Che materia stai cercando?

Lezioni, Organizational Behavior Appunti scolastici Premium

Appunti presi dalle lezione tenute dal Prof. Gianecchini durante il corso di Organizational Behavior, presso l'Università di Padova.
Fondamentali per il superamento dell'esame, poiché chiede principalmente quello spiegato in classe. Gli argomenti trattati sono i seguenti: Case of Indra Nooyi, CEO of PepsiCo, the nature of personalitty, personality and situation.

Esame di Organizational Behavior docente Prof. M. Gianecchini

Anteprima

ESTRATTO DOCUMENTO

LESSON&6:&LEADERSHIP&AND&FOLLOWERSHIP&

!

Lost%on%the%moon%

Leadership,!what!does!it!mean?!!

2 Talking!a!lot/listened!

2 Coordination!

2 Position!

2 Give!orders!to!the!members!!

2 Co!–!leadership!

2 Goal!!

2 Notice!a!person!who!I!know!better!

!

Contingent! problem! :! the! time! (20! minutes).! It’s! an! important! external! constraint! which! influence! the!

decision.!!

!

Ex!of!leaders:!Lenin,!Berlusconi,!Mandela,!King,!Gandhi.!

What! they! have! in! common?! Good! speaking,! ambition,! shared! idea,! people! follow! their! idea,! political!

movements,!willing!to!change!things,!followers,!different!ideas,!charisma.!!!

!

Leadership!needs!followers,!he!can!be!a!leader!alone.!Leadership!is!able!to!influence!the!other!by!talking,!

communicating.!People!follow!you!because!of!the!ideas.!We!don’t!distinguish!between!positive!or!negative.!

There!are!2!main!characteristics!for!a!leader:!

1.!exerting!influence!over!members!

2.!Help!a!group!or!organization!in!achieve!its!goals!

Therefore!we!can!define!a!leadership%as%the%capability%of%an%individual%to%exercise%influence%and%control%

over%other%members%to%help%a%group%or%organization%achieve%its%goals.%

The%leaders%are%the%individuals%who%can%exercise%such%influence%and%control.%!

!

Formal!position!is!different!from!a!leader.!There!can!be!formal!position!covered!not!by!a!leader.!This!is!the!

difference!by!manager!and!leader.!!

A!manager!is!good!in!making!the!other!doing!things,!administrator.!A!leader!is!more!a!person!who!inspire!

other,!related!to!feeling.!

Both!a!manager!and!a!leader!is!the!perfect!thing.!!

On! the! other! hand! informal% leaders% have! no! legal! authority! to! influence! other! employees,! but! their!

personal!skills!and!qualities!give!them!the!ability!to!exert!influence!in!an!organization.!!

Therefore!not!all!managers!are!leaders.!!

! !

!

Theories&about&leadership&

!

There!are!a!lot!bc!it!has!been!studied!since!many!many!years!(1920).!

!

1)%The%leader%traits%approach:%

Let’s!make!a!list!of!characteristics!(traits!=!person’s!particular!tendencies!to!feel,!think,!act)!and!let’s!look!if!

the!person!has!these!characteristics.!Therefore!what!can!we!say?!That!in!this!theory!we!cannot!explain!and!

learning!these!characteristics.!We!think!that!a!person!born!as!a!leader!and!dies!as!a!leader.!!

We!recognized!also!physical!features.!!

!

In!the!list!pointed!out!there!are!some!features.!These!characteristics!are:!!

Intelligence!–!helps!the!leader!in!solving!problems!

11

))

1 ) Task! relevant! knowledge! –! the! leader! know! what! it! has! to! be! done,! and! what! resources! are!

22

))

2 ) necessary!to!achieve!the!goal!

dominance!(power!need)!–!an!individual!need!to!exert!influence!on!others!

33

))

3 ) self!confidence!–!helps!the!leader!in!influencing!followers!

44

))

4 ) energy!

55

))

5 ) tolerance!for!stress!–!above!all!in!uncertainty!and!ambiguity!

66

))

6 ) integrity!and!honesty!

77

))

7 ) emotional! maturity! 2! it’s! more! recent,! it’s! emotional! intelligence:! a! leader! have! to! manage! and!

88

))

8 ) understand!the!emotions!of!the!people!and!accept!criticism.!

!

This!approach!is!bounded.!

For!some!traits!it’s!not!clear!what!it!comes!first:!being!in!a!leadership!position!and!therefore!develop!the!

traits!or!possessing!the!trait!in!question?!People!who!have!these!traits!can!become!easily!effective!leaders!

than! others,! but! many! individuals! who! possess! the! appropriate! traits! often! do! not! become! leaders! and!

many!leaders!who!possess!them!are!not!effective.!!

!

2)%Leadership%as%behavior:!!

I! can! understand! a! leader! not! by! the! personality! but! from! behavior.! We! study! people! in! the! work!

environment!not!great!men/women.!!

!

IOWA%LEADERSHIP%STUDIES,%Lippit%and%White,%1939:!Group!of!teenager.!They!studied!if!different!leaders!

influences! the! productivity! of! the! group.! Each! club! of! 10years! old! boys! was! submitted! to! all! 3! different!

styles!of!leadership:!authoritatian,!democratic,!laissez2faire.!!

!

The!first!experiment!was!that!of!the!authocratic%leader:!the!person!point!the!relation!on!work,!no!emotion!

is!involved.!The!leader!wants!to!be!in!the!center.!

This! types! was! very! directive! and! allows! no! participation.! He! tended! to! give! individual! attention! when!

praising!and!criticizing!but!tried!to!be!friendly!or!impersonal!rather!than!openly!hostile!

People!put!more!effort!when!is!controlled,!but!when!the!power!is!too!much,!people!feel!dissatisfied.!!

The!boys!subjected!to!the!autocratic!leader!reacted!in!either!aggressively!or!apathetically.!!

Therefore! when! the! leader! is! absent,! the! behavior! changes! radically:! they! reduce! effort,! they! become!

aggressive.!

In!terms!of!productivity:!the!stronger!is!the!leader,!the!lesser!autonomous!is!the!people;!if!leader!is!absent,!

productivity!is!low.!

!

The!opposite!is!the!LaissezNfaire%leader:!the!person!is!not!truly!a!leader!but!he!allow!complete!freedom!to!

the!group.!People!feel!discourage!bc!goals!and!leader!are!not!clear!and!they!don’t!know!what!to!do.!They!

become!hostile!against!each!other.!It’s!the!type!of!leadership!which!creates!more!aggressive!actions.!!

In!terms!of!satisfaction!and!productivity!is!the!worst!one.!!

!

The!democratic%leader!is!that!one!who!tries!to!involve!the!others.!This!leader!involves!himself!in!the!group.!

He!encourages!discussion.!He!tries!to!be!objective!in!giving!praise!or!criticism.!In!this!situation,!bc!people!

decide!together,!bc!there!are!rules,!they!feel!members!of!the!group.!Even!if!when!the!leader!is!not!there!

they!continue!to!work,!they!participate:!there!is!commitment.!!

The!productivity!is!similar!to!the!first.!!

In!terms!of!satisfaction!is!the!best!one.!!

!

Define!this!study!as!general!is!dangerous:!they!were!talking!about!10!years!old!people.!!

!

MICHIGAN%LEADERHIP%STUDIES%(after%IIWW):%

12! high/low! productivity! pairs! of! groups! were! selected! for! examination.! They! try! to! understand! if! an!

employee2centered! supervisor! is! better! than! a! production! centered! supervisor.! They! discovered! that!

groups!driven!by!employee2centered!supervisor!were!more!performing!than!the!others.!

But! in! truth! these! two! figures! are! a! continuum:! you! can! choose! to! be! one! or! another! but! you! cannot! be!

both.!If!you!can!decide,!decide!for!the!style!which!relates!more!to!people.!

!

OHIO%STATE%(after%IIWW):%

In! these! researches,! it! has! been! stated! that! one! of! the! main! ways! in! which! leaders! influence! followers! is!

through!their!personal,!day!to!day!decisions!and!behaviors.!The!behavior!approach!seeks!to!identify!which!

leader!behaviors!help!employees,!groups,!orga!in!achieve!their!goals.!!

They! asked! to! followers! to! rank! the! behavior! of! their! leader.! They! ask! the! leader! behavior! description!

questionnaire!that!is!used!to!have!the!analysis!of!the!leadership!behavior.!!

Finally:!

2 A!person!leader!who!is!concerned!about!the!job!wants!the!results!

2 The!leader!concerned!about!respect,!trust,!is!concerned!about!people!

!

Consideration:,behavior!that!indicates!a!leader!trusts,!respects!and!values!good!relationships!with!his!or!her!

followers! is! defined! consideration.! Some! example! are! not! to! lock! the! door! of! the! CEO! office;! a! leader! is!

available!and!friendly,!he!treats!group!as!his!equals.!The!leader!also!shows!followers!that!he!cares!about!

them!and!he!is!concerned!about!what!they!think.!!

Initiating,structure:,behaviors!that!a!leader!engages!in!to!ensure!that!subordinates!perform!their!jobs!and!

tasks! acceptably! and! effectively.! This! concerns! in! assigning! tasks,! pushing! to! get! task! accomplished,!

deciding!which!members!fits!better!a!task.!!

!

Note! that! consideration! and! initiating! structure! are! complementary! but! independent! leader! behaviors.!

Leaders!can!in!fact!engage!in!both!types!(complementary)!and!the!extent!to!which!the!leader!engages!in!

consideration!says!nothing!about!the!extent!to!which!he!engages!in!initiating!structure!(independent).!

In! Michigan! analysis! says! that! you! have! ! a! continuum,! here! you! can! have! both! the! behavior:! you! can!

concern!about!production!and!also!about!people.!!

!

Managerial%Grid%(Blake%&%Mouton,%1964):%%

%

If!you!have!followers!who!are!able!to!managed!themselves,!you,!as!a!leader,!don’t!have!to!be!very!present.!

But!in!this!grid!this!element!is!not!considered!bc!they!don’t!talk!about!followers!but!only!about!leader.!!

!

Impoverished%management%style!(1:1):!evade!and!elude,!preserve!job!and!job!seniority,!avoiding!getting!in!

trouble,!avoid!responsibility!and!reduced!accountability.!!

Country%club%style%leadership!(1:9)!:!I!want!create!a!good!work!environment!but!not!a!good!productivity;!

the!leader!is!not!concerned!about!productivity.!

The! opposite! is! the! task% management% style! (9:1):! control! and! domination,! I! care! only! about! productivity!

and!not!about!people.!This!kind!of!leader!don’t!consider!the!needs!of!people!and!try!to!pressure!rules!and!

punishing! people.! They! also! mention! a! motivational! theory! of! McGregor! –! theory! XY:! people! are! X! or! Y!

people,!X!people!don’t!want!to!work,!they!are!like!children,!they!don’t!have!maturity!and!you!have!to!say!

everything! to! them.! This! is! not! so! strange,! employees! frequently! do! it:! they! frequently! want! to! receive!

orders.!When!you!have!this!kind!of!people,!the!task!management!style!is!the!right!one.!!

The%team%management%style!(9:9)!is!the!best!one!because!it!concerns!people!and!work:!the!person!here!is!

Y! who! have! level! of! maturity,! likes! the! work,! loves! to! be! involved,! loves! challenges,! wants! to! obtain! a!

promotion.! The! leadership! style! is! here! a! team! style:! I! have! to! involve! you! also! in! an! emotional! point! of!

view.!!

MiddleNofNthe%road%style!is!not!good!(5!:!5)!:!balance!and!compromise.!!

! ! !

!

In!these!theory!we!miss!the!followers!and!environment.!We!don’t!consider!market,!history,…!

Charisma!appear!late!in!the!literature,!therefore!it’s!not!in!the!theories.!!

!

Making! yourself! indispensable:! article! of! 2011! about! the! characteristics! of! a! leader! in! terms! of! person!

capability,!character,!getting!results.!Good!leaders!can!become!exceptional!by!developing!just!a!few!of!their!

strengths!to!the!highest!level!:!for!ex!technical!skills!can!high!when!communication!skills!improve.!!

Develop!innovative!behavior!means!to!take!risk!and!challenge!the!status!quo,!support!others!in!risk!taking,!

solve!problems!and!analyze!issues…!

!

What%is%missing%in%the%trait%and%behavior%approaches?%

%

Even! if! the! two! are! different! (1! =! what! a! leader! is! like,! 2! =! what! he! does),! they! share! something.! The!

approaches!ignores!the!situation!in!which!leadership!takes!place.!The!traits!approach!identifies!the!traits!

but! ignores! the! situation! which! can! affect! the! ability! of! leadership;! moreover! situations! can! change! the!

effectiveness!of!the!ability:!for!ex!dominance!is!good!in!a!football!team!but!not!in!a!laboratory.!!

Furthermore!situational!characteristics!can!also!influence!how!subordinates!respond!to!a!leader’s!specific!

behavior.! The! relationship! between! these! behaviors! and! subordinate! performance! and! satisfaction! is! not!

necessarily!clear!cut.!!

!

Fiedler’s&contingency&style&of&leadership&

!

Fred!Fiedler!developed!the!contingency!theory!of!leadership!in!order!to!discover!to!important!issues:!

12!why!in!a!certain!situation!a!leader!is!more!effective!than!another!even!though!they’re!similar?!

22!why!might!a!specific!leader!be!effective!in!one!particular!situation!but!not!in!another?!

!

Leader%style%

%

He!identified!2!leader!styles:!relationship!oriented!and!task!oriented!style.!Leaders!are!characterized!by!one!

of!the!two!styles.!!

Relationship!oriented!means!that!leaders!want!to!be!liked!by!and!get!along!well!with!their!subordinates;!

they! want! to! develop! good! working! relationships! and! therefore! their! 2^! priority! is! the! task!

accomplishment.!!

Task! oriented! means! that! leaders! want! their! subordinates! to! perform! at! a! high! level! and! accomplish! all!

their! assigned! tasks! to! the! best! of! their! abilities.! The! 1^! priority! is! task! accomplishment! and! they! push!

subordinates!to!make!sure!that!the!job!gets!done.!!

!

A! leader’s! style! is! an! enduring! personal! characteristic:! leader! cannot! easily! changed,! also! when! situation!

change.!!

!

Measuring%leader%style:!in!order!to!know!how!the!manager!style!is.!The!basic!idea!is!to!think!to!the!person!

you!like!the!least!and!give!a!rate!in!terms!of!opposite!(pleasant!–!unpleasant).!

If! in! any! case! you! give! positive! evaluations,! you! define! the! person! with! positive! characteristic,! you! are! a!

relationship! –! oriented! leader! (high! LPC! leader).! By! contrast! a! task! oriented! leader! described! the! person!

with!few!qualities,!a!negative!impression!(low!LPC!leader).!!

This! questionnaire! is! a! manner! to! have! the! assessment! of! the! leadership! style.! F! proposes! that! this!

measurement!provides!insight!into!the!approach!to!leading:!for!ex!a!task!oriented!leader!though!negatively!

bc!the!behaviors!of!coworkers!would!hinder!task!accomplishment.!!

! !

!

This!is!a!first!distinction!between!task!oriented!and!employee!oriented.!

!

Which%style%of%leadership%is%most%effective?%%

It!depends!of!the!situations.!An!orga!must!assign!a!specific!leader!to!the!particular!situation!in!which!he!will!

be!most!effective!or!change!the!particular!situation!to!match!the!characteristics!of!a!specific!leader.!!

Situational!characteristics.!

Situational%characteristics%

%

Situations!vary!in!their!favorability!for!leading,!that!is!the!extent!to!which!a!situation!allows!the!leader!to!

guide!and!channel!subordinate!behavior!in!the!direction!of!high!performance!and!goal!attainment.!!

When!a!situation!is!favorable,!it’s!easier!to!exert!influence!over!subordinates.!

3!characteristics!determine!how!favorable!situations!are!for!leading:!

! 2 leader%member%relations:!the!relationship!between!the!leader!and!the!followers!is!good,!followers!

appreciate,!trust,!feel!loyalty,!the!situation!is!favorable!for!leading.!!

When! the! leader! member! relations! are! poor,! followers! dislike! or! distrust! their! leader,! and! the!

situation!is!unfavorable.!!

2 task%structure:!the!extent!to!which!the!work!a!group!performs!is!clearly!defined!and!understood.!

The!task!structure!is!high!when!members!knows!what!and!how!to!do,!if!not!it’s!low.!!

The!higher!the!level!of!task!structure,!the!more!favorable!is!the!leadership!situation.!!!

2 position%power:!amount!of!formal!authority!that!a!leader!has;!if!he!has!the!power!to!punish!and!

reward!the!subordinates,!the!position!is!high,!if!not!is!low.!!

The!situation!is!more!favorable!when!the!power!is!high.!!

!

The%contingency%model%%

!

Considering! the! 3! precedent! characteristic! it’s! possible! to! have! an! evaluation! of! the! situation! in! terms! of!

situational!control:!there!are!eight!possible!leadership!situations.!!

I,!II,!III!are!very!favorable!situations,!IV,!V,!VI,!VII!are!moderate,!VIII!is!very!unfavorable.!!

! !

!

The!point!is:!when!a!person!with!a!task!oriented!leadership!can!obtain!the!best!result?!When!everything!is!

structured,!ruled!(task!oriented!leadership!is!the!best!one);!in!a!low!organized!situation!it’s!better!to!have!a!

leader!more!concerned!about!rule.!!

Therefore!both!in!the!situations!is!better!to!have!a!task!oriented!person!!

Why?! When! the! situation! is! stressed! (as! the! unfavorable! one)! individuals! concentrate! on! their! priorities,!

which!is!this!case!is!to!make!the!job!accomplished.!!

When!the!situation!is!favorable!task!oriented!leaders!can!also!focus!on!their!second!priority!(relationships)!

bc!they!know!that!the!job!will!do!accomplished!bc!the!orga!is!in!a!good!situation.!

Instead! when! the! situation! is!

in!the!middle!(moderate),!the!

theory!suggests!that!is!better!

to! have! a! person! concerned!

about! people,! a! democratic!

leader,! someone! who!

involves!the!followers.!!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

If!you!are!a!task!oriented!leadership!and!it’s!difficult!for!you!to!change,!let’s!say!that!you!are!in!a!middle!

situation,! ! can! you! adapt! you! to! the! situation?! What! is! possible! to! change! between! leader! member!

relations,!task!structure,!position!power?!

2 Task!structure!

2 Position!power!

Bc!they!are!rules,!they!don’t!concern!trust,!which!requires!more!time.!

!

If!at!the!organizational!level,!we!cannot!change!the!situation,!we!have!to!change!the!leader!at!the!end.!!

!

Opposite!situation:!less!effective.!!

!

Contemporary&perspective&on&leadership&

%

Path%Goal%theory:%(Robert%House,%1971)%how%leaders%motivate%followers%

Based!on!the!expectancy!theory!(Vroom).!This!theory!starts!from!the!followers!points!of!view!and!it!start!

from!the!previous!theory!which!is!a!motivational!one.%

It’s!a!different!approach:!instead!to!focusing!on!leader,!it!started!from!the!follower!by!defining!how!leaders!

can!motivate!their!followers!to!achieve!goals!and!the!kinds!of!behaviors!they!can!engage!in!to!accomplish!

that.!!

!

The!guidelines!of!!House’s!theory!are!based!on!the!expectancy!theory!of!motivation.!

!

Vroom:%the%expectancy%theory%states%that:%

1. Positive!correlation!between!effort!and!performance!

2. Favorable!performance!will!result!in!a!desirable!reward!(payment,…)!

3. The!reward!will!satisfy!an!important!need!(the!reward!is!useful!for!you!because!you!want!to!satisfy!

a!need!–!for!money,!reputation,..)!

4. The!desire!to!satisfy!the!need!is!strong!enough!to!make!the!effort.!!

!

(3!basic!elements:!effort,!performance,!reward).!

!

In!this!process!there!are!some!evaluations!that!the!person!does:!

! 2 the!first!is!called!valence!and!is!related!to!the!need.!It’s!about!if!I!like!or!not!the!reward;!I!make!a!

sort!of!evaluation!about!the!reward,!it’s!a!kind!of!backward!about!the!evaluation.!!

It’s!a!personal!evaluation!and!it’s!totally!subjective:!it!can!like!to!a!person!but!not!to!another.!

An! outcome! that! the! employee! would! rather! avoid! (fatigue,! stress,! noise,! layoffs)! is! negatively!

valent.!Outcomes!which!make!indifference!have!zero!valence.!!

2 Expectancy!is!the!evaluation!about!probability:!did!the!effort!am!I!sure!to!take!the!result?!If!not,!it’s!

a! non! sense! to! put! the! effort.! For! example! the! organization! is! not! good! for! me! (lack! of!

computers,…),!into!a!group,!self2efficacy!(if!I!believe!that!I’m!not!able!to!reach!the!goal!I!don’t!even!

start).!

It’s!the!individual’s!perception!of!the!probability!that!effort!will!lead!to!a!high!level!of!performance.!!

2 The! third! evaluation! is! the! instrumentality% and! it’s! the! relation! between! the! performance! and!

reward:!am!I!sure!that!doing!a!certain!performance!I!will!obtain!the!reward!or!a!certain!reward?!!

Again!it’s!a!perception!that!you!have!bc!you!think!about!the!future,!it’s!an!expectation.!!

What! are! relevant! in! influencing! the! expectation,! are! past! experiences,! because! of! evaluation!

system:!this!system!is!not!clear,!there!are!no!clear!rules.!!

!

This! theory! is! good! in! the! analysis! of! House! bc! it! examines! how! much! is! important! for! subordinates! the!

valence,!the!expectancy!and!the!instrumentality.!

Leaders! have! to! determine! what! outcomes! sub! are! trying! to! obtain! in! the! workplace! (valence),! and! after!

have!gained!the!info!they!must!have!control!over!the!ability!to!five!the!outcome!desired!by!the!sub.!

Make! sure! sub! believe! that! they! can! obtain! their! work! goals! and! perform! at! a! high! level! (expectancy):!

leaders! can! do! it! by! showing! sub! the! paths! to! goal! attainment! (hence! the! name! path! goal! theory),! by!

removing!any!obstacles!among!the!way!and!by!expressing!confidence!in!their!sub’s!capabilities.!!

Reward! subordinates! for! performing! at! a! high! level! or! achieving! their! work! goals! by! giving! them! desired!

outcomes!(instrum.).!!They!have!to!trust!there!is!a!fair!evaluation!system.!

!

Here!there!is!an!assumption!on!the!leadership!style:!behavior!that!leaders!can!engage!in!to!motivate!sub.!

!

There!are!4!leadership!style:!

Basic!styles:!

2 Directive%leadership!(it’s!similar!to!authocratic!style,!task!oriented!style):!concerned!in!obtaining!a!

certain!goal;!lets!sub!know!what!tasks!need!to!be!performed!and!how!they!should!be!performed.!!

2 Supportive% leadership:! leader! concerned! about! people! (connection! with! the! managerial! greed! –!

country!club!leader!=!concerned!about!people,!and!also!similar!to!consideration)!

Other!two:!

2 Achievement% oriented% style:! ! obtaining! the! result! by! involving! people;! you! don’t! have! to! direct!

people!bc!they!are!self!confident.!It!pushes!subordinates!to!do!their!best,!such!behavior!includes!

setting! difficult! goals! for! followers,! expecting! high! performance,! expressing! confidence! in! their!

capabilities.!!

2 Participative% leadership:! similar! to! the! democratic! style.! Enables! sub! to! be! involved! in! making!

decisions!that!affect!them.!

!

Something!more?!

In!determining!how!to!motivate!followers!or!which!behavior!to!engage!the!leader!must!take!into!account!

the!nature!of!his!or!her!sub!and!the!work!they!do.!

A!directive!leader!is!not!useful!in!a!clear!situation.!Instead!in!uncertainty!is!the!opposite.!Directive!behavior!

is!beneficial!when!sub!work!on!complex,!difficult!projects.!!

A!supportive!leader!give!motivation!to!people.!Therefore!if!the!tasks!are!repetitive,!unpleasant,!stressful,!

frustrating! this! is! the! best! choice:! in! fact! the! leader! will! increase! subordinates’! satisfaction! and! self!

confidence!and!reduce!the!negative!aspects!of!the!situation.!

A! participative! leadership! style! is! good! when! there! is! locus! of! control! (=! you! think! that! you! have! achieve!

certain!result!or!don’t!bc!of!certain!external!situations).!It!can!be!effective!in!unstructured!situations!bc!it!

can! increase! role! clarity,! and! it! can! also! be! effective! for! people! who! have! a! high! need! to! control! their!

environment.!Less!effective!for!those!who!like!to!be!directed!at!the!workplace!and!do!not!take!on!too!much!

responsibility!for!their!outcomes.!!

Environmental!forces!=!organizational!characteristics.!!

Achievement!oriented!is!a!situation!where!the!environment!is!uncertain!therefore!is!difficult!to!plan.!This!is!

bc!it!can!increase!sub!self!confidence!that!they!are!able!to!attain!goals.!!

If!a!sub!is!stressed,!engage!a!supportive!behavior!is!effective.!We!have!to!add!the!situations.!!

!

Differently!from!Fiedler:!in!F!we!say!that!you!are!concerned!about!task!and!you!change!the!situation,!here!

is!the!opposite.!!

! !

!

Moderator!=!is!a!variable!that!can!change!the!relation!between!the!dependent!and!independent!variable.!

The!same!leadership!style!can!obtain!different!result!because!of!different!followers!and/or!situations.!!

!

The!theory!is!complicated!bc!there!are!a!lot!of!variables.!!

!

LeaderNmember%exchange%theory:%LMX%theory,%relationship%between%leaders%and%followers%

%

It! starts! from! the! idea! that! there! are! relations! into! the! group.! Different! from! before! bc! there! wasn’t! a!

distinction,!they!were!all!considered!similar.!!

Frequently!leaders!don’t!treat!each!of!their!sub!in!the!same!way!and!they!may!develop!different!types!of!

relationships.!

In!here!between!the!leader!and!each!member!of!the!group!there!is!a!different!(or!can!be)!relationship.!!

! !

!

The!theory!focuses!on!the!leader2follower!dyad,!relationship!between!two!individuals!regarded!as!a!pair.!!

!

Although!relationships!are!unique,!the!theory!suggests!that!two!general!kinds!are!developed.!!

Within!a!group!there!are!2!subsamples:!in!and!out!

2 In1group, relationships:! the! leader! develops! a! special! relationship! with! the! sub,! characterized! by!

mutual!trust,!commitment,!and!involvement.!In!these!dyads!there!is!mutual!influence!and!support:!

the! leader! helps! the! subordinate,! the! sub! helps! the! leader.! The! leader! spends! time! with! the! sub!

who!tends!to!be!satisfied!and!to!perform!at!a!high!level.!!

2 Out–group, relationships:! the! leader! relies! on! formal! authority! to! influence! the! subordinate.!

Subordinates! is! expected! to! follow! rules! and! the! directives! of! the! leader.! These! dyads! are!

characterized! as! impersonal,! distant! and! cold.! Sub! tends! to! be! less! satisfied! and! to! perform! at! a!

lower!level.!!

&

Distinction&between&transactional&and&transformational&leader?&

!

The!relationship!between!leader!and!follower!can!be!only!transactional%(work2results!:!just!an!exchange).!

It’s!based!a!little!bit!on!what!we!have!defined!in!expectancy!theory!bc!people!act!to!achieve!a!goal.!

It’s!just!an!exchange.!!

Behaviors!that!lead!to!a!positive!results!are!repeated!(reinforcement),!and!exchange!between!leader!and!

follower!is!regulated!by!norms!of!reciprocity.!!

!

The!consequences!are!4:!

12! contingent! reward:! contracts! the! exchange! of! rewards! for! effort;! promises! rewards! for! good!

performance;!recognizes!accomplishment!

22!management!by!exception!(active):!watches!and!searches!for!deviations!from!rules!and!standards;!takes!

corrective!action!

32!management!by!exception!(passive):!intervenes!only!if!standards!are!not!met!

42!laissez2faire:!abdicates!responsabilities;!avoids!making!decisions.!!

!

People!suggest!that!in!order!to!have!groups!that!perform!more!effectively!we!need!the!transformational%

leader.%This!type!of!leader!is!based!more!on!shifting!values,!beliefs,!needs!of!their!followers.!!!

For!what!concerns!the!follower!a!transformational!leader!!

2 Increases!subordinates’!awareness!of!the!importance!of!their!tasks!

2 Make!sub!aware!of!their!needs!for!personal!growth,!development!

2 Motivate!their!sub!to!work!for!the!good!of!the!organization!rather!than!exclusively!for!their!own!

personal!gain!or!benefit.!!

!

Bass!Model!of!transformational!leader!states!that!the!transformational!leader!characterized!by!

Individual! consideration:! emphasis! on! group! members’! needs;! the! leader! acts! as! a! mentor,!

11

))

1 ) facilitator,!teacher!

intellectual! simulation:! challenge! to! the! prevailing! order.! Leader! seeks! ides! from! the! group! and!

22

))

2 ) encourages!them!to!contribute,!learn,!and!be!independent!

inspiring!leadership!(inspiration):!providing!a!vision!or!goal.!The!group!is!given!a!reason!or!purpose!

33

))

3 ) to!do!a!task!!

idealized! leadership:! leader! as! a! role! model,! displaying! ideal! traits! of! honesty,! trust,! enthusiasm!

44

))

4 ) (charisma)!

!

Weber:!being!charismatic!is!something!fantastic.!

A!charismatic!leader!is!a!transformational!one?!Charisma!is!more!about!the!person,!sometimes!charismatic!

leader! are! not! able! to! have! good! followers! who! can! substitute! them! in! the! future,! they! are! not! able! to!

teach;!moreover!I!want!a!yes!man!near!me,!no!challenging!people.!!

Therefore!charismatic!and!transformational!are!not!the!same.!Transformational!is!to!change!people.!!

Charismatic! leader! is! good! in! crisis! situation,! when! people! require! to! have! strong! person! to! follow.!

Charisma!is!not!concerning!about!good!thing!but!about!values.!!

!

Women%in%leadership:%

%

There!is!no!really!a!difference.!The!interesting!point!is!why!we!can!say!this:!if!we!look!at!the!individual!level,!

we!can!sustain!it,!same!road!done!(for!ex!same!university).!!

Therefore!gender!is!not!relevant!in!the!business!world.!!

!

Sex!–!genetic!

Gender!–!social!construction:!the!way!you!are!developed.!You!played!with!certain!games!female!or!male!

oriented!and!so!on..!it’s!because!of!social!pressure.!!

Because!genetically!we!are!different!we!take!decision!in!different!ways.!

!

2!behaviors:!

2 Agentic! behaviors:! male! are! aggressive,! independent,! self2sufficiency,! dominant,! aggressive! and!

task! oriented.! An! agentic! individual! acts! assertively! and! would! use! resources! as! leverage! for!

obtaining!a!goal.!!

2 Communal!behaviors:!refers!to!a!concern!with!interpersonal!relationships.!It!includes!taking!care,!

creating!sympathy,!more!expressive,!socially!oriented,!helpful,!expressive.!

But!socially!you!are!forced!to!change!your!behavior.!!

Therefore!here!is!stated!that!being!a!man!or!a!female!is!extremely!different.!

!

Androgynous!leadership:!mix!of!female!and!male.!Some!theories!suggest!that!maybe!is!better!to!have!an!

androgynous!leadership.!!

! LESSON&7:&FOLLOWERSHIP&

!

How! is! it! possible! to! analyze! followers?! This! analysis! is! recent! (1992)! and! it! has! been! done! with! a!

questionnaire! which! has! two! purposes:! help! people! determine! the! kind! of! followership! they! are! and!

identifying!followership!skills!that!they!have!to!improve.!

! ! !

!

Kelley!(1992)!developed!a!theory!of!followership!based!on!extensive!interviews!with!leaders!and!followers.!!

The!model!has!2!dimensions:!

F Followers!have!a!critical'thinking!

F Followers!have!an!active/passive'behavior!

! !

!

Different!dimensions!in!order:!

! F Passive'followers:!related!to!the!level!of!involvement.!!

!

F Active' followers:! they! participate! fully! in! an! organization,! engages! in! behavior! beyond! job!

requirements,! demonstrate! a! sense! of! ownership! and! initiate! problemFsolving! and! decisionF

making.!!

!

!

F Independent'critical'thinker:!person!who!has!ideas!and!he!says!it!to!the!group.!She!is!a!person!who!

understand! the! effects! of! people’s! behavior! on! achieving! organizational! goals.! She! offers!

constructive!criticism!and!creativity,!weigh!on!the!leader’s!decision.!!

!

F Dependent:!he!doesn’t!have!different!ideas!for!the!group!

!

Different!types!which!defines!the!followership!role!(not!who!I!am!as!a!person).!In!any!point!in!type!people!

can!change!the!followership!style!depending!on!the!situation!they!are:!

! F Alienated:!the!person!has!ideas!but!he’s!passive.!This!person!does!not!trust!in!the!leader!or!to!this!

person!was!promised!something!and!this!possibility!not!realized.!You!critic!a!lot!but!you!don’t!help!

the!group!to!develop.!Cynical!(devil’s!advocate)!and!focus!on!deficiencies.!

The! causes! of! the! alienation! could! be! unmet! expectations! and! broken! trust,! exploitation! from!

managers,! goals! that! followers! do! not! believe! in,! perception! of! inequity.! Alienated! followers! are!

hurt!or!angry!and!they’re!waiting!to!punish!someone.!!

Come!back!from!alienation!means!to!reestablish!the!precedent!situation:!if!trust!has!been!broken,!

it!must!be!reestablished,!if!goals!diverged!they!need!to!be!realigned.!!

!

Moving!from!alienated!to!exemplary!followership:!an!alienated!person!already!possess!one!of!the!

two! important! dimensions:! independent,! critical! thinking.! He! has! to! overcome! the! negativity! and!

becomes!engaged!once!again.!Broken!trust!and!unmet!expectations,!should!not!also!deprive!you!of!

the!energy!of!the!satisfaction!of!achieving!your!goal.!!

!

F Conformist:!person!very!active!but!without!different!ideas,!they!don’t!think!critically.!You!don’t!

want!to!expose!yourself!too!much.!People!like!this,!assume!that!the!leader’s!position!of!power!

entitles!him!or!her!to!obedience.!They!are!consummate!“good!child”!all!too!eager!to!please!the!

boss!parent.!Rigid!rules!and!authoritarian!environments!often!are!the!result!(for!ex!a!person!who!

always!says!what!he!thinks!the!leader!wants!to!hear).!!

The!rules!and!rigid!procedures!of!some!bureaucracies,!government,!religion,!business,!school,!

office!environments,!reinforce!conformism.!!

Causes!of!this!are!5:!uncertainty!and!responsibility!avoidance!(desire!for!predictability!and!

structured!tasks),!group/social!pressure!for!conformity,!charismatic!leaders!need!yesFpeople,!

organizational!rules!and!norms,!group!decision!making!process.!!

!

Conformism!adds!very!little!value!in!today’s!rapidly!changing!world:!homogeneous!groups!perform!

well! on! routine,! highly! structured! problems,! but! in! ! given! complex! or! turbulent! problems,!

heterogeneous!groups!with!diverse!styles!do!much!better.!!

Being! a! conformist! follower! affects! you! personally:! you! lose! credibility! when! you! don’t! think! for!

yourself.! Moreover! some! leaders! may! not! see! you! as! a! full! contributor.! You! cannot! viewed! as!

someone!who!can!take!the!leadership!role!neither!who!can!operate!independently.!!

When!you!are!unable!to!say!“no”!to!your!boss,!probably!the!boss!doesn’t!see!you.!!

!

Moving! from! conformist! to! exemplary! followership:! to! become! a! full! contributor,! you! need! to!

cultivate!independent,!critical!thinking!and!develop!the!courage!to!exercise!it.!This!involves!gaining!

confidence!in!your!own!views!and!realizing!that!the!orga!needs!your!views.!In!order!to!do!so,!I!have!

to!listen!to!others’!ideas.!!

!

F Pragmatic' followers:! has! qualities! of! all! 4! extremes,! depending! on! which! style! fits! the! situation.!

They!use!the!style!that!best!benefit!him!and!min!risk.!It!leads!to!luck!of!trust!and!opportunism.!!

Some!leaders!suggest!that!pragmatists!are!sensitive!to!political!shifts,!that!they!are!gamespeople!

who!manipulate!others!and!the!organization!to!their!benefit.!!

But! in! the! study! there! is! written! that! pragmatism! is! ! a! response! to! an! unstable! situation,! either!

organizationally!or!politically.!!

The! causes! are! personality! and! attitudes,! organizational! instability,! lack! of! rules! clarity,!

transactional!leadership!style.!!

!

Moving!from!pragmatism!to!exemplary!followership:!individuate!a!goal!and!leave!your!neutrality.!!

!

!

F Effective:!has!critical,!independent!thinking,!skills!and!is!active!in!the!organization.!!

They! behave! the! same! toward! everyone! and! try! not! to! avoid! risk! or! conflict.! Effective! followers!

have!the!courage!to!initiate!change!and!put!themselves!at!risk!or!in!conflict!in!order!to!serve!the!

best!interests!of!the!organization.!!

! F Passive'followers:!They!are!uncritical.!They!display!neither!initiative!nor!a!sense!of!responsibility.!

The! causes! are:! immature! followers,! leader’s! expectations! (sheep)! and! authocratic! or! task!

management!style.!!

Passive!followers!are!the!exact!opposite!of!exemplary!followers:!they!look!to!the!leader!to!do!their!

thinking!and!they!do!not!carry!out!their!assignments!with!enthusiasm.!!

Passive! following! is! often! a! response! to! leader! expectations.! When! leaders! treat! followers! like!

sheep,!they!will!generally!get!what!they!expect.!!

!

Moving! from! passive! to! exemplary! followership:! in! order! to! do! this! transformation,! we! have! to!

know!the!range!of!followership.!!

!

!

Unlike! leadership,! followership! appears! to! have! a! built! in! paradox.! Can! people! both! think! for! themselves!

and!actively!accept!the!follower!role?!

LESSON&8:&COMMUNICATION&AND&INTERCULTURAL&CONTEXT&

!

Case:!Toyota!is!accused!of!being!a!poor!communicator.!!

&

What&is&communication?&

!

Communication! in! one! of! the! most! important! organizational! behaviors! that! the! organizations! have! to!

manage:!it!has!impact!on!individuals!and!groups.!!

One! of! the! defining! features! of! communication! is! the! sharing( of( info( with( other( people.! The! second!

definition!is!given!by!the!reaching(of(a(common(understanding!bc!communication!is!usefulness!if!people!

don’t!understand!what!the!information!means.!!

Reaching!a!common!understanding!doesn’t!mean!that!people!have!to!agree!with!each!other.!What!does!it!

mean!is!that!people!must!have!an!idea!of!what!a!person!is!telling!to!them.!!

Therefore! communication! is! effective! when! the! parties! inform! and! understand! the! information,! it’s!

ineffective!when!people!either!do!not!receive!the!information!they!need!to!make!the!correct!decision!or!

this!is!unclear.!!

!

Functions(of(communication(

(

Effective!communication!is!important!bc!it!affects!every!aspect!of!organizational!behavior.!For!ex!members!

of! an! organization! understand! each! other’s! personalities/attitudes/values! when! they! communicate!

effectively! with! one! another.! Moreover,! leaders! can! influence! and! persuade! their! followers! only! when!

effective!communication!takes!place.!

! 1. Providing( knowledge:! give! members! the! info! they! need! to! perform! their! jobs! effectively! (for! ex.!

How!to!perform!a!task).!The!importance!of!communication!is!most!apparent!when!there!is!a!new!

employee!not!only!for!work!reasons,!but!also!for!socialization.!

But,!using!communication!to!transfer!knowledge!is!important!at!all!levels!in!an!organization,!in!fact!

even!the!most!experienced!member!needs!to!know!how!changes!in!the!environment!affect!him.!!

!

The! vast! amount! of! info! on! the! World! Wide! Web! today! allows! employees! to! access! all! kinds! of!

information!that!help!them!better!perform!their!jobs.!But!on!the!other!hand!there!is!the!possibility!

to!use!Facebook,!plan!vacation!and!so!on.!This!is!a!dilemma,!bc!people!surf!at!work.!!

!

2. Motivation(of(people:![expectation!theory!O!to!path!goal!theory].!Motivation!is!a!key!determinant!

of!performance!and!communication!plays!a!central!role!in!motivating!members.!!

Expectancy! theory,! for! ex,! proposes! that! managers! determine! the! outcome! valences,! high!

instrumentalities!and!high!expectancies.!!

The! only! way! managers! determine! an! employee’s! valence! is! by! talking! and! listening! to! the!

employee! to! find! out! what! employee! wants.! ! ! Likewise,! they! need! to! communicate! with!

subordinates!to!assure!them!they!are!capable!of!performing!at!high!levels!and!will!be!rewarded!for!

doing!so.!

For! what! concerns! the! path! goal! theory,! employees! will! perform! at! a! high! level! when! they! have!

specific/difficult! goals! and! are! given! feedback! about! how! well! they! are! doing.! Managers!

communicate!to!employees!which!goals!they!should!strive!for,!and!then!how!well!they!

are!making!progress!to!achieving!those!goals !

.

!

3. Controlling(and(coordination:!also!when!we!talked!about!groups!communication!was!involved.!For!

ex!a!challenge!for!self!managed!work!teams!is!to!reduce!social!loafing!(less!effort!in!a!group!than!as!

individual).!

Groups! can! exert! considerable! control! over! their! members! by! regularly! communicating! to! them!

information!about!the!importance!of!abiding!by!roles,!rules!and!norms.!!

Similarly,! as! task! interdependence! between! group! members! increases,! more! communication! is!

needed! in! order! to! coordinate! their! efforts! to! achieve! group! goals.! For! ex,! increasing!

communication!can!help!eliminate!duplication.!

!

4. Expressing( feelings( and( emotions:! communication! allows! people! to! express! their! moods! and!

emotions.!Feelings!can!be!general!or!specific,!coming!from!inside!or!outside!the!work.!The!moods!

employees! experience! on! the! job! influence! their! perceptions! and! evaluations! of! other! people! as!

well!as!their!work!behavior.!

Emotions! such! as! excitement! or! anger! are! often! stirred! by! specific! events! at! work! so! it’s! often!

useful!for!employees!to!communicate!their!emotions!to!others!in!the!organization.!!This!improves!

the!ability!to!work!together!and!achieve!their!goals.!!

Therefore!either!managers!and!employees!have!to!communicate!their!feeling!to!each!others.!!

!

The&Communication&Process&

!

The!process!of!communication!can!be!modeled!by!the!series!of!sequential!steps.!The!model!is!cyclical!or!

ongoing,!bc!effective!communication!depends!on!transferred!back!info!and!transferred!forth.!

! !

!

!

The!message!from!the!sender!to!the!receiver:!

! O The! sender! has! to! create! the! message! (what! I! want! to! communicate?! An! order,! a! complaint,! a!

suggestion?).!He!is!a!person,!group!or!organization!that!wants!or!need!to!share!information!with!

some! other! individual,! group! or! organization! to! accomplish! one! or! more! of! communication!

function.!

O The!receiver!is!the!person,!group!or!organization!for!which!the!information!is!intended!(supervisor!

communicate!a!task!to!a!subordinate).!!

O The! message! is! the! information! the! sender! needs! or! wants! to! share! with! others.! Effective!

communication!depends!on!the!clearness!and!completeness!of!messages.!

! O Encode(the(message:!translate!the!message!in!something,!which!can!be!words,!symbols.!In!the!lean!

management! people! communicate! with! images,! colors,! and! so! on.! ! Encoding! is! finding! the! right!

method!to!give!the!message.!It’s!critical!bc!it!allows!the!receiver!to!understand.!!

Even!if!it!seems!to!be!simple!to!translate!a!message!in!words,!some!employees!lack!in!this!skill.!!

Furthermore,!the!sensed!must!ensure!the!message!is!sent!in!a!form!the!receiver!can!understand.!

For!example!the!specific!computer!terminology!is!difficult!for!a!normal!employee!to!understand.!!

This!specific!language!is!called!jargon:!breakdown!in!communication!occurs!bc!of!the!use!of!jargon,!

specialized! terminology! or! language! that! members! of! a! profession! develop! to! improve!

communication!among!themselves.!

Messages! encoded! with! jargon! leads! to! effective! communication! when! senders! and! receivers! are!

members!of!the!same!occupation!or!profession,!but!it’s!a!problem!when!the!receiver!is!outside!the!

profession!:!ineffective!communication.!!

!!

O Decision! about! the( medium:! it’s! the! conduit! or! pathway! through! which! an! encoded! message! is!

transmitted!to!a!receiver.!

A!medium!can!be!an!email,!letter,!phone,!skype,!a!meeting!face!to!face.!Every!type!is!different!and!

you!have!to!decide!the!better!medium!for!your!message.!

Verbal'communication!is!the!sharing!of!info!by!means!of!words,!spoken!or!written.!Each!medium!of!

verbal!communication!has!advantages!and!disadvantages!but!it!doesn’t!follow!specific!rules.!There!

are!two!guidelines!to!select!a!medium:!choose!one!which!is!often!controlled!and!choose!that!one!

which!convey!to!the!receiver.!For!ex!a!fire!is!communicated!personally!face!to!face!to!a!person.!!

Non' verbal' communication' is! the! sharing! of! information! by! means! of! facial! expressions,! body!

language! and! even! mode! of! dress.! The! receiver! pays! great! attention! to! the! way! a! message! is!

delivered!by!sender,!to!the!sender’s!tone,!stance,!face,!mood,!emotions.!

All!these!additional!clues!are!used!to!interpret!the!hidden!meaning!or!significance!of!a!message.!!

!

O Decode(the(message(and(the(feedback(loop:!from!the!report,!email,!letter!I!understand!something.!

Decoding!is!the!ability!to!interpret!and!understand!the!significance!of!the!information!contained!in!

a!sender’s!message.!!Some!messages!are!clear,!but!other!can!be!ambiguous!and!contain!complex!or!

complete! info! that! can! be! interpret! in! different! ways.! This! can! creates! some! problems! of!

understanding.!!

I!need!the!feedback!bc!I!have!to!understand!if!you!have!understood!the!message.!Therefore!after!

decode,! the! receiver! has! to! respond! to! it! to! activate! the! feedback! loop! and! does! so! by! deciding!

what!message!to!transmit!back!to!the!sender.!It!can!be!a!“I!got!your!memo!and!I!agree”!or!“I!need!

more!info”.!Once!he!decided,!his!message!is!encoded,!transmitted!with!a!medium!and!decoded!by!

the!first!sender.!!

The!feedback!loop!can!be!as!important!as!the!first!message.!!

!

Only!when!a!common!understanding!is!reached,!the!process!is!completed,!the!circle!is!closed.!!

!

At! the! middle! there! is! the! noise,! which! is! anything! that! hampers! or! interferes! with! the! communication!

process.! Noise! can! include! the! use! of! jargon,! poor! handwriting,! lost! cell! phone,! moods! and! so! on.! It’s! a!

barrier!to!the!communication.!!

Barriers&to&effective&communication& &

!

There!are!6!important!communication!problems:!!

!

1)(Filtering(and(information(distortion(

Prefer! to! give! only! a! part! of! the! information! bc! the! total! is! not! necessary,! bc! the! entire! picture! is! not!

necessary.!!

Expeccially!when!a!subordinate!talk!to!a!supervisor,!he!doesn’t!want!to!give!bad!news,!therefore!he!filters!

his!information.!Supervisors!also!do!so!when!they!have!for!ex!to!reduce!benefits!of!employees:!as!a!result!

subordinates!may!develop!negative!attitudes!become!less!effective,!experience!more!stress.!!

Filtering!corresponds!also!to!distortion!the!information!(telefono!senza!fili):!change!in!meaning!that!occurs!

when! a! message! travels! thourgh! a! series! of! different! senders! o! a! receiver.! Furthermore,! people! may!

deliberately!alter!or!distort!a!message!to!make!their!own!performance!look!better!and!advance!their!own!

personal!goals.!!

Filtering!and!information!distortion!can!be!avoided!by!establishing!trust!in!an!organization.!!

2)(Poor(listening(

Another! problem! can! be! poor! listening:! people! in! front! of! you! are! there! but! with! their! minds! are! in! an!

another!place!and!they!receive!only!part!of!the!information.!Some!people!also!like!to!talk!much!more!than!

they!like!to!listen!to!others.!!

Members!can!work!in!several!ways!to!become!better!listeners!or!receivers:!for!ex!we!can!look!the!person!in!

the!eyes!and!not!interrupt!her,!ask!questions,!receive!unpleasant!information!and!feedback!calmly!and!not!

distract!the!sender.!

!

3)(Lack(of(inappropriate(feedback(

Sometimes!communication!breaks!down!because!senders!either!fail!to!provide!feedback!or!provide!

feedback!in!an!inappropriate!manner.!This!is!especially!likely!to!occur!when!senders!have!

to!give!negative!feedback!because!senders!know!receivers!are!also!likely!to!react!in!a!negative!

!

way.!

(

4)(Rumors(and(grapevine(

Rumors! are! informal! information,! stories! and! unsanctioned! information! shared! among! organizational!

members! about! interesting! or! important! events.! They! usually! spread! quickly! and! once! started! they! are!

difficult!to!stop.!

Grapevine! are! the! media! for! these! rumors:! you! want! that! the! info! reaches! a! person! and! you! use! an!

unofficial!channel!(talk!to!a!third!person,!who!talks!with!another!person).!

!

5)(Workforce(diversity((

There!are!problems!related!to!diversity:!men!and!women!have!different!ways!to!decoding!things.!!

!

6)(Differences(in(crossJ(cultural(linguistic(styles(

Linguistic!style!is!a!person’s!characteristic!way!of!speaking!including!tone!of!voice,!volume,!speed,!pauses,!

directness,!words,…!!

Across! cultures,! linguistic! style! differences! are! typically! much! greater! and! this! can! lead! to! many!

misunderstandings.!These!different!can!impact!on!the!communication!among!people!of!different!countries.!!

! !

!

Selecting&an&appropriate&communication&medium&

!

Selecting! a! medium! involves! tradeOoffs! for! both! the! sender! and! the! receiver.! One! way! to! examine! these!

tradeoffs!is!by!exploring!the!info!richness!of!various!media.!

!

Information(richness(

(

It!is!the!amount!of!info!media!can!carry!and!the!extent!to!which!they!enable!senders!and!receivers!to!reach!

a!common!understanding.!!

Media!high!in!information!richness!are!capable!of!transmitting!more!info!and!are!more!likely!to!generate!a!

common!understanding.!

!

There!are!4!types!of!media:!

! !

!

Face(to(face(communication(

It!is!high!in!info!richness!bc!it!provides!the!receiver!with!a!verbal!but!also!with!a!nonverbal!message!and!

also! bc! it! allows! receivers! to! give! senders! instant! feedback.! Senders! can! clarify! ambiguous! information!

immediately!and!the!discussion!can!be!open!until!a!common!understanding!is!reached.!!

Good!if!you!want!explain!things!to!people,!but!in!this!way!sometimes!you!don’t!have!documentation.!It’s!

time!expensive.!!

!

Verbal(communication(electronically(transmitted(

T! doesn’t! provide! nonverbal! info! but! it! still! an! high! richness! form:! the! receiver! can! listen! to! the! tone! of!

voice!and!recognize!with!part!it’s!emphasized.!Instant!feedback!are!allowed.!!

Telephone!is!different!from!voice!email!and!texting!which!as!well!are!in!this!category!but!they!don’t!allow!

an!instant!feedback.!!

!

Personally(addressed(written(communication(

Letters!or!emails!addressed!personally!to!the!receiver.!This!allow!to!personalize!the!message.!Feedback!is!

not!instantaneous!but!this!is!not!always!a!disadvantage!when!it’s!important!for!receivers!to!have!time!to!

reflect!on!a!message!so!that!they!can!also!formulate!a!personal!response.!!

!

Impersonal(written(communication(

This!form!of!communication!is!used!when!a!sender!needs!to!communicate!with!a!large!number!of!receivers!

simultaneously,!such!as!when!a!company!president!wants!to!dispel!rumors!of!an!impending!layoff.!Because!

this!type!of!medium!is!impersonal,!it!is!unlikely!that!feedback!will!be!received.!For!this!reason,!it!is!

especially!important!for!the!sender!to!use!clear,!unambiguous!statements!that!receivers!will!all!interpret!

correctly!in!the!same!way!so!that!a!common!understanding!is!reached.!

!

Trade(offs(in(the(choice(of(media(

(

In!choosing!a!medium!to!communicate!an!important!trade!off!is!given!by!the!information!richness!and!the!

amount!of!time!it!takes!to!use!the!medium.!!

Face!to!face!communication!are!for!ex!very!time!consuming.!

Another!tradeoff!is!between!information!richness!and!the!need!for!a!paper!or!electronic!trial,!the!written!

documentation! of! the! message.! When! messages! are! complicated! the! doc! is! necessary;! the! same! when! a!

proof!is!required.!

!

Advances!in!IT!have!given!organizational!members!not!only!new!media!to!communicate!with!each!other,!

but!also!made!access!to!vast!quantities!of!information!faster!and!easier!than!ever!before.!

37!An!organization!must!be!careful!not!to!overwhelm!employees!with!so!much!information!that!they!spend!

more!time!reading!eOmails!and!searching!bulletin!boards!than!performing!their!specific!tasks.!

Despite!this!problem,!IT!has!significantly!reduced!the!costs!of!communicating!information !

.

!

Palo&Alto&group:&axioms&of&communication&

!

We!talk!about!communication!not!only!at!orga!level!but!also!in!intercultural!communication:!

!

Palo! Alto! Group! did! an! assumption! which! is! that! every! communication! is! related! to! a! behavioral! effect:!

when!I!communicate,!there!is!a!behavior!in!respond.!We!can!read!the!orga!according!to!communication.!

It’s! important! to! understand! the! communication! not! only! in! words! (syntactic),! in! terms! of! meaning!

(semantics),!but!also!in!terms!of!behaviors,!nonverbal!and!body!language.!!

We! focus! less! on! the! sender! side! or! the! receiver! side! and! more! on! the! senderOreceiver! relation,! as!

mediated!by!communication.!!

!

Communication(axioms:!

!

Palo!alto!suggests!that!there!are!5!properties!which!are!fundamental.!!

!

1.(The(impossibility(of(not(communicating:(one(cannot(not(communicate(

The! first! thing! true! is! the! fact! that! one! cannot! not! communicate.! Even! if! you! are! not! talking,! you! are!

communicating.!Activity!or!inactivity,!words!or!silence!all!have!message!value!

A!person!in!a!train!reading!a!journal!is!communicating!that!he!doesn’t!want!to!be!disturbed.!!

Every!act!that!you!do,!positive!or!negative!is!communication.!!

Even!if!a!person!is!not!answering!to!you,!is!a!communication!as!well.!According!to!this!approach!even!if!you!

don’t!give!a!feedback,!you!give!as!well!a!feedback.!!

It’s!different!from!process!before!(coding,..).!In!this!case!you!observe!behaviors!and!you!try!to!understand.!!

!

2.( The( content( and( relationship( levels( of( communication:( every( communication( has( a( content( and( a(

relationship(aspect(such(that(the(latter(classifies(the(former(and(is(therefore(a(metacommunication.((

The!second!thing!that!is!true!is!that!every!communication!has!a!content!and!a!relationship!aspect.!

Therefore,! a! communication! not! only! conveys! information! (report)! but! it! also! imposes! behavior!

(command).!!

The!report!is!the!aspect!of!a!message!that!conveys!information!(what,!the!content).!The!command!is!the!

aspect! which! refers! to! what! sort! of! message! it’s! to! be! taken! (how,! relationship! between! the!

communicants).!

A!person!says!that!“you!are!late”:!this!is!a!communication!related!to!the!content!=!you!are!not!on!time;!but!

related! to! the! content! there! is! also! a! criticism! that! =! you! are! late! and! this! is! related! to! the! kind! of!

relationship!that!is!between!the!people!talking.!!

In! a! driving! situation,! man! talking! to! a! women:! the! same!

content!but!bc!the!relation!is!different!(formal!–!informal)!

the!interpretation!of!the!content!is!completely!different.!!

Therefore!in!any!communication!you!have!this!two!level.!

Every! communication! has! a! content! and! relationship!

aspect! such! that! the! latter! classifies! the! former! and! is!

therefore!metacommunication.!!

Important!why?!!

The!relationship!level!is!at!an!a!higher!level!in!respect!to!the!content.!It’s!stronger!than!the!simple!content.!!

!

Why?!

Relation!sometimes!is!related!to!non!verbal!communication!and!if!I!say!something!of!terrible!smiling,!you!

believe!to!my!face.!The!relation!is!stronger!compared!to!verbal!communication.!

We!can!state!a!constant!struggle!between!relation!and!content,!which!become!less!and!less!important.!!!

!

3.( The( punctuation( of( the( sequence( of( events:( the( nature( of( a( relationship( is( contingent( upon( the(

punctuation(of(the(communicational(sequences(between(the(communicants.((

Where!the!communication!starts?!

It’s! a! continuous,! but! where! does! it! start?! The! punctuation! is! about! this:! according! to! the! perception! of!

people!in!the!relation,!the!communication!starts.!It’!related!to!individual!perception.!!

Ex.! Husband! and! wife:! conflict.! The! more! the! person! complaint,! the! more! the! person! is! not! according! to!

him,!and!the!more!this!happens!the!more!the!conflict!continues.!Circle.!!

According!to!your!perception!you!expect!something!from!the!other!person,!but!according!to!his!perception!

he!doesn’t!think!so.!!

It’s!about!taking!responsibility,!expectation,!perception.!!

Depending!on!whether!the!interactional!process!between!A!and!B!is!seen!from!the!perspective!of!A!or!B,!it!

may!seem!as!if!A!is!reacting!to!B,!or!as!if!B!is!reacting!to!A.!

!

4.( Digital( and( analogic( communications:( human( beings( communicate( both( digitally( and( analogically.(

Digital(language(has(a(highly(complex(and(powerful(logical(syntax(but(adequacy(semantics(in(the(field(of(

relationship,( while( analogic( language( possesses( the( semantics( but( has( no( adequate( syntax( for( the(

unambiguous(definition(of(the(nature(of(relationships.((

Digital!means!words,!analogical!means!pictures.!

The!picture!it’s!easy!understandable!from!all!around!the!world,!words!not!at!all.!You!use!pictures!and!colors!

bc!you!avoid!the!encoding.!The!analogic!communication!is!any!kind!of!non!verbal!communication.!It’s!

everything!that!is!not!words:!Body!movement,!posture,!gesture,!facial!expression,!voice!inflection,!the!

sequence,!rhythm,!and!cadence!of!the!words!themselves,!and!any!other!nonverbal!manifestation!of!which!

the!organism!is!capable.!

The!content!is!therefore!related!to!digital!communication.!

This! can! create! ambiguity:! using! words! I! can! say! a! thing! which! is! different! from! my! non! verbal! language.!

Moreover!words!are!symbols,!which!have!been!chosen!in!an!arbitrary!way.!!

! “the!cat!is!catching!the!mouse”!or!!!! !

!

5.( Symmetrical( and( complementary( interaction:( all( communicational( interchanged( are( either(

symmetrical(or(complementary,(depending(on(whether(they(are(based(on(equality(or(difference.(

(

Symmetrical!relation!assumes!equality;!complementary!relationship!is!when!there!is!a!difference!between!

one!person!and!the!other.!!

Why!is!it!important?!

The!same!content!can!assume!completely!different!meaning/behaviors!according!to!the!person!involved.!!

!

! !

!

!

!

!

Non!verbal!communication:!paralanguage!(people!speak!very!quickly,!very!slow,!…)!

Non!verbal!is!very!important!in!management.!!

It’s!everything!that!is!not!oral,!that!is!transmitted,!can!be!vocal!or!not!but!in!any!case!it’s!not!related!to!the!

words.!It’s!relevant!bc!we!use!a!lot!of!non!verbal!language!in!order!to!explain!what!we!are!saying!and!also!

bc!we!have!an!interpretation!of!the!things!we!see!more!than!that!we!listen/say.!!

Sometimes! it’s! not! the! content! of! the! speech,! it’s! the! way! you! present! the! speech.! It’s! a! way! to! engage!

people!when!you!talk.!!

!

Function:(why(non(verbal(language(is(relevant?(

(

1)! It’s! relevant! in! complementing.! This! is! the! use! of! nonverbal! behaviors! to! strengthen! or! complement!

what!is!being!said!with!words.!!

We! define! illustrators! :! accentuate! a! word! or! a! phrase,! point! to! present! objects,! depicit! a! spatial!

relationship,!depicit!the!pacing!of!an!event,!draw!a!picture!of!the!referent,!depicit!bodily!action.!They!are!

used!in!face!to!face!situations,!in!excitement!and!enthusiastic!situations,!when!the!receiver!isn’t!getting!the!

message!through!words,!when!you!can’t!find!the!right!word.!!

Rising!the!voice!you!can!attract!the!attention!of!people,!or!sometimes!also!low!the!voice.!!

You!can!use!your!hands!to!indicate!something,!to!explain,!to!give!a!measure.!Illustrator!is!about!this.!!

This!happens!in!particular!in!face!to!face!communications.!!

!

2)!Sometimes!non!verbal!contradicts!the!verbal!part:!say!angry!things!with!a!nice!face.!It’s!when!people!are!

saying!one!thing!yet!their!nonverbal!behavior!is!telling!us!something!completely!different.!!

!

3!O!4)!Non!verbal!language!is!also!in!repeat!or!substitute(things,!the!verbal!language.!

Repeating!is!using!the!nonverbal!behavior!to!say!what!you!are!saying!in!words.!

Substituting!is!the!use!of!nonverbal!behaviors!to!say!things!rather!than!words.!!

Using!some!gesture!can!be!universal,!but!it’s!not!true!(other!countries).!!

Emblems!are!the!nonverbal!behaviors!that!we!use!to!display!what!we!mean:!

O Thumbs!up!=!OK!

O V!with!fingers!=!peace!

O Finger!pointed!to!temple!=!suicide!

O Hand!to!mouth!=!eating.!

!

5)! You! can! use! it! also! in! order! to! regulate:! decide! the! person! who! is! going! to! talk! indicate! someone! or!

looking!someone.!You!make!some!gestures!in!order!to!create!an!order.!

Regulators!control!the!flow!and!pace!of!communication.!

They!can!tell!the!speaker!to!continue,!hurry!up,!explain,!let!the!other!talk.!!!

!

6)!You!use!it!for!accenting!the!single!world.!The!way!we!emphasize!certain!words!in!order!to!clarify!what!

we!mean.!Sbattere!sul!tavolo!per!dire!no.!!

!

Main!nonverbal!behavior:!

! 1. Paralanguage:!related!to!the!voice.!It’s!on!how'and!not!in!what'you'say.'!

Use!of!voice!to!communicate!includes!elements!such!as!laughs,!screams,!tone,!volume,!pauses.!

Studies! have! found! that! people! who! talk! louder,! faster! and! fluently! are! more! persuasive.! Deep!

voices!are!often!viewed!as!more!credible.!Powerless!style!of!communication!(pauses,!umhs,!uhs,..)!

lowers!perceptions!of!credibility.!

It! affects! how! other’s! perceives! us:! for! example! it’s! relevant! also! because! of! the! definition! of!

stereotypes!:!language,!vocabulary,…!

! Paralanguage!is!relevant!because!it!high!or!low!your!credibility.!!

! 2. Proxemics!:!about!space,!distance.!It’s!the!study!of!how!people!structure!and!use!microspace.!!

We!use!distance!in!different!ways.!The!intimate!zone!is!between!0!and!half!a!meter.!Personal!space!

half!a!meter!and!a!meter!–!your!friend.!

!

But! culture! is! relevant! in! this,! in! fact! different! cultures! have! different! comfort! levels! of! distance.!

American!people!have!a!concept!of!space!larger!than!other.!!

In!general!terms!we!say!that!if!there!is!a!person,!who!we!don’t!know!a!lot,!we!react.!!

!

It’s!related!with!status!and!power.!

People! with! higher! status! may! be! higher! (top! floor,! corner! office,! higher! chair).! Such! as! people!

occupy!more!space,!sit!at!the!head!of!the!table,!have!greater!permission!to!violate!other’s!space!

and!finally!they!can!touch!more!objects,!including!other!people’s.!!

When! you! sit! in! front! of! a! desk! it’s! a! symbol! of! power.! A! powerful! person! can! touch! another!

person,!but!a!less!powerful!person!is!not!allowed!in!this!(take!the!notebook!of!Mirko).!

Generally! in! the! conference! room! the! principle! is! sit! in! the! shorter! part! of! the! table! looking! the!

door!where!people!enter.!This!is!a!demonstration!of!power.!But!this!is!not!always!a!good!solution!

bc!people!at!the!end!of!the!table!don’t!listen!to!the!dean.!Therefore!he!must!change!position,!even!

if!this!is!strange.!

Normally!people!that!support!you!usually!are!near!you!(adjacent!or!corners).!On!the!opposite!side!

there!are!the!adversarial!and!competitive!people.!

!

Proxemics!can!be!also!related!to!reduce!the!distance,!if!the!teacher!walk!she!reduces!the!distance.!

You!can!walk!into!the!class!in!order!to!attract!the!attention!of!people.!

Finally!it’s!not!only!for!distance,!but!also!on!how!objects!are!positioned!in!the!environment.!!

!!

3. Haptics:!use!of!touch.!The!way!by!which!people!communicate!via!touching.!You!touch!other!people!

bc!they!are!your!friends.!This!gestures!are!related!with!culture.!!

There!are!some!categories:!

Functional/professional:!hand!on!the!shoulder!(leaderOsub)!

• Social/polite:!ritual!interaction!8handshake)!

• Friendship:!idiosyncratic!relationship!

• Love/intimacy:!emotional!attachment!

!

4. Kinesics:!related!to!movements,!is!the!interpretation!of!body!motion!communication!such!as!facial!

expressions!and!gestures.!Face,!eyes,!gestures,!physical!appearance.!!

Basic! types! of! body! language:! open/closed! (open! hands,! fully! facing! you! O! arms! folded,! legs!

crossed),!forward/back!(look!at!sky,…).!!

! Universal!facial!expressions:!using!the!muscle!of!the!face!I!can!understand!even!if!you!come!from!

another!country.!!

Eye!contact!also!in!very!important:!for!a!listener!is!also!a!way!to!show!that!you!are!listening.!Eye!

contact!in!some!cultures!is!not!really!good!accepted:!long!eye!contact!for!example!is!an!intimate!

way!to!create!a!relation.!In!our!culture,!if!you!say!something!you!believe!in,!you!look!the!person!in!

the!eyes.!!

Getsures!can!define!an!emotion.!

Adaptors!release!physical!or!emotional!tension.!I!can!manage!it!for!example!by!playing!with!a!pen!

or!a!ring.!!

!

Basic(communication(styles(

(

You!can!voluntary!adopt!one!of!these!styles.!

!

PASSIVE(

Individual! avoid! expressing! their! opinions! or! feelings,! protecting! their! rights.! Usually! born! of! low! self!

esteem.!Passive!communicators!often!:!

O fail!to!assert!for!themselves!

O allow!others!to!deliberately!or!inadvertently!infringe!on!their!rights!

O fail!to!express!their!feelings,!needs,!or!opinions!

O tend!to!speak!softly!or!apologetically!

O exhibit!poor!eye!contact!!

!

AGGRESSIVE(

Individuals!express!their!feelings!and!opinions!and!advocate!for!their!needs!in!a!way!that!violates!the!rights!

of!others.!Thus,!aggressive!communicators!are!verbally!and/or!physically!abusive.!

Aggressive!communicators!will!often:!

O try!to!dominate!others!

O criticize,!blame,!or!attack!others!

O be!very!impulsive!

O speak!in!a!loud,!demanding,!and!overbearing!voice!

O act!threateningly!and!rudely!

O not!listen!well!

O interrupt!frequently!

O use!“you”!statements(

(

ASSERTIVE(

Individuals!clearly!state!their!opinions!and!feelings,!and!firmly!advocate!for!their!rights!and!needs!

without!violating!the!rights!of!others.!Assertive!communication!is!born!of!high!selfOesteem.!

Assertive!communicators!will:!

O state!needs!and!wants!clearly,!appropriately,!and!respectfully!

O express!feelings!clearly,!appropriately,!and!respectfully!

O use!“I”!statements!

O communicate!respect!for!others!

O listen!well!without!interrupting!

O feel!in!control!of!self!

O have!good!eye!contact!

O speak!in!a!calm!and!clear!tone!of!voice!

O have!a!relaxed!body!posture(

ORGANIZATIONAL&CULTURE&

!

What&is&the&organizational&culture?&

!

Organizational!culture!is!a!set!of!shared!values,!beliefs,!and!norms!that!influence!the!way!employees!think,!

feel,!and!behave!toward!one!another!and!toward!people!outside!the!organization.!

It!can!promote!work!attitudes!and!behaviors!that!increase!organizational!effectiveness.!It!controls!the!way!

employees!perceive!and!respond!their!environment.!!

Organizational!culture!concerns!the!inside!of!the!organization!and!the!outside.!!

Beliefs!and!values!are!taught!to!new!recruits!who!become!members!of!an!organization.!

!

Belief!=!credenza,!it’s!not!the!true!but!it’s!related!with!attitudes,!to!what!you!believe.!It’s!the!cognitive!part!

of!attitude.!!

!

Values! are! general! criteria,! standards,! or! guiding! principles! people! use! to! determine! which! types! of!

behaviors,!events,!situations!and!outcomes!are!desirable!or!undesirable.!!

There!are!two!kind!of!values:!

O Terminal( value:! it! is! a! desired! end! state! or! outcome! that! people! seek! to! achieve.! For! example!

terminal! values! can! be! quality,! responsibility,! innovativeness,! excellence,! economy,! morality,!

profitability;!

O Instrumental(values:(it!is!a!desired!mode!or!type!of!behavior.!Modes!of!behavior!include!working!

hard,! respecting! traditions! and! authority,! being! conservative! and! cautions,! being! frugal,! creative,!

courageous,!honest,!taking!risks.!!

An! organization’s! culture! consists! of! the! end! states! that! the! orga! seeks! to! achieve! (terminal! v)! and! the!

modes!of!behavior!the!orga!encourages!(instrumental!v).!!

Ideally,!instrumental!values!help!the!orga!achieve!its!terminal!values.!!

!

These! two! types! are! at! the! same! level! and! they! are! enforced! by! norms,! rules! and! standard! operative!

procedures.!These!are!the!tangible!part!of!values!which!are!intangible.!!

WHY?! To! encourage! members! to! adopt! specific! terminal! and! instrumental! values! and! so! behave! in! the!

ways!necessary!to!achieve!their!goals,!the!organization!develops!specific!norms.!In!fact,!norms!are!informal!

rules! of! conduct! which! encourage! employees! to! cultivate! attitudes! and! behaviors! important! for! the!

organization.!!

Norms! are! largely! informal,! so! many! values! are! not! written! down:! they! are! shared! norms,! beliefs,!

assumptions!and!manner!of!thinking!and!behavior!developed!between!people!of!the!same!organization.!!

Norms!in!here,!something!is!not!written!but!it’s!related!to!the!socialization.!!

Eventually!employees!respond!in!a!certain!manner!to!a!specific!situation,!without!even!realizing!that!he!is!

doing!so!according!to!orga’s!values.!This!is!called!internalization.''

!

[McKinsey(&(Company]!We!believe!we!will!be! !

successful!if!our!clients!are!successful.! One!of!L’Oréal’s!daily!commitments!is!to!make!

We!believe!that!solving!the!hardest!problems! the!company!an!example!of!personal!

requires!the!best!people.!We!believe!that!the! development,!to!promote!diversity,!and!to!

best!people!will!be!drawn!to!the!opportunity!to! assemble!a!community!of!talents!to!which!all!

work!on!the!hardest!problems.!We!build!our!firm! individuals!contribute!their!creativity!and!

around!that!belief.!We!believe!you!can’t!do!one! enthusiasm.!The!Group!aims!to!ensure!

without!the!other.!We!believe!these!two!parts!of! sustainable'and'responsible'growth.!We!are!

our!mission!reinforce!each!other!and!make!our! convinced!that!long;term!success!is!based!on!

firm'strong'and'enduring.! strong!ethics.!

!

terminal'value'

instrumental!value!

!

!

Transmission&of&the&culture&&

!

1.(Socialization(and(socialization(tactics(

To! learn! the! culture! newcomers! do! so!

formally! by! participating! to! a! socialization!

program! and! informally! by! observing! the!

other!people.!!

!

Tactics! leading! to! an! institutionalized!

orientation! are:! collective! tactics,! formal!

tactics! (newcomer! segregated),! sequential!

and! fixed! tactics! (follow! a! program),! serial!

tactics!(mentor)!and!divestiture!tactics.!

!

Tactics! leading! to! an! individualized! orientation:! individual! tactics,! informal! tactics! (learning! on! the! job),!

random! and! variable! tactics! (no! end! defined),! disjunctive! tactics! (no! guidance! by! group! members),!

investiture!tactics.!!

!

2.(Rites(and(ceremonies!!

Organizations! use! several! types! of! ceremonial! rites! to! communicate! cultural! norms! and! values.! They! are!

regular!events!that!teach!people!about!the!culture!and!maintain!a!sense!of!seasonal!order.!!

!

Rites'of'passage!mark!an!individual’s!entry!to!promotion!in!and!departure!from!the!organization.!!

Promotion!for!example!is!a!celebration!of!something!that!is!right;!but!it!concerns!also!a!hire!or!a!pension.!

When!you!hire!a!person,!the!way!you!present!the!orga!and!the!other!employees,!make!me!know!how!it’s!

the!organization:!competitive,!friendly!and!so!on.!!

!

Rites' of' integration,! such! as! shared! announcements! of! organizational! success,! office! parties! and! so! on,!

build!and!reinforce!common!bonds!between!members.!!

It’s!relevant!above!all!when!the!organization!is!big.!

!

Rites' of' enhancement,' like! dinners,! promotions,! give! an! organization! the! opportunity! to! publicly!

acknowledge!and!reward!employee’s!contributions!and!thereby!enhance!their!commitment!to!its!values.!!

!

3.(The(organizational(language(

Because!language!is!the!principle!way!of!communication,!the!characteristic!names!or!phrases!of!a!company!

provide! important! consequences! about! norms! and! values.! Language! concerns! acronyms,! metaphors,!

proverbs,!technical!language!and!jargon!that!have!specific!meaning!inside.!

Many!organization!uses!technical!languages!to!facilitate!cooperation!between!employees.!!

The! concept! of! language! encompasses! not! only! spoken! language! but! also! how! people! dress,! the! offices!

they!occupy,!the!company!cars!they!drive,!and!how!they!formally!address!one!another.!!

!

4.(Stories,(signs,(symbols!

The' stories! about! organizational! heroes! provide! important! clues! about! cultural! values! and! norms.! Such!

stories!can!reveal!behaviors!and!values.!!

Stories! are! like! a! mythologies! were! there! are! heroes,! super! powers! and! we! don’t! question! if! the! story! is!

true!or!not.!Telling!story!is!important!in!order!to!show!the!values.!

Stories!can!reveal!the!kinds!of!behaviors!that!the!organization!value:!what!the!employee!is!supposed!to!do!

when! in! doubt,! what! to! do! when! a! high! status! person! breaks! the! rules,! how! people! advance! within! the!

organization.!!

!

Symbols'are!often!used!to!communicate!an!organization’s!cultural!values!and!norms!to!its!members!and!to!

others!outside!the!orga.!They!are!signs,!logos,!pictures!on!brochures,!colors,!disposition!of!the!furniture.!

Sometimes!the!design!or!architecture!of!a!company’s!building!is!a!symbol!of!an!organization’s!values.!

The!asset!of!the!organization!gives!ideas!about!how!the!organization!is.!For!example!he!faculty:!very!new,!

minimal!(=!efficient),!no!tag!in!the!bathroom!(!=!civil!virtue).!

!

Esthetics!is!particularly!important.!!

Fabriano:! use! a! lot! of! lights,! central! square! with! trees,! relaxing!

space,! for! living! the! company.! The! value! behind! is! creativity,! in!

sintony!with!the!value!around!the!employee.!Through!the!esthetic!

you!can!understand!what!the!boss!wants!from!the!company.!!

!

&

Factors&shaping&organizational&culture&

!

Where( does( the( culture( come( from?! It! is! shaped! by! the! interaction! of! 4! main! factors,! which! are! the!

personal!and!professional!characteristics!of!people,!ethics,!nature!of!the!employment!relationship,!design!

of!its!organizational!structure.!!

!

Characteristics(of(people((people(who(make(up(the(organization)(

If! you! want! to! know! why! cultures! differ,! look! at! their! members.! Different! organization! develop! different!

cultures!because!they!attract,!select!and!retain!people!who!have!different!values,!personalities!and!ethics.!

Recalling! the' attraction;selection;attrition' model,! people! are! attracted! by! an! organization! whose! values!

match!theirs;!similarly!an!orga!selects!people!who!share!its!values.!!

The! result! is! that! people! in! the! orga! become! more! and! more! similar,! values! increases! and! the! orga!

distinguishes!more!and!more!from!others.!!

The!founder!of!an!organization!has!an!important!influence!on!the!orga’s!initial!culture!bc!of!his!personal!

values!and!beliefs.!Presumably,!people!selected!by!the!founder!have!similar!values.!!

When!people!share!values!in!this!manner,!cohesiveness!appears.!Also!groupthink!can!arrive.!!

!

Organizational(ethics((

Ethics!is!moral!values,!beliefs,!rules!that!establish!the!appropriate!way!for!an!organization!and!its!members!

to!deal!with!each!other!and!people!and!groups!outside!the!organization.!It!concerns!in!treating!everyone!

fairly!and!equally.!!

Ethical! values,! rules! and! norms! are! an! integral! part! of! an! orga! ‘s! culture! bc! they! help! to! determine! how!

members!will!manage!situations!and!make!decisions.!!

Ethics!is!relevant!in!particular!when!you!discuss!at!an!international!level.!!

!

An!ethical!dilemma:!someone!who!“borrow”!money!bc!her!daughter!is!ill.!!

In!this!situation!we!have!different!levels!

O Society!level:!things!are!accepted!in!some!societies!and!in!others!not!

O Professional!ethics:!there!are!ethics!rules!

O Individual!ethics!

The!problems!arise!when!you!have!the!3!levels!mixed!together.!!

!

How!are!organizational!ethics!formed!and!how!do!they!change!over!time?!!

Ethical!rules!emerge!to!control!self!interested!behavior!by!individuals!and!organizations!that!threaten!the!

society’s!collective!interests.!

These! type! of! rules! reduce! transaction! costs,! that! is! the! costs! of! monitoring,! negotiating! and! enforcing!

agreements! between! people.! Reputation! effect! and! transaction! costs! are! higher! for! organizations! with! a!

reputation!for!illegality!and!lower!for!orga!with!a!reputation!for!honesty.!!

Ethical!values!are!a!product!of!societal,!professional!and!individuals!ethics.!!

' Societal) ethics.' The! ethics! of! the! country! or! society! in! which! the! orga! exists! are! important!

determinants!of!its!ethical!values.!Societal!ethics!are!the!moral!values!formalized!in!a!society’s!legal!system,!

in!its!customs!and!practices!and!in!the!unwritten!values!and!norms!that!its!people!follow!in!their!daily!lives.!

Most!of!people!follow!automatically!theirs!society!values!bc!they!have!internalized!them.!!

Why!do!ethical!rules!develop?!

' Professional)ethics.'They!are!the!moral!values!that!a!group!of!similarly!trained!people!develop!to!

control!their!performance!of!a!task!or!use!their!resources.!People!internalize!the!values!of!their!protection!

as!they!do!with!the!values!of!the!society.!Example!of!professional!ethic!is:!encouraging!a!doctor!to!act!in!

best!interests!of!their!patients.!

! Individual)ethics.'Personal!moral!values!that!people!use!to!structure!their!interactions!with!other!

people.!In!many!instances!personal!ethics!mirror!societal!ethics!and!originate!in!the!law,!but!they!are!also!

the!result!of!the!way!people!are!raised!or!brought!up.!!

!

The(employment(relationship(

Promoting! from! within! will! help! develop! supportive! values! and! norms,! build! loyalty! and! encourage!

employees! to! work! hard! to! advance! within! the! organization.! The! prospect! of! promotion! is! a! major!

motivator!for!many!people.!If!employees!see!no!prospect!of!promotion!from!within,!they!are!likely!to!begin!

searching!for!new!opportunities!elsewhere.!!

When!the!company!establish!a!relationship!with!its!employees,!the!turnover!decrease.!!

!

Organizational(structure(

A!fourth!source!of!cultural!values!comes!from!the!organization’s!structure,!which!is!the!formal!system!of!

task!and!reporting!relationships!designed!to!coordinate!and!motivate!employees!in!the!most!effective!way.!!

However! different! types! of! structure! make! born! different! culture,! and! this! is! the! reason! for! what! great!

attention!is!given!to!the!organizational!design.!

For!ex!in!a!tall!centralized!organization,!most!employees!have!low!authority!and!behaviors!include!obeying,!

respect.! Therefore! a! culture! with! predictability! and! stability! is! the! desired! one.! On! the! other! hand,! in! a!

decentralized!structure,!employees!enjoy!autonomy!and!have!more!freedom.!In!this!situation,!innovation!

and!flexibility!are!desired!terminal!values.!!!

!

Values&from&the&national&culture&

!

The!values!and!norms!of!a!nation!have!a!profound!impact!on!the!culture!of!each!and!every!organization!

that!operates!within!it.!The!national!culture!is!the!particular!set!of!economic,!political!and!social!values!that!

exist!in!a!particular!country.!The!culture!of!a!US!company!is!distinct!from!the!culture!of!Japanese!for!ex,!bc!

the!values!of!these!countries!differ!significantly.!!

!

Hofstede’s(Model(of(national(culture!

!

Researchers! identified! similarities! and! differences! between! the! cultural! values! and! norms! of! different!

countries.!

!

Hofstede!(1967!O!1973)!tried!to!compare!the!values!of!people!in!different!countries:!if!people!locally!they!

have!values!which!are!different,!or!if!they!are!in!an!organization!they!share!the!orga!culture.!

Which!is!more!important?!Organization!or!country!culture?!

!

Hofstede! argues! that! differences! in! the! values! and! norms! of! different! countries! are! captured! by! five!

dimensions!of!culture:!

! O Individualism( versus( collectivism.! This! focus! on! the! values! that! govern! the! relationship! between!

individuals!and!groups.!In!countries!where!individualism!prevails,!values!of!individual!achievement,!

freedom,!competition,!promotions!based!on!mkt!value!are!stressed.!In!countries!where!collectivism!

prevails,! values! of! group! harmony,! cohesiveness,! consensus,! cooperation,! promotions! based! on!

seniority! is! strong.! In! Japan,! Indonesia,! Pakistan! collectivist! dominates,! in! US,! Canada,! Sweden!

individualism!prevails.!!

In!collectivist!cultures,!the!group!is!more!important!than!the!individual!and!group!members!follow!

norms!that!stress!group!rather!than!personal!interests.!!

!

O Power(distance.!

! Organization'level:!this!refers!to!the!degree!to!which!countries!accept!economic!and!social!

differences!in!wealth,!status,!and!well!being!as!natural.!!

Countries!that!allow!inequalities!to!persist!or!increase!are!said!to!have!high!power!distance.!

Professionally!successful!workers!in!highOpowerOdistance!countries!amass!wealth!and!pass!it!on!to!

their!children.!In!these!countries,!inequalities!increase!over!time;!the!gap!between!rich!and!poor,!

with!all!the!attendant!political!and!social!consequences,!grows!very!large.!

In!contrast,!countries!that!dislike!the!development!of!large!inequality!gaps!between!their!citizens!

are!said!to!have!low!power!distance.!These!countries!use!taxation!or!social!welfare!programs!to!

reduce!inequality!and!improve!the!lot!of!the!least!fortunate!members!of!society.!

Low!powerO!distance!countries!are!more!interested!in!preventing!a!wide!gap!between!rich!and!poor!

and!discord!between!classes.!!

! Malaysia,!Panama,!Guatemala!have!high!score!on!power!distance!and!low!on!individualism.!!

! Society' level:! power! distance! concerns! also! the! extent! to! which! less! powerful! members!

accept! that! the! power! is! distributed! unequally.! Hofstede! is! reading! the! power! from! the! point! of!

view!of!the!subordinates.!!

We!can!read!the!same!idea!at!the!level!of!society,!and!in!this!case!is!related!to!the!society!levels.!!

! O Achievement( versus( nurturing( orientation( (masculinity/femininity).( Countries! that! are!

achievement!oriented!cares!about!assertiveness,!performance,!success!and!competition.!

Countries!that!are!nurturing!oriented!value!the!quality!of!life,!relationships!and!service!and!care!for!

the!weak.!Japan!and!US!are!achievement!oriented,!Sweden!is!nurturing!oriented.!!

! O Uncertainty(avoidance.(!

!

Countries'high'on'uncertainty'avoidance!(do!not!take!risk)!tend!to!be!rigid!and!intolerant.!

They!have!an!high!need!for!security,!rigidity,!conformity,!intolerance,!strong!belief!in!experts!and!

their!knowledge.!There!are!more!written!rules,!less!managerial!risk!taking!(Japan,!Spain,!Germany).!!

!

Countries' low' on' uncertainty' avoidance! are! easygoing,! value! diversity,! tolerant! of! differences.!

People! are! more! willing! to! accept! risks! of! the! unknown,! value! diversity,! tolerant! of! differences!

fewer!written!rules!higher!employee!turnover,!more!ambitious!employees!(GB).!

!

Differences!in!national!culture!help!explain!why!the!cultures!of!companies!in!one!country!tend!to!

be!different!from!those!of!companies!in!another.!French!and!German!organizations,!for!example,!!

admire!the!entrepreneurial!drive!of!U.S.!managers!and!the!American!work!ethic!but!treat!their!

managers!and!workers!in!different!ways!than!do!U.S.!organizations.!French!and!German!

organizations!are!far!less!concerned!with!issues!of!equity!and!opportunity!in!their!human!resource!

policies.!

! O Long(term(versus(short(term(orientation.(!The!last!point!is!whether!citizens!of!a!country!have!a!LT!

or!a!ST!orientation!toward!life!and!work.!!

A!longOterm!orientation!is!likely!to!be!the!result!of!values!that!include!thrift!and!persistence.!A!

shortOterm!orientation!is!likely!to!be!the!result!of!values!that!express!a!concern!for!maintaining!

personal!stability!or!happiness!and!for!living!in!the!present.!Countries!with!LT!orientations!include!

Japan!and!Hong!Kong,!well!known!for!their!high!rate!of!per!capita!savings.!The!United!States!and!

France,!which!tend!to!spend!more!and!save!less,!have!a!shortOterm!orientation.!

!

If!differences!in!values!between!countries!cause!differences!in!attitudes!and!behaviors!between!workers!in!

different!subsidiaries,!an!organization!will!find!it!difficult!to!obtain!the!benefits!of!global!learning.!Different!

divisions!of!the!company!located!in!different!countries!may!develop!different!orientations!toward!the!

problems!facing!the!company!and!their!own!subcultures.!

Managers!and!employees!become!concerned!more!with!their!own!local!problems!than!with!the!problems!

facing!the!company!as!a!whole,!and!this!hinders!global!organizational!effectiveness.!

!

Another!major!problem!may!occur!when!a!company!in!one!country!seeks!to!cooperate!with!a!company!in!a!

different!country,!perhaps!via!a!joint!venture.!Differences!in!national!values!and!norms!can!make!such!

cooperation!extremely!difficult!to!achieve.!

(

Schwartz(Model(

! !

!

Schwartz!developed!a!model!for!cultural!values!and!a!map!of!where!different!parts!of!the!world!belong!in!

this!context.!When!he!analyzed!the!averages!of!data!from!each!country!he!found!that!they!fell!into!seven!

different!clusters:!

Conservatism:!avoid!inclinations!of!individuals!who!might!disturb!the!traditional!order!

11

))

1 ) Harmony:!protection!of!environment,!world!at!peace!

22

))

2 ) Egalitarian!commitment:!helpfulness,!social!justice,!world!at!peace,!equality!

33

))

3 ) Intellectual!autonomy:!creativity,!curiosity!

44

))

4 ) Affective!autonomy:!stimulation,!excitement!

55

))

5 ) Mastery:!active!efforts!to!modify!one’s!surroundings!and!get!ahead!of!other!people!

66

))

6 ) Hierarchy:!legitimacy!of!hierarchical!role!and!resource!allocation.!!

77

))

7 )

!

In!the!figure!there!are!3!clear!juxtapositions:!hierarchy!–!egalitarianism,!mastery!–!harmony,!concervatism–!

autonomy.!!

This!model!is!subject!to!modifications.!!!

!

Ronen(&Schenakar(model((2013)(

! !

!

!

These!model!are!different!from!Hostede!bc!they!don’t!talk!about!dimensions.!These!models!suggests!that!

countries!stay!together!in!cluster.!There!are!group!of!countries!which!are!similar!because!they!share!values!

which!are!similar.!!

Countries!that!are!also!close!geographically!share!values!that!are!clear.!!

Uk,!Usa,!New!Zeland!are!similar!in!language,!politc!but!they!are!very!far.!

Germany,!Austria!are!near.!!

But!Portugal!doesn’t!stay!with!Brazial:!history!can!be!a!reason!but!there!are!also!other!things.!

!

When! there! are! similarities! across! cultures,! it’s! possible! to! do! business! in! the! same! way! in! every! global!

location.!Furthermore,!procedures!and!strategies!that!work!well!at!home!can!be!adopted!abroad!with!few!

modifications.!!

When! there! are! differences! across! cultures,! these! concern! wages,! compensation,! pay! equity,! maternity,!

leave.!It’s!is!stressed!the!importance!of!criteria!used!in!evaluation!of!employees.!!

!

Effects!on!MNEs!management!

Ethnocentric'predisposition'

A!nationalistic!philosophy!of!management!whereby!the!values!and!interests!of!the!parent!company!

guide!strategic!decisions.!

Polycentric'predisposition'

O A!philosophy!of!management!whereby!strategic!decisions!are!tailored!to!suit!the!cultures!of!the!

countries!where!the!MNC!operates.!

Regiocentric'predisposition'

O A!philosophy!of!management!whereby!the!firm!tries!to!blend!its!own!interests!with!those!of!its!

subsidiaries!on!a!regional!basis.!

Geocentric'predisposition'

O A!philosophy!of!management!whereby!the!company!tries!to!integrate!a!global!systems!approach!to!

decision!making.!

!

Cultural(distance(and(internalization(

Article! Journal! of! international! business! studies:! it! try! to! connect! culture! distance! (Hofstede)! and! the!

strategic!choices!that!a!company!can!do.!!

If!I’m!going!to!enter!in!a!country,!there!is!a!certain!cultural!distance!from!my!home!country?!The!culture!is!

so!important!or!just!an!element!that!I!have!to!control?!

Meta!analysis!with!other!article!give!them!hp:!

1)! relation! between! culture! distance! and! entry! mode! choice:! you! can! have! an! equity! market! entry!

(establish!new!company,!buy!a!company,..)!

2)!non!equity!strategy:!I!prefer!just!to!licensing,!export,!not!build,!not!ownership!in!here.!

If!I’m!going!to!enter!in!a!country!with!very!distant!country,!which!is!preferable?!!

According!to!the!study,!both!solutions!are!good:!with!the!equity!strategy!you!have!more!control!and!with!a!

non!equity!strategy:!less!risky!in!terms!of!coming!back!(exit!from!the!investment!(easy),!consumers!look!at!

you!as!a!local!producer.!

!

Other!dimension:!international'diversification.!It!means!to!have!a!lot!of!subsidiaries!in!different!countries!

bc!you!take!the!best!in!every!country.!!

If!we!compete!a!!large!market,!it’s!good!to!expand!my!subsidiaries.!!

Where! I! put! my! subsidiaries?! Possible! advantages! of! putting! them! far?! Save! supply! chain! costs,! better!

understand! the! local! market,! increase! international! diversification,! exploit! natural! resources,! cultural!

resources,…! !LESSON'9:'ORGANIZATIONAL'CHANGE'

!

!

The!need!to!change!is!a!fact!of!life!that!most!organizations!have!to!deal!with.!Today!orgas!cannot!afford!to!

change!only!when!their!performance!is!deteriorating:!they!need!to!continuously!predict!and!anticipate!the!

need!for!change.!!

!

Forces'for'and'resistance'for'organization'change'

!

Organization* change* is! the! movement! of! an! organization! away! from! its! present! state! and! toward! some!

desired!future!state!to!increase!its!effectiveness.!!

Why!the!orga!has!to!change?!!

The!business!environment!is!constantly!changing!and!the!organization!must!adapt!to!these!forces!in!order!

to!survive.!!

!

Amazon!mechanical!turk:!there!are!the!possibilities!for!people!to!make!works!offer.!Which!kind!of!works?!

Little!works.!!

!

Offshoring!=!delocalizzazione.!It’s!the!relocation!by!a!company!of!a!business!process!from!one!country!to!

another:!typically!is!an!operational!process,!such!as!manufacturing,!supporting,!accounting.!!

You!build!the!subsidiary!in!another!country.!!

Critics!because!is!as!you!are!transporting!labor.!!

! !

Inshoring! =! company! come! back! after! an! experience! of! offshoring.! One! point! of! view! is! that! the! labor! is!

increased!in!the!host!company;!management!is!difficult!in!the!other!country.!!

!

These!are!forces!and!impediments!that!confront!an!organization!and!its!managers.!

!

FORCES:*

!

1.*COMPETITIVE*FORCES.**

Organizations!constantly!strive!to!achieve!a!competitive!advantage.!Competition!is!a!force!for!change.!!

To!excel!in!the!area!of!efficiency'or'quality,!an!organization!must!constantly!adopt!the!latest!techno!as!it!

becomes!available.!The!change!in!techno!brings!changes!for!employees!who!have!to!improve!their!skills.!!

To! excel! in! the! area' of' innovation! and! obtain! a! techno! advantage,! a! company! must! skillfully! manage! the!

process!of!innovation.!

But!the!most!important!area!is!the!responsiveness'to'customers.!!

!

2.*ECONOMIC,*POLITICAL,*AND*GLOBAL*FORCES.**

Eco! and! political! forces! affect! orgas! and! compel! them! to! change! how! and! where! they! produce.! Eco! and!

political! unions! between! countries! are! becoming! an! increasingly! important! force! for! change! (think! about!

the!EU!exploits!the!advantages!of!a!large!protected!market).!

No!organization!can!afford!to!ignore!the!effects!of!global!economic!and!political!forces!on!its!activities.!The!

rise! of! low! cost! foreign! competitors,! the! development! of! new! technology! that! can! erode! a! company’s!

competitive!advantage,!and!the!failure!to!exploit!low!cost!inputs!abroad!all!spell!doom!for!an!organization!

competing!in!the!global!marketplace.!!

Other!challenges!include!helping!managers!who!works!abroad!in!their!relationship!with!national!cultures,!

national!eco,!politic!of!the!country!in!which!they!are.!!

!

3.*DEMOGRAPHIC*AND*SOCIAL*FORCES.*

Changes! in! the! demographic! characteristics! of! the! work! force! have! led! managers! to! alter! their! styles! of!

managing!employees!in!an!effort!to!learn!how!to!best!understand,!supervise,!motivate!minority!and!female!

members.!This!includes!abandoning!the!stereotypes.!!

It!also!means!understanding!the!importance!of!Equity!in!the!recruitment!process!and!acknowledging!that!

employees!today!are!looking!for!a!better!balance!between!work!and!leisure.!!

Many!companies!have!helped!their!employees!keep!up!with!changing!technology!by!supporting!advanced!

education!and!training!for!them.!Orga!have!realized!that!the!ultimate!source!of!competitive!advantage!and!

orga!effectiveness!lies!in!fully!utilizing!the!skills!of!their!members.!!

!

4.*ETHICAL*FORCES*

Many!comp!have!created!the!role!of!ethics!officer,!a!person!to!whom!employees!can!report!ethical!lapses!

or!turn!to!for!advice!when!faced!with!ethical!business!dilemmas.!!

Orgas!need!to!make!changes!to!allow!managers!and!employees!at!all!levels!to!report!unethical!behavior!so!

that! the! orga! can! move! quickly! to! eliminate! this! behavior! and! therevy! protect! the! organization,! its!

members,!customers!from!reputational!harm.!!

Similarly,! if! orgas! operate! in! countries! which! have! little! attention! on! human! rights,! companies! have! to!

change!standards!in!order!to!protect!its!foreign!employees.!!

!

IMPEDIMENTS*TO*CHANGE*

*

Effective!organizations!are!agile!enough!to!adjust!to!these!forces.!But!many!internal'forces'make'the'orga'

resistant'to'change.''

Companies!as!Kodak,!Delta!and!Ford!have!been!unable!to!change!and!they!didn’t!respond!to!environmental!

conditions,! like! an! increased! competition.! Research! suggests! that! one! of! the! main! reasons! for! some!

organizations’!inability!to!change!is!organizational'inertia,'or'the'tendency'to'maintain'the'status'quo.'!

Impediments!to!change!that!cause!inertia!are!found!at!the!organization,!group!and!individual!levels.!!

Organizational'level'resistance'to'change'

!

Many!forces!inside!an!organization!make!it!difficult!for!the!organization!to!change!in!response!to!changing!

conditions!in!its!environment.!!

The!organizational!changes!are!very!difficult!to!manage!in!particular!in!big!organization.!Where!the!culture!

is!strong,!change!the!organization!in!complicated.!!

Organizational! change! is! about! the! movement:! when! we! talk! about! it! we! talk! about! a! trajectory.! But!

sometimes! we! talk! about! the! expected! situation! after! the! change! (difference! from! actual! and!

future/expected!status).!Therefore!we!have!to!consider!both!the!elements.!!

!

1)*POWER*AND*CONFLICT.*

Change!usually!benefits!some!people,!functions!or!divisions!at!the!expense!of!others.!!

When! change! causes! power! struggles! and! organizational! conflict,! an! organization! is! likely! to! resist! it.! For!

example!a!conflict!between!two!functions!slows!the!process!of!change!and!perhaps!prevent!from!occurring!

at! all:! a! change! in! the! material! which! reduce! costs,! will! be! better! for! material! managers! but! not! for!

manufacturing!function!which!has!a!worst!quality!material.!!

Many!companies!have!experience!resistance!to!change!on!the!part!of!their!functional!groups.!

!

2)*DIFFERENCES*IN*FUNCTIONAL*ORIENTATION.*

Different!functions!and!divisions!often!see!the!source!of!a!problem!or!issue!differently!as!a!result!of!their!

own!viewpoints.!This!causes!organizational!inertia!bc!the!orga!has!to!understand!the!real!problem!before!

responding!it.!!

!

3)*MECHANISTIC*STRUCTURE.*

These!structures!are!characterized!by!hierarchies,!centralized!decision!making,!standardization!of!behavior!

through!rules!and!procedures.!In!contrast!organic!structures!are!flat!and!decentralized!and!rely!on!mutual!

adjustment!between!people!to!get!the!job!done.!!

Mechanistic!structures!are!more!resistant!to!change!and!are!sources!of!inertia.!

People!who!work!within!them!act!in!fixed!ways!and!they!don’t!develop!a!sense!of!adaptation!to!change.!!

On! the! other! hand! in! an! organic! structures! employees! are! creative,! responsive,! find! solutions! for! new!

problems.!!

!

4)*ORGANIZATIONAL*CULTURE*

The! values! and! norms! in! an! organization! culture! influence! the! resistance! to! change.! Values! and! norms!

cause!people!to!behave!in!a!predictable!way.!!

Many!organizations!develop!conservative!values!that!support!the!status!quo!and!make!managers!reluctant!

to!search!for!new!ways!to!compete.!!

As!a!result,!when!changes!arrive,!the!failure!is!likely.!!

Sometimes,! values! and! norms! are! so! strong! that! event! when! the! environment! is! changing! and! it! is! clear!

that! a! new! strategy! needs! to! be! adopted,! managers! cannot! do! so! bc! they! are! wed! to! the! ways! they!

presently!do!business.!!

!

Group!level'resistance'to'change'

!

1)*GROUP*NORMS.*

Groups! develop! strong! informal! norms! that! specify! behaviors! and! govern! the! interactions.! Change! alters!

task!and!role!relationships!in!a!group!and!when!it!happens!it!disrupts!norms!and!informal!expectations!that!

members!have!of!one!another.!!

As!a!result!members!resist!change!bc!a!new!set!of!norms!has!to!be!developed!to!meet!the!needs!of!the!new!

situation.!

!

2)*GROUP*COHESIVENESS.**

Too!much!cohesiveness!can!actually!reduce!performance!bc!it!stifles!opportunities!for!the!group!to!change!

and!adapt.!Members!may!unite!to!preserve!the!status!quo!and!to!protect!their!interests!at!the!expense!of!

other!groups.!The!group!doesn’t!see!the!change!for!example!and!it!see!only!what!it!want!to!see.!

The!group!protect!itself!at!the!expense!of!other!groups.!!

!

3)*GROUPTHINK*AND*ESCALATION*OF*COMMITMENT.**

In!groupthink!members!discount!negative!info!in!order!to!agree!with!each!other.!“They!want!to!change!but!

we!are!different,!we!resist,!we!don’t!want!to!change”.!You!resist!not!bc!you!have!something!contrary!but!bc!

it’s!a!behavior!of!the!group.!!

Escalation!of!commitment!worsens!this!situation:!members!realize!that!their!course!of!action!is!wrong!but!

they!continue!to!pursue!it!regardless.!!

!

Individual!level'resistance'to'change'

!

Individuals!can!resist!change!bc!of!uncertainty,!selective!perception!and!force!of!habit.!!

!

1)*UNCERTAINTY*AND*INSECURITY.**

People!resist!bc!they!feel!uncertain!and!insecure!about!what!its!outcome!will!be.!Employees!might!be!given!

new! tasks,! role! relationships! may! change,! some! employees! might! lose! their! jobs! while! other! promoted!

(loosing!status!fear).!!

Individuals! perceive! threat! to! the! professional! identity! and! to! economic! status! (firm! experience,! salary,!

demotion)!!

This!causes!organizational!inertia.!

Absenteeism! and! turnover! may! increase! as! change! takes! place,! employees! may! become! uncooperative,!

slow!down!the!change!process,!passively!resist!it.!!

!

2)*SELECTIVE*PERCEPTION*AND*RETENTION.**

When! change! takes! place,! employees! focus! only! on! how! it! will! personally! affect! them! or! their!

function/division.!If!they!perceive!few!benefits!they!may!reject!the!change.!

Moreover! in! a! moment! of! change! people! perceive! only! things! that! they! want! to! perceive:! I’m! scared!

therefore! I! see! only! uncertainties;! or! in! the! past! I! experienced! a! negative! situation! of! change! (low! self!

efficacy).!!

It’s!difficult!for!the!orga!to!make!a!change!and!convince!people!about!its!necessity.!!

!

3)*HABIT.*(routines,*heuristics)*

The!difficulty!of!breaking!bad!preferences!for!familiar!actions!and!events!(habits)!and!adopting!new!styles!

indicates!how!hard!is!to!change!habits.!!

It’s!so!hard!bc!people!have!a!built]in!tendency!to!return!to!their!original!behaviors.!

!

Lewin’s'force!field'theory'of'change'(1951)'

! !

!

According!to!Lewin!forces!resistant!to!change!and!forces!which!push!the!orga!toward!changes,!are!always!

in!opposition!in!an!organization.!!

The!basic!idea!is!that!change!is!a!state!of!temporary!instability!of!a!system,!which!will!tend!to!return!to!its!

equilibrium!(homeostasis).!

The!assumptions!are!5:!

] Change!involves!learning!something!new!and!interruption!of!current!practices!

] Change!does!not!occur!in!the!absence!of!motivation!

] People!are!the!heart!of!any!form!of!change!

] Although!everyone!wants!to!change!there!will!be!a!certain!degree!of!resistance!to!change!

] To!be!effective,!change!should!be!reinforced!

!

When! the! forces! are! balances,! the! organization! is! in! a! state! of! inertia! and! does! not! change.! To! get! an!

organization! to! change,! managers! must! find! a! way! to! increase! the! forces! for! change! (driving! forces),!

reducing!resistance!(restraining!forces)!or!do!both!simultaneously.!!

Any!of!these!strategies!will!overcome!inertia!and!cause!an!organization!to!change.!!

! !

Lewin’s'three=step'change'process:'

*

An! organization! at! performance! level! P1! is! in!

balance:! forces! are! equal.! Management,!

however,! decides! that! the! organization! should!

strive!to!achieve!performance!level!P2.!!

To!get!to!P2!managers!must!increase!the!forces!

for!change,!reduce!resistance!or!both.!

The' unfreezing' stage' involves' preparing' the'

organization'to'accept'that'change'is'necessary.'

They! have! to! break! down! the! existing! status!

quo,! persuading! employees! to! agree! that! the!

status!quo!is!not!beneficial!to!them.!

Managers! have! to! develop! a! compelling! message! defining! why! the! existing! way! of! doing! things! cannot!

continue!(poor!financial!results,!worrying!customer!satisfaction!surveys).!

Important!is!create!a!(controlled)!crisis!in!order!to!build!a!strong!motivation!to!seek!out!a!new!equilibrium.!!

Make'the'change'move'the'organization'to'a'new'level'of'equilibrium:'managers!look!for!a!new!ways!t!do!

things,!by!training!their!employees.!People!need!to!understand!how!the!changes!will!benefit!them;!in!this!

stage!there!is!the!need!to!involve!powerful!leaders!that!also!support!the!change.!!

The!individual!change!curve:!!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

Refreeze' the' organization' means' that' after' the' change' has' been' implemented,' the' change' have' to' be'

sustained.'If!this!step!is!not!taken,!is!likely!that!the!change!will!be!short!lived!and!the!employees!will!revert!

to!their!old!equilibrium!(behaviors)!if!this!step!is!not!taken.!!

How!to!do!this?!

Integration! of! the! new! values! into! the! organizational! culture! and! reinforcement! of! new! patterns! and!

institutionalization! of! them! through! formal! and! informal! mechanisms! including! rewards,! policies! and!

procedures.!!

!

If!managers!pursue!any!of!the!3!strategies!successfully,!the!orga!will!change!and!reach!performance!level!

P2.!

!

For!an!organization!the!best!status!is!stability:!it!doesn’t!want!to!change,!procedures!work!better,!people!

prefer!to!stay!in!the!routine.!But!there!are!internal!and!external!forces!which!try!to!move!the!organization.!

!

Greiner’s'organizational'evolution'model'(1972)'

!

Greiner’s!position!is!that!the!future!of!an!organization!may!be!less!determined!by!outside!forces!that!it!is!by!

the! organization’s! history.! As! for! individuals,! organizational! development! is! determined! primarily! by!

previous!!events!and!experiences.!!

Two!important!definitions!are:!

] Evolution! :! used! to! describe! prolonged! periods! of! growth! where! no! major! upheaval! occurs! in!

organization!practices!

] Revolution!:!used!to!describe!those!periods!of!substantial!turmoil!in!organization!life.!!

As! a! company! progresses! through! developmental! phases,! each! evolutionary! period! creates! its! own!

revolution.! Moreover,! the! nature! of! management’s! solution! to! each! revolution! determines! whether! a!

company!will!move!forward!into!its!next!stage!of!evolutionary!growth.!!

!

There! are! at! least! 5! phases! of! organization! development,! each! characterized! by! both! an! evolution! and! a!

revolution.!!

!

Key*dimensions*in*organizational*development.**

* Age! of! the! organization:! (horizontal! axis).! The! same! organization! practices! are! not! maintained!

11

))

1 ) throughout! a! LT! span:! at! different! ages,! different! organizational! problems! arise.! The! passage! of!

time! also! contributes! to! the! institutionalization! of! managerial! attitudes,! therefore! employee!

behavior!becomes!not!only!more!predictable!but!also!more!difficult!to!change!when!attitudes!are!

outdated.!!

Population!evolutionary!theory!(1986!–!Hannan!Freeman):!the!company!is!related!to!the!period!in!

which!it!born.!You!have!problems!related!to!your!birth!and!your!adolescence.!!

!

Size!of!the!organization:!(vertical!axis)!company’s!problems!varies!when!the!nb!of!employees!and!

22

))

2 ) sales!products!increase.!When!the!size!is!increased,!problems!of!communication!and!coordination,!

new!functions,!levels!of!hierarchy!multiply.!!

Big!companies!have!different!problems!from!little!companies.!!

!

Stages!of!evolution:!firms!which!survive!a!crisis!continue!to!grow!every!4!to!8!years.!

33

))

3 ) !

Stages!of!revolution:!the!critical!task!for!management!in!each!revolutionary!period!is!to!find!a!new!

44

))

4 ) set! of! organization! practices! that! will! become! the! basis! for! managing! the! next! period! of!

evolutionary! growth.! These! new! practices! eventually! lead! to! another! period! of! revolution.!

Companies!therefore!experience!the!irony!of!seeing!a!major!solution!in!one!time!period!become!a!

date.

major!problem!at!a!later! !

!

Growth! rate! of! the! industry:! the! speed! at! which! an! organization! experiences! phases! of! evolution!

55

))

5 ) and! revolution! is! closely! related! to! the! mkt! environment! of! its! industry.! For! ex! a! company! in! an!

expanding!mkt!have!to!add!employees!rapidly.!In!fast!growing!industries!evolutionary!periods!tend!

to! be! relatively! short,! much! longer! evolutionary! periods! occur! in! mature! or! slowly! growing!

industries.!!

! !

!

Phases*of*growth.*

Each!evolutionary!period!is!characterized!by!the!domiant!management!style!used!to!achieve!growth,!while!

each! revolutionary! period! is! characterized! by! the! dominant! management! peoblem! that! must! be! solved!

before!growth!can!continue.!!

!

Companies!in!faster!g!industries!tend!to!experience!all!the!five!phases!more!rapidly,!while!those!in!slower!

growing!industries!encounter!only!2!or!3!phases!over!many!years.!!

It’s!important!to!note!that!each!phase!is!both!an!effect!of!the!previous!phase!and!a!cause!for!the!nest!

phase.!The!principal!implication!of!each!phase!is!that!management!actions!are!narrowly!prescribed!if!

growth!is!to!occur.!For!example,!a!company!experiencing!an!autonomy!crisis!in!Phase!2!cannot!return!to!

.

directive!management!for!a!solution]]it!must!adopt!a!new!style!of!delegation!in!order!to!move!ahead !

!

Phase!1)!GROWTH!THROUGH!CREATIVITY:!

' Evolution'–'focus'on'product'development'and'selling':in!the!birth!stage!of!an!orga,!we!have!to!create!

both!product!and!a!market.!The!period!of!creative!evolution!is!characterized!by!

] Company’s!founders!are!usually!technically!or!entrepreneurially!oriented,!and!they!disdain!

management!activities!(energies!are!absorbed!in!making!and!selling!a!new!product)!

] Communication!among!employees!is!frequent!and!informal!

] Long!hours!of!work!are!rewarded!by!modest!salaries!and!the!promise!of!ownership!benefits!

] Control!of!activities!comes!from!immediate!marketplace!feedback:!the!management!acts!as!the!

costumers!react.!!

! Revolution='crisis'of'leadership:'as!the!company!grows,!larger!production!runs!require!knowledge!about!

the!efficiencies!of!manufacturing.!Increased!numbers!of!employees!cannot!be!managed!only!with!informal!

communication!because!they!are!not!motivated!so.!Additional!K!must!be!secured!and!new!accounting!

procedures!are!needed!for!financial!control.!!

Thus!the!founders!find!themselves!burdened!with!unwanted!management!responsibilities.!At!this!point!a!

crisis!of!leadership!occurs.!

Therefore!a!strong!manager!is!needed!in!order!to!introduce!new!business!techniques.!But!this!manager!has!

to!be!accepted!by!the!founders.!!

!

PHASE!2:!GROWTH!THROUGH!DIRECTION:!

!

' Evolution'–'crisis'of'leadership'is'resolved'by:'after!having!survived!to!the!crisis,!a!functional!

organization!structure!is!introduced!to!separate!manufacturing!from!marketing!activities!(job!assignments!

are!!now!more!specialized).!Accounting!systems!for!inventory!and!purchasing!are!introduced;!incentives!

budgets,!works!standards!are!adopted.!Communication!is!her!more!formal!and!impersonal:!the!new!

manager!hand!his!supervisors!institute!direction,!despite!of!lower]level!supervisors!who!are!treated!as!

functional!specialists!than!as!autonomous!decision]making!managers.!!

!

'' Revolution'–'crisis'of'autonomy:'lower!level!employees!are!too!restricted!by!a!centralized!hierarchy.!

They!have!more!knowledge,!therefore!they!want!feel!between!following!procedures!and!taking!initiative!on!

their!own.!Therefore!lower!managers!require!more!autonomy.!Over!centralization!s!inappropriate!for!

controlling!a!larger,!more!diverse!and!complex!organization.!The!solution!is!creating!more!delegation!even!

if!this!is!difficult!to!accept!for!top!managers.!Therefore!they!argue!to!centralized!method!but!employees!

leave!the!organization.!

!

PHASE!3)!GROWTH!THROUGH!DELEGATION!

! Evolution:'The!organization!evolves!in!a!decentralized!one,!therefore!much!greater!responsibility!is!

given!to!the!managers!of!plants!and!mkt!territories,!profit!centers!and!bonuses!are!used!to!stimulate!

motivation,!the!top!executives!at!headquarters!restrain!themselves!to!managing!by!exception,!based!on!

periodic!reports!from!the!field,!management!often!concentrates!on!making!new!acquisitions!which!can!be!

lined!up!beside!other!decentralized!units,!communication!from!the!top!is!infrequent!usually!by!

correspondence,!phone,!brief!visits.!

Decentralized!managers!with!greater!authority!and!incentive!are!able!to!penetrate!larger!markets,!respond!

faster!to!customers!and!develop!new!products.!!

! Revolution='the'control'crisis:'a!problem!source!when!the!top!managers!feel!they!are!losing!control.!

So,!they!seek!to!regain!control!over!the!total!company!by!coordination.!!

'

PHASE!4)!COORDINATION!

!

' Evolution:'rise!of!formal!systems!for!achieving!greater!coordination.!For!example:!decentralized!

units!are!merged!into!product!groups;!formal!planning!!and!procedures!are!established!and!reviewed;!

control!is!intensified;!capital!expenditures!are!weighed!across!the!orga;!each!product!group!is!an!

investment!center;!certain!technical!functions!(data!processing)!are!centralized,!despite!of!daily!operating!

decisions!which!remain!decentralized;!stock!options!and!profit!sharing!are!used!to!encourage!identity.!!

These!changes!allow!managers!to!look!beyond!the!needs!of!their!local!units.!!

!

! Revolution='the'red'tape'crisis:'but!a!lack!of!confidence!gradually!builds!between!line!and!staff,!and!

between!headquarters!and!the!field.!Groups!criticize!the!bureaucratic!paper!system!that!has!evolved.!The!

firm!has!become!too!large!to!be!managed!through!formal!programs!and!rigid!systems.!!

!

PHASE!5)!COLLABORATION!

!

' Evolution:!this!phase!emphasize!management!action!through!teams!and!skillful!confrontation!of!

interpersonal!differences.!This!transition!is!difficult!for!the!experts!that!have!done!the!old!formal!systems!

and!for!those!managers!who!relied!on!formal!methods!for!answers.!!

Therefore!in!this!phase!a!more!flexible!and!behavioral!approach!to!management!is!created.!The!focus!is!on!

solving!problems!quickly!through!team!action,!teams!which!are!combined!across!functions!for!task!group!

activity.!!

Headquarters!staff!experts!are!reduced!in!number,!reassigned!and!combined!in!interdisciplinary!teams!to!

consult!with!fields!units.!A!matrix!type!structure!is!frequently!used!to!assemble!the!right!teams!for!

appropriate!problems;!previous!formal!systems!are!simplified!and!combined!into!single!multipurpose!

systems;!conferences!of!key!managers!are!held!frequently!to!focus!on!major!problem!issues;!educational!

programs!are!utilized!to!train!managers!in!behavioral!skills!for!achieving!better!teamwork!and!conflict!

resolution.!Finally,!real!time!information!systems!are!integrated!into!daily!decision!making,!economic!

rewards!are!geared!more!to!team!performance!than!to!individual!achievement,!experiments!in!new!

practices!are!encouraged!throughout!the!organization.!!

! 'Revolution='the'?'crisis'('crisis'of'collaboration):'this!revolution!will!center!around!the!psychological!

saturation!of!employees!who!grow!emotionally!and!physically!exhausted!by!the!intensity!of!teamwork!and!

the!pressure!for!innovative!solutions.!This!phase!will!be!solved!by!new!structure!and!programs!that!allow!

employees!to!periodically!rest,!reflect!and!revitalize!themselves.!Therefore!it!will!be!in!the!company!a!

“habit!structure”!for!getting!the!daily!work!done!and!the!“reflective”!structure!for!stimulating!perspective!

and!personal!enrichment.!Employees!can!move!towards!the!two!structures!as!their!energies!are!dissipated.!!

!

Implications*of*history.*

There!are!management!action!which!characterize!the!growth!phase.!!

A!manager!has!to!know!

] Where!he!is!in!the!development!sequence!

] Recognize!the!limited!range!of!solutions!

] Realize!that!solutions!breed!new!problems!

!

Obviously!if!there!are!5!stages!in!this!theory,!we!can!add!other!phases:!this!is!not!a!closed!system.!!

Categories'of'Change:'Evolutionary'and'revolutionary'change'in'organizations'

!

In!general,!types!of!change!fall!into!2!broad!categories:!

!

Evolutionary*change!is!gradual,!incremental!and!narrowly!focused.!It’s!not!drastic!or!sudden!but!a!constant!

attempt!to!improve,!adapt!and!adjust!strategy!and!structure!incrementally!to!accommodate!changes!taking!

place!in!the!environment.!!

Socio]technical!systems!theory!(use!the!techno!!in!a!better!way!bc!it!considers!the!social!system)!and!total!

quality!management/kaizen!(reorganize!the!work!process!are!2!instruments!of!evolutionary!change).!!

! Socio='technical'systems'theory!proposes!the!importance!of!changing!role!and!task!or!technical!

relationships!to!increase!organizational!effectiveness.!!

For! example! in! the! work! in! coal! mining! (WW! II)! productivity! depended! on! cooperation! between! team!

members:! employees! developed! their! own! routines! and! norms! to! get! the! job! done! and! provided! on!

another!with!social!support!to!help!combat!the!stress!(this!method!is!called!“hand!got!method”.!

Managers,!in!order!to!increase!productivity,!created!the!“long!wall!method”!which!utilized!a!mechanized!

mass!production!technology.!!

This! introduction! would! have! to! increase! efficiency,! but! actually! mine! efficiency! rose! only! slowly! and!

absenteeism!among!miners!increased.!!

The! reason! was! that! the! introduction! of! the! new! technology! had! destroyed! informal! norms! and! social!

support,!LT!established!relationships,!reducing!group!cohesiveness.!To!solve!the!problem!managers!had!to!

involve!the!new!technology!with!the!old!roles!and!relationships.!!

The!lesson!learned!from!socio]technical!theory!is!that!when!managers!change!task!and!role!relationships.!

they!must!gradually!adjust!the!technical!and!social!systems!so!that!group!norms!and!cohesiveness!arc!not!

disrupted.!By!taking!a!gradual!approach!like!this.!an!orga!can!avoid!group]level!resistance!to!change.!

!

! Total'Quality'Management'(TQM)!or'kaizen!is!an!ongoing!and!constant!effort!by!all!of!an!

organization’s!functions!to!find!new!ways!to!improve!the!quality!of!the!orga’s!goods!and!services.!!

Once!TQM!is!adopted!by!an!orga,!it!generally!leads!to!continuous,!incremental!change,!and!all!functions!are!

expected!to!cooperate!with!each!other!to!improve!quality.!!

It!has!been!first!applied!by!Japanese:!quality!circles!were!groups!of!employees!who!met!regularly!to!discuss!

the!way!work!was!performed!in!order!to!find!new!ways!to!improve!performance.!!

TQM!include!altering!the!design!or!type!of!machines!used!to!assemble!products!and!reorganizing!the!

sequence!of!an!organization’s!activities!to!provide!better!service!to!customers.!But!even!change!cross!

functional!relationships!to!help!improve!quality!is!very!important.!For!this!reason!TQM!is!between!technical!

and!social!systems.!!

TQM!and!kaizen!can!help!increase!product!quality,!lower!costs,!can!affect!org’s!responsiveness!to!its!

customers.!

Even!if!more!and!more!companies!are!embracing!the!TQM,!some!of!them!have!founded!that!implementing!

it!is!difficult!bc!it!requires!managers!and!employees!to!look!in!a!different!ways!to!their!roles.!

Managers!must!be!willing!to!decentralize!decision!making,!empower!employees!and!become!facilitators!

rather!than!supervisors!Employees!have!to!share!the!TQM!programs.!!

One!reason!of!failure!is!given!by!the!fact!that!managers!underestimate!the!degree!of!commitment!from!

people!at!all!levels!in!an!organization!necessary!to!implement!the!program.!A!second!reason!is!the!lT!frame!

necessary!to!obtain!results!

!

Some! orga,! need! to! make! major! changes! quickly.! Faced! with! drastic,! unexpected! changes! in! the!

environment! or! with! an! impelling! disaster! resulting! from! mismanagement,! an! orga! might! have! to! act!

quickly!and!decisively.!In!this!case…!

!

Revolutionary*change*is!rapid,!dramatic,!broadly!focused.!!

It!results!in!a!radical!shift!in!ways!of!doing!things,!new!goals!and!a!new!structure!for!the!organization.!!

The!process!has!repercussions!at!all!levels!in!the!organization.!

Reengineering,!restructuring,!innovation!are!3!important!instruments!of!revolutionary!change.!!

!

! Reengineering!is!the!fundamental!rethinking!and!radical!redesign!of!business!processes!to!achieve!

dramatic!improvements!inc!ritical,!contemporary!measures!of!performance!such!as!costs,!quality,!service!

and!speed.!!

Instead!of!focusing!on!an!organization’s!functions,!the!managers!of!a!reengineered!organization!focus!on!

business!processes!(ex!Toyota!reengineered!its!car!development!and!process).!!

A! business! process! is! an! activity! (order! processing,! inventory! control,! product! design)! vital! to! the! quick!

delivery!of!goods!and!services!to!customers,!or!a!process!that!promotes!high!quality!or!low!costs.!Business!

processes!are!not!the!responsibility!of!one!function,!but!they!involve!activities!across!functions.!!

The! reengineering! process! starts! by! asking! customers! what! they! think! about! their! product! and! continues!

after!with!changes!in!the!activities.!Generally!it!involves!also!job!enlargement!and!enrichment.!Individual!

jobs! become! increasingly! complex! and! people! are! grouped! into! crossfunctional! teams! as! business!

processes!are!reengineered!to!reduce!costs!and!increase!quality.!!

Reengineering! and! TQM! are! interrelated! :! after! the! process,! TQM! takes! place! in! order! to! continue! the!

change.!!

(example:! Hallmark! starts! to! analyze! the! competition,! interior! activities,! the! way! it! was! developing,!

distributing!and!marketing!its!cards;!what!it!found!it!was!a!desperate!need!for!change.!Hallmark!changed!to!

a!cross!functional!team!structure:!people!from!different!functions!as!artists,!writers,!editors,!were!grouped!

into!teams!responsible!for!producing!a!specific!kind!of!card,!such!as!Xmas!cards,!get!well!cards.!!

E]engineering!has!been!coined!to!refer!to!companies’!attempts!to!use!all!kinds!of!information!systems!to!

improve!their!performances.!!

!

! Restructuring! is! used! when! orga! experience! a! deterioration! of! performance.! It! usually! attempt! to!

simplify! its! organizational! structure! by! eliminating! divisions,! departments,! levels! in! the! hierarchy,!

downsizing!employees!to!lower!operating!costs.!!

It!also!contracts!with!other!companies!to!perform!its!manufacturing,!customer!service!and!other!functional!

activities.!!

Why!does!restructuring!become!necessary?!

Sometimes! an! unforeseen! change! in! the! environment! occurs:! shift! in! technology,! worldwide! recession!

which!reduces!dd,!the!dd!changes.!!

Restructuring,!like!the!other!strategies!of!change,!generates!resistance*to*change:*employees!may!resist!for!

ex.!

!

! Innovation' :! restructuring! is! often! necessary! bc! the! dd! make! the! products! obsolete.! Innovation! is!

using! skills! and! resources! to! create! new! techno! or! new! goods.! For! example! advanced! technology! has!

increased! the! way! to! introduces! computer! and! it! has! changed! what! the! customer! want.! If! organizations!

want!to!compete!in!this!market!they!have!to!incorporate!innovation!of!technologies.!!

Innovation,! is! the! successful! use! of! skills! and! resources! to! create! new! technologies! or! new! goods! and!

services!so!that!an!org!can!change!and!better!respond!to!the!needs!of!customers.!!

Innovation!can!result!in!spectacular!success:!Apple!Computer.!!

Although! innovation! does! bring! about! change,! it! is! also! associated! with! a! high! level! of! risk! because! the!

outcomes!of!research!and!development!activities!are!often!uncertain.!!

Innovation!is!one!of!the!most!difficult!instrument!of!change!to!manage.!When!orga!rely!on!innovation!as!

the!source!of!their!competitive!advantage,!they!need!to!adopt!organic,!flexible!structures!such!as!matrix!or!

crossfunctional! team! structures! giving! employees! the! freedom! to! experiment! and! be! creative.! Support!

creativity!is!necessary.!!

Many!high!tech!organizations!have!developed!the!role!of!product!champion,!an!expert!manager!appointed!

to!head!a!new!product!team!and!see!a!new!product!from!its!inception!sale.!!

!

Organization'development'

!

Organization!development!(OD)!is!a!series!of!techniques!and!methods!that!managers!can!use!in!their!action!

research! program! to! increase! the! adaptability! of! their! organization.! Bennis! states! that! is! a! “complez!

educational!strategy!intended!to!change!beliefs,!attitudes,!values,!structure!so!that!they!can!better!adapt!

the!new!techno,!mkts,!challenges,!the!rate!of!change!itself”.!!

The!goal!of!OD!is!to!improve!organizational!effectiveness!and!help!people!reach!their!potential!and!realize!

their!goals.!!

As! action! research! proceeds,! managers! need! to! unfreeze,! change,! refreeze! manager’s! and! employee’s!

attitudes!and!behaviors:!OD!help!managers!in!this.!!

!

OD*techniques*to*deal*with*resistance*to*change.**

Resistance!occurs!at!all!levels!of!the!orga:!it!manifests!itself!as!organizational!politics!and!power!struggles!

between!individuals!and!groups,!differing!perceptions!of!the!need!for!change.!!

!

Tactics!in!order!to!reduce!the!resistance!include!:!

! !

!

! 1. Education!and!communication:!through!education!and!communication,!internal!an!external!agents!

of!change!can!inform!members!of!the!organization!about!the!change!and!how!it!will!affect!them.!!

Communication!can!arrive!through!formal!group!meetings,!by!memo,!one]on]one!meetings,!email,!

videoconferencing.!!

! 2. Participation! and! empowerment:! inviting! employees! to! participate! in! the! change! process.!

Participation! is! completed! by! empowerment! by! which! it’s! increased! the! involvement! in! decision!

making!and!giving!them!greater!autonomy!to!change!their!procedures.!!

In!order!to!encourage!skills!and!talents!orga!open!up!their!books!to!show!the!financial!condition.!!

Participation!and!empowerment!are!2!key!elements!of!TQM!programs.!!

! 3. Facilitation:!an!organization!can!care!about!its!employees!by!managing!their!stress.!It!can!provide!

them! with! training! to! help! them! learn! new! tasks,! allow! them! time! off! from! work! to! recuperate!

from!the!stressful!effects!of!change.!Apple!for!example!give!their!most!talented!programmers!time!

off!to!dedicate!new!kinds!of!products.!!

4. Many! companies! employ! psychologists! and! consultants! to! help! employees! handle! the! stress!

associated! with! change.! During! restructuring! consultants! are! hired! in! order! to! help! employees! to!

manage!the!change!in!work.!

! 5. Bargaining!and!negotiation:!are!tools!that!help!managers!manage!conflict.!Managers!use!bargain!to!

help!different!people!and!groups!negotiate!their!future!tasks!and!roles!and!reach!compromises!that!

will!lead!them!to!accept!change.!!

Negotiation! helps! individuals! and! groups! understand! how! change! will! affect! others! so! that! the!

organization!as!a!whole!can!develop!a!common!perspective!on!why!change!is!taking!place!and!why!

it’s!important.!!

! 6. Manipulation:! it! is! used! in! order! to! secure! the! agreement! about! the! results! of! the! change!

processes.!Powerful!managers!have!considerable!ability!to!resists!change!and!in!large!organizations!

infighting!among!divisions!can!slow!or!halt!the!change!process!unless!it!is!carefully!managed.!!

Politics! and! political! tactics! like! cooptation! and! building! alliances! become! important! as! ways! of!

overcoming!the!opposition!of!powerful!functions!and!divisions!that!feel!threatened!by!the!changes!

taking!place.!!

! 7. Coercion:! the! ultimate! way! to! eliminate! resistance! to! change! is! to! coerce! the! key! players! into!

accepting!change!and!threaten!dire!consequences!if!they!choose!to!resist.!!

People!can!be!threatened!with!reassignment,!demotion,!termination!if!they!resist.!!

Top!managers!can!use!its!power!to!do!it.!!

The! adv! of! coercion! is! the! speed! at! which! change! takes! place! but! the! disav! is! that! it! can! leave!

people!angry!and!disenchanted!and!can!make!the!refreezing!process!difficult.!!

Managers!should!not!underestimate!the!level!of!resistance.!

!

!

The'videotape'of'the'Angry'Customer'

!

Why!the!videotape!works?!!

] It’s!the!customer!point!of!view!and!not!the!manager!point!of!view!

] Information!that!hit!the!emotions!(What?!Wow!)!

] Very!concrete,!visual!info!(not!intangible!data,…)!

] Credibility!

] Non!verbal!

] Image!

] Group! which! involves! everybody:! they! make! a! lot! of! meetings! in! order! to! show! the! video.! It’s! a!

change!that!involves!all!the!people,!the!majority.!!

Kotter’s'change'management'model'

!

Kotter! is! a! consultant,! Harvard! University.! He! said! that! change! is! something! with! happen! continue! in! a!

company.!It’s!possible!to!follow!all!the!steps!to!arrive!to!a!successful!change,!but!it’s!possible!also!not!to!

follow!all!of!them.!

There!are!8!steps.!

You!can!move!backward!or!forward.!You!cannot!skip!them!in!fact!you!have!to!pass!through.!!

! 1. Establishing*a*sense*of*urgency**

The! heart! is! the! urgency! to! change:! people! have! to! feel! with! urgency! the! necessity! to! change.! Therefore!

you!need!a!crisis!but!not!necessarily!a!big!crisis.!The!crisis!for!example!can!be!the!videotape,!it!can!be!not!

revolutionary,!it!can!be!for!example!a!complaint.!

In!this!point!of!crisis,!you!see!the!opportunity!of!change.!!

It’s!important!the!communication!and!leadership.!It’s!a!dramatic!communication,!not!linked!to!rationality!

but! to! emotions.! People! have! to! show! their! negative! emotions! in! relation! to! the! company.! Without!

motivation,!people!won’t!help!and!the!effort!goes!nowhere.!!

He!shows!also!the!opportunities/possibilities!for!people!to!gain!something!in!the!future.!!

!

What'does'not'work'when'you'try'people'to'change?'

Executives!sometimes!underestimate!how!hard!it!can!be!to!drive!people!out!of!their!comfort!zones,!they!

lack!patience,!they!are!scared!from!the!defensiveness!of!senior!employees!(paralyzed!senior!management).!

Transformation!often!begins!with!a!new!head,!which!is!essential!if!we!are!talking!about!an!entire!company!

renovation!(CEO),!the!renovation!of!a!division!(division!manager)!

It! doesn’t! work! use! the! rational! part:! show! number,! reports! it! doesn’t! work.! Precise! number! don’t! move!

you!out.!To!create!the!urgency!of!change!is!not!sufficient!giving!a!vision:!when!the!boss!give!you!the!vision!

and!said!you!to!change,!you!won’t!change.!!

You! have! to! understand! the! importance! of! change,! the! problems.! You! can’t! ignore! a! lack! of! urgency! and!

jump!immediately!to!creating!a!vision!and!strategy.!!

2. Build*a*powerful*guiding*team*

You! have! to! create! a! group,! a! team,! because! alone! you! cannot! obtain! what! you! want.! The! coalition! is!

always!pretty!powerful.!!

Sometimes!this!starts!from!a!person!who!feels!the!sense!of!change,!but!then!people!is!involved.!!

A!relevant'knowledge!is!fundamental.!

Credibility'is!important!too:!support!a!group!with!a!sponsorship.!Other!people!have!to!understand!that!in!

the!group!there!is!credible!people.!

Internal' valid' information! is! important:! it’s! essential! for! removing! the! barriers! that! disempower! people!

from!acting!on!the!vision.!!

Formal'authority!is!a!good!point!in!order!to!obtain!a!change.!!

Finally!the!leadership'skills!associated!with!vision,!communication!and!motivation!is!important!as!well.!!

The!team!is!to!3!from!5!people.!If!you!enter!in!the!group!you!are!not!forced!to!stay!in!there!until!the!change!

is!achieved,!the!group!can!change.!People!interested!in!the!same!team!when!they!are!interested!about!the!

same!change.!!

A!powerful!coalition!is!able!to!create!other!groups:!people!in!different!part!of!the!orga,!with!different!skills,!

etc.!!

The!idea!is!to!empower!people!around.!

!

What'doesn’t'work?'

In!this!stage!is!the!fact!that!you!create!a!group!through!formal!procedures:!it’s!a!spontaneous!process.!In!

the! initial! phases! if! there! are! resistant! you! have! to! overcome! them.! Sometimes! in! this! process! you! leave!

apart!some!people.!!

Therefore!what!to!do?!You!can!leave!a!people!out!or!involve!the!powerful!people.!Give!them!some!tasks!or!

responsibility.!

! 3. Developing*a*vision*and*strategy*

After,!you!start!with!a!vision!or!a!strategy.!Only!on!the!third!step!you!create!this.!You!have!to!create!the!

vision!of!the!change.!Then,!you!develop!strategy!to!reach!the!vision.!Sometimes!the!first!vision!comes!from!

a!unique!individual.!!

An!effective!vision!is!

] Imaginable:!conveys!a!picture!of!what!the!future!will!look!like!

] Desirable:!appeals!to!the!LT!interests!of!employees,!customers,!stakeholders!

] Feasible:!comprises!realistic,!attainable!goals!

] Focused:!is!clear!enough!to!provide!guidance!in!decision!making!

] Flexible.! Is! It! general! enough! to! allow! individual! initiative! and! alternative! responses! in! light! of!

changing!condition.!!

] Communicable:!is!easy!to!communicate,!can!be!successfully!explained!within!5!minutes.!!

!

About!the!vision,!what!does!not!work?!

Vision! related! to! costs,! being! analytic,! financial! related.! Visions! of! slashing! costs! can! be! emotionally!

depressing!and!anxiety!creating.!!

In!failed!transformations!you!often!find!plenty!of!plans,!directives!and!programs!but!not!vision.!!

! 4. Communicating*the*change*vision*

The! fourth! step! is! to! communicate! the! change! vision.! For! example! you! can! have! pictures,! you! can! have!

stories,! posters,! at! every! pc! the! image! on! the! desktop.! It’s! important! because! you! have! to! think! to!

keywords,!bc!people!aligned!to!this!change.!!

People’s!reactions!to!change!may!be:!“I!don’t!see!why!we!need!to!change!that!much”,!“they! don’t!know!

what!they’re!doing”!etc.!Therefore!the!cynics!goes!up!and!the!communication!goes!down.!!

Leading! change! is! usually! impossible! unless! large! numbers! of! people! are! willing! to! help:! how?!

Organizational!newsletters,!quarterly!management!meetings,!use!every!possible!channel,!especially!those!

that!are!being!wasted!on!non!essential!information.!!

Key!elements!in!communicating!vision!are!related!to!culture.!The!culture!is!the!most!typical!part!to!change.!

In!order!to!communicate!the!vision!start!with!a!superficial!part!of!the!culture.!!

When! we! communicate! the! vision! we! have! to! remember! to! create! a! simple! message,! not! jargon! nor!

technobabble.!Use!metaphor,!analogy!and!example!is!better!than!use!thousand!empty!words.!!

The!firm!can!create!forums!(big!meetings,!small!meetings,!memos,!newspapers,!formal/informal!meetings)!

and! it! has! to! remember! that! the! repetition! of! the! message! is! fundamental! because! more! than! once! is!

better.!Only!one!meeting!is!not!sufficient.!!

There!is!also!a!part!of!communication!related!to!the!leadership,!in!the!sense!that!it!has!to!be!coherent!with!

the!message!it!communicates.!Walk!the!talk!=!behave!in!the!same!way!as!I’m!telling!to!people;!to!show!a!

good!example!is!important.!Finally!we!can!use!also!“give!and!take”,!two!way!communication!is!always!more!

powerful!and!one!way!communication.!!

!

What'does'not'work?'

Undercommunicating,! which! happens! all! the! time;! speaking! as! though! you! are! only! transferring!

information!undermines!communication!which!have!to!be!down!in!every!action,!day!per!day;!accidentally!

fostering!cynicism!by!not!walking!the!talk.!!

Transformation!is!impossible!unless!hundreds!or!thousands!of!people!are!willing!to!help.!!

5. Empowering*broad*based*action*(removing*obstacles*to*the*new*vision)*

Renewal!also!requires!the!removal!of!obstacles:!changing!systems!or!structures!that!undermine!the!change!

vision!are!two!important!points.!!

The!obstacles!can!be!the!head!of!people,!the!organizational!structure!(ex.!Payment!structure,..)!

Moreover! the! firm! have! to! find! individuals! with! change! experience! who! can! bolster! people’s! self!

confidence! with! we]won]you]can]too! anecdotes,! recognize! and! reward! systems! that! inspire,! promote!

optimism,!build!self!confidence.!!

Finally!feedback!that!can!help!people!make!better!vision]related!decisions!have!to!be!made.!!

!

What'does'not'working?'

Some!bosses!can!resist!to!the!change,!they!are!contrary!therefore!they!don’t!manage!the!change.!After,!it’s!

not!working!to!remove!all!the!barriers!at!once,!bc!we!have!to!face!them!in!every!situation!which!presents.!!

! 6. Generating*ST*wins*

One!problem!that!Kotter!suggests!us!is!that!during!the!process!you!feel!discouraged.!Therefore!short!terms!

wins!are!very!important!bc!show!you!that!you!are!able!to!achieve!something.!Short!terms!wins!are!not!the!

entire!change,!maybe!just!a!celebration,!but!it!increases!self!confidence!on!people.!!

Creating!ST!wins!is!different!from!hoping!for!ST!wins:!the!latter!is!passive,!the!former!active.!!

The!firm!has!to!generate!ST!wins!that!come!fast,!small!but!as!well!visible,!penetrate!emotional!defenses!by!

being!unambiguous,!meaningful!to!others,!speak!to!powerful!players!whose!support!your!need!and!do!not!

yet!have,!can!be!achieved!cheaply!and!easily!even!if!they!seem!small!compared!with!the!grand!vision.!!

They!are!used!to!show!that!we!are!moving!to!the!change.!But!it!doesn’t!work!to!comprehend!a!big!thing,!

providing!the!first!win!too!slowly.!Most!people!will!not!go!on!the!long!march!unless!they!see!compelling!

evidence! within! 12! to! 42! months! that! the! journey! is! producing! expected! results! (increase! in! quality!

indicators,!increase!in!mkt!share).!If!we!do!not!improve!ST!wins,!the!sense!of!urgency!starts!to!decrease.!!

The!firm!has!to!remember!to!keep!the!urgency!level!up!and!to!recognize/reward!employees!involved!in!the!

improvement.!!

!

What'does'not'work?'

After!a!while!people!become!tired.!In!the!organization!they!talk!about!the!change!but!they!have!also!other!

things!to!do.!In!the!final!part!of!the!change!it’s!possible!to!come!back!to!their!normal!habits.!!

Moreover!we!don’t!have!to!launch!fifty!projects!at!once,!providing!the!first!win!too!slowly!and!stretching!

the!truth.!!

! 7. Reinforce*the*change*(not*declaring*victory*too*soon)!

Until!change!sinks!in!deeply!into!a!company’s!culture,!which!can!require!years,!new!approaches!are!fragile!

and!subject!to!regression.!Typically,!the!problems!start!early!in!the!process:!the!urgency!level!is!not!intese!

enough,!the!guiding!coalition!is!not!powerful!enough,!the!vision!is!not!clear!enough.!!

What!we!have!to!do!is!to!use!increased!credibility!to!change!systems,!structures!and!policies!that!don’t!fit.!

Leaders!go!after!systems!and!structures!that!are!not!consistent!with!the!transformation!vision!and!have!not!

been!confronted!before.!They!pay!great!attention!to!who!is!promoted,!who!is!hired!and!how!people!are!

developed.!They!include!new!reengineering!projects!that!are!even!bigger!in!scope!than!the!initial!ones.!!

!

What'is'not'working?'

Thinking!about!a!5!years!plan,!that!you!have!to!push!people!not!to!run!out!of!the!plan.!!

Furthermore!you!convince!yourself!that!you!can!get!the!job!done,!without!confronting!some!of!the!more!

embedded! bureaucratic! and! political! behaviors.! Finally! working! so! hard! you! physically! and! emotionally!

collapse.!

* 8. Institutionalizing* new*

approaches*

In! the! final! step! it’s! time! to! make!

the! new! values! part! of! the!

organization,! changing! more! than!

the! superficial! part.! Trying! to!

change! the! inside! part! of! people!

must! have! a! basis! in! the!

organization.!!

Using! new! employee! orientation,!

the! firm! recruits! what! the!

organization!really!cares!about.!We!

place! people! through! the!

promotion!process.!

Finally! we! articulate! the!

connections! between! the! new!

behaviors! and! organizational!

progress/success! by! showing! that!

the!new!approaches,!behaviors!and!

attitudes! have! helped! improve!

performance.!!

!

What'does'not'work?'

Relying! on! a! boss! or! a!

compensation!scheme,!or!anything!

but!culture,!to!hold!a!big!change!in!

place.!!

Trying!to!change!culture!as!the!first!

step!in!the!transformation!process.!!

! !

!

This! 8! points! vision,! still! be!

simplistic.!!

LESSON&10:&MANAGING&ORGANIZATIONAL&CHANGE&AND&CRISIS&

! !

!

Squares!=!human!errors!

Triangles!=!not!related!to!human!errors!

All! small! mistakes! don’t! happen! alone.! The! point! is! not! to! solve! the! mistake,! but! to! prepare! the!

organization!in!order!to!avoid!small!problems.!!

Elements:!human!elements!and!chain!of!mistakes.!!

In!our!daily!world!we!plan!and!think!things!through:!the!activity!is!straightforward!–!have!some!coffee,!get!

in!the!car,!drive!to!the!meeting,!provide!input.!One!could!expect!keys!to!be!linked!to!using!the!car,!but!a!

cracked!coffeepot!to!using!the!car?!Taxi!alternative!to!a!bus!contract!dispute?!These!interactions!were!not!

in!our!design.!!

!

Accident,&incident,&near&misses&

!

Difference! between! accident! and! incident.! Accident! is! bigger! than! incident;! it! results! from! an! injury,! ill!

health!or!property.!!

An(incident!is!smaller!and!not!for!sure!related!to!a!final!damage,!it’s!unplanned.!

Both!of!them!cause!something,!consequences!that!can!be!closer!to!the!mistakes!or!far!in!the!future.!!

In!these!two!elements!both!human!and!environmental/technical!elements!are!together.!Moreover!the!aim!

were!not!that!of!producing!a!damage!and!not!due!to!irrational!behaviors.!

We!are!talking!about!something!that!you!cannot!forecast!and!not!about!legality.!This!is!the!problem!that!

we!are!considering.!!

!

Near( misses:! if! you! move! your! bicycle! ten! cm! an! accident! can! happen! but! at! the! end! nothing! happen.!

Therefore!in!near!misses,!nothing!happen!at!the!end.!

For! example:! a! hammer! fell! of! the! table! (incident),! it! has! fell! near! to! a! worker’s! feet! (near! miss),! the!

hammer!fell!on!the!worker’s!feet!(accident).!!

!


PAGINE

110

PESO

7.78 MB

PUBBLICATO

+1 anno fa


DETTAGLI
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in Business Administration
SSD:
Università: Padova - Unipd
A.A.: 2014-2015

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher marco.businessman di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Organizational Behavior e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Padova - Unipd o del prof Gianecchini Martina.

Acquista con carta o conto PayPal

Scarica il file tutte le volte che vuoi

Paga con un conto PayPal per usufruire della garanzia Soddisfatto o rimborsato

Recensioni
Ti è piaciuto questo appunto? Valutalo!