Riassunto esame Lingua e traduzione inglese 1, docente Christiansen, libro consigliato English Next, Graddol
One of the defining features of teaching English as a second language is
that it recognises the role of English as a second language in the society
in which it is taught. There have been two major strands of development
in ESL, both dating from the 19th century:
The first kind of ESL arose from the needs of the British Empire to
o teach local people sufficient English to allow the administration of
large areas of the world with a relatively small number of British civil
servants and troops. The imperial strategy typically involved the
identification of an existing social elite who would be offered a
curriculum designed to cultivate language skills and a taste for
British culture and values. Literature became an important strand in
such a curriculum and literary canon was created which taught Christian
values through English poetry and prose.
In postcolonial context today, the use of English is
proving surprisingly difficult to broaden the social base of
English speaking even where English is used as the language
of the educated middle classes.
In colonial times many local varieties of English emerged
from contact with local languages and have developed
literatures and grammar books and dictionaries.
In ESL countries the ecology of English is a multilingual one
where English is associated with particular domains, functions
and social elites. Knowledge of code-switching norms is an
essential part of communicative competence in such
A different approach to ESL arose in the USA, Canada, Australia
o and New Zealand. In the UK, ESL didn't become fully instutionalised until
the 1960s. ESL is often nowadays referred to as ESOL (English for
Speakers of Other Languages). In such communities standard English is
only one of the varieties of English (such as Indian or Jamaican English)
which learners need to command. There the communicative competence
required by an ESL learner includes a knowledge of the community norms
of code-switching. Translation and interpreting are important skills for ESL
users. Where ESL is taught to immigrants entering English-speaking
countries it isn't surprising that a key component in the curriculum is
GLOBAL ENGLISH NEW APPROACHES
EFL and ESL represent the twin traditions in ELT, both with roots in the 19th
century. In the last few years pedagogic practises have rapidly evolved to
meet the needs of the rather different world in which global English is learned
Content and language integrated learning (CLIL)
CLIL is an approach to bilingual education in which both curriculum
content and English are taught together. It differs from the simple English-
medium education because it is a means of teaching curriculum subjects
through the medium of a language still being learned, providing the
necessary language support alongside the subject specialism. CLIL can
also be as a means of teaching English through study of a specialist
content. CLIL arose from curriculum innovations in Finland (in the mid
1990s) and it has adopted in many European countries, connected with
English. CLIL is compatible with the idea of JIT education ('just in time'
learning) and is regarded as the ultimate communicative methodology.
CLIL, in secondary schools, relies on basic skills in English being already
taught at primary level. English teachers have to work closely with subject
teachers to ensure that language development is appropriately catered for
and this implies making sufficient non-contact time available for planning
and review. English teachers may largely lose their 'subject' and may take
on a wider support and remedial role. When English is developed within a
CLIL programme, assessment of English proficiency is made partly
through subject assessment.
English as a lingua franca (ELF)
Proponents of teaching English as a lingua franca (ELF) suggest that the
way English is taught and assessed should reflect the needs and
aspirations of the ever-growing number of non-native speakers who use
English to communicate with other non-natives. Proponents of ELF have
already given some indications of how they think conventional approaches
to EFL should be changed. Within ELF, intelligibility is of primary
importance. Such an approach is allowing researchers to identify a 'Lingua
Franca Core' (LFC) which provides guiding principles in creating syllabuses
and assessment materials. ELF focuses also on pragmatic strategies
required in intercultural communication. It may be that elements of an ELF
syllabus could usefully be taught within a mother tongue curriculum.
English for young learners (EYL)
Across the world (Chile, Mongolia, China and Portugal) English is being
introduced in primary schools. A global survey of English for young
learners (undertaken the British Council in 1999) showed that the majority
of countries in which English was taught in primary schools had introduced
the innovation in the 1990s. Often there is considerable pressure from
parents, who may also supplement school provision with private lessons.
Young children find learning languages easier than older students. They
are still developing physically and intellectually; their emotional needs
may be higher; they are less able take responsibility for their own
learning. One of the practical reasons for introducing English to younger
learners is to ensure that they have longer in their school careers to
master the language and because the timetables in secondary schools
now have too many competing demands. There are many hazards
attached to EYL, but the main one is that it requires teachers who are
proficient in English and who are able to motivate young children.
ASPIRING TO BILINGUALISM
A remarkable number of governments talk about the need to learn a
foreign language and of an ambition to make their country bilingual. The
European project is to create plurilingual citizens. Colombia's 'Social
Programme for Foreign Languages without Borders' is a government
initiative to make the country bilingual in 10 years. Many countries which
have declared bilingualism as their goal look to Singapore, Finland or the
Netherlands. They are increasingly likely to look to English teachers from
bilingual countries to help them in their task.
English in Europe
The Council of Europe's language policies with the new European model
provides more than a means of standardising approaches to language
education through mechanisms such as the Common European
Framework (CEF). It represents a wider ideological project to improve
citizens' awareness of the multilingual nature of Europe, to encourage a
positive attitude towards linguistic diversity, and to promote the learning
of several languages. With this project, European citizens should ideally
learn 2 languages in addition to their mother tongue. The expected
benefits of such a programme are more, but the main one is an enhanced
sense of a shared European identity.
ENGLISH AS EUROPEAN LINGUA FRANCA
Within many large companies, and even in parts of the European
governmental institutions, English has become a common working
Across Europe English has become the 'first foreign' language in education
systems. In Switzerland, some German-speaking cantons have decided
that English will be introduced at an earlier age than French, the second
national language of this Country. In the Baltic states and post-soviet
countries, English has now replaced Russian as the main foreign language.
English is also being introduced to ever lower ages in primary schools and
there is a steady growth of CLIL in most European countries.
English as an Asian language
English has been spoken in India from colonial days and has featured
prominently in Indian education. However, it has always been
exceptionally difficult to estimate exactly how many people in India speak
English. Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei and
the Philippines all now exploit their Anglophone heritage to attract
ENGLISH IN CHINA
India has demonstrated the huge economic benefits of speaking English,
but it is China which is now setting the pace of change in the region. In
20012, China decided to make English compulsory in primary schools from
Grade 3. In 1995 there were in China 200 million Chinese English users. As
a result of the new policy, China now produces over 20 million new users
of English each year. It seems possible that within a few years, there could
be more English speakers in China than in India. But until countries in the
region are able to develop their national proficiency in Mandarin, English
will provide their main means of communicating with China.
BEIJING SPEAKS ENGLISH
Beijing has prepared for the 2008 Olympics by setting targets for each
category of citizen and providing opportunities for learning.
A new hegemony of English
THE DECLINE OF AMERICAN VALUES
One problem is that the current rapid diffusion of English is occurring at
the same time as the USA is losing international prestige.
CHANGING CULTURAL FLOWS
Only a few years ago it was assumed that the world's media and
entertainment would continue to be filled with US-originated audio-visual
material projecting American cultural values around the world. Already
that phase of globalisation is fading. Now are developing soap opera from
Korea in Asia, Japanese Manga in Europe, 'Bollywood' influence and
IN WHOSE INTEREST?
The economic rise of India and China has been fuelled largely by TNCs
who set up factories, transfer technology to reduce costs and increase
profits, facilitated also by using English. Maintaining a unique cultural
identity is a key part of the globalisation strategy. In each of the world
regions, English is growing as an Asian lingua franca. In the Americas,
Spanish is its key partner. In Europe French and German. In the central
Asian States, Russian. In North Africa and West Asia, Arabic. And in sub-
Saharan Africa, Swahili.
The native speaker problem
By the end of the 20th century as learning English became seen as an
urgent economic need. Native speakers were regarded as the gold
standard; as final arbiters of quality and authority. Native speakers
accents may seem to remote from the people that learners expect to
communicate with; and as teachers, they may not possess some the skills
required by bilingual speakers (such as translation and interpreting).
NATIVE SPEAKER MODELS ARE LESS USEFUL
Native-speaker reference books may be developing as better to native-
speaker usage, but are less useful as models for learners. At the height of
modernity, many social mechanisms helped produce a standard language.
The myth of a standard language becomes more difficult to maintain.
NATIVE SPEAKERS MAY BE A HINDRANCE
Global English is often compared to Latin, a rare historical parallel to
English in the way that it flourished as an international language after the
decline of the empire which introduced it. The use of Latin was helped by
the demise of its native speakers when it became a shared international
resource. The problem may be that few native speakers belong to the
community of practice which is developing amongst lingua franca users.
Their presence hinders communication.
ALTERNATIVES ARE BECOMING AVAILABLE
8 mesi fa
Riassunto per l'esame di lingua e traduzione inglese 1, basato su appunti personali e studio autonomo del testo consigliato dal docente Christiansen Thomas: libro consigliato English Next, David Graddol. Gli argomenti trattati sono i seguenti: The educational revolution (introduction), The globalisation of universities, International student mobility, Transnational education, Which model?, Content and language integrated learning (CLIL), English as a lingua franca (ELF), English for young learners (EYL), English in Europe, English as an Asian language, A new hegemony of English, The native speaker problem, Protecting local languages and identities, Beyond English, Managing the change, The economic advantage ebbs away.
I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher francescacaropreso di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Lingua e traduzione inglese e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Salento - Unisalento o del prof Christiansen Thomas.
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