
-The second made English an elite second language, frequently required for further education and
The linguistic consequences of the third type were complex, including the creation of new hybrid
varieties of English called creoles. These three groups have become widely known as the "inner
circle", the "outer circle" and the "expanding circle".
The first-language countries
We can find English spoken as a first language in over 30 territories (over 377 million speakers).
The second-language areas
Areas in which English is used extensively as a second language usually develop a distinct variety of
English which reflects other languages used alongside English. These varieties of English have
emerged in South Asia, South-east Asia, Africa and the Caribbean (colonial territories).
The foreign-language areas
The EFL category spans a wide range of competence.
In many parts of the world there are ongoing shifts in the status of English. English is thus
acquiring new first-language speakers outside the traditional 'native-speaking' countries.
English and other languages
The European concept of bilingualism reflects an idea that each language has a natural
geographical 'home' and that a bilingual speaker is therefore someone who can converse with
monolingual speakers from more than one country. Languages in multilingual areas are often
hierarchically ordered in status. The hierarchy can be thought of as applying to countries as much
as to the repertoire of individual speakers. All speakers can be expected to modify their language
to suit the communicative situation; even monolingual English speaker will accept accent,
vocabulary, grammar and rhetorical form to suit the context.
10 mesi fa
Riassunto per l'esame di lingua e traduzione inglese 1, basato su appunti personali e studio autonomo del testo consigliato dal docente Christiansen Thomas: libro consigliato The future of English, David Graddol. Gli argomenti trattati sono i seguenti: The legacy of history, Seven ages of English, The world of English, English in the 20th century, Who speaks English?, Language hierarchies, The global media, Youth culture, Internet communication.
I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher francescacaropreso di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Lingua e traduzione inglese e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Salento - Unisalento o del prof Christiansen Thomas.
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