Che materia stai cercando?

Anteprima

ESTRATTO DOCUMENTO

Kade’s criteria

Otto Kade - professor at the University of

Leipzig in the 1960s

the source text is presented only once and

 thus cannot be reviewed ;

the target utterance is produced under

 time presssure with no chance for revision

or correction.

Interpreting

is a form of translation in which the

first and final rendition in another

language is produced orally on the basis

one-time presentation

of a of an

utterance in a source-language.

Earliest inter-social settings

Trade, exchange of goods

 Political relations between separate

 cultural communities,for example,

diplomatic/military relations

Earliest intra-personal setting

In multi-ethnic socio-political entities,

such as the Roman Empire,

different linguistic communities

needed to communicate within the

institutions of government.

Interpreters were needed to ensure

that even those who did not speak

the language of the authorities could

be held responsible under the law.

First official provision for the

presence of courtroom interpreters

was made in Spain in the 16th

century.

modernday multi-ethnic

society

interpreters are essential in many

community relations

fields of :

healthcare, immigration,

employment, education, the law and

justice system

Forms of Interaction

bilatareal

multilateral

Bilateral interaction

three-party interaction:

 a bilingual interpreter

 assumes the pivotal role between

two monolingual clients.

liaison interpreting; community

 interpreting

Multilateral interaction

a one-to-many form of interaction

 one interpreter produces target utterance

 for many listeners

conference interpreting

 Conference Interpreting

began in the early 20th century with

Paris Peace Conference 0f 1919 and

the League of Nations

and has become increasingly more

important because of the

European Economic Community

Working modes

in conference interpreting

Consecutive

 Simultaneous

 Whispered (chuchotage)

 Sight translation

 Consecutive interpreting

Interpreter listens to about 10 mintues of

source language utterance, during which

time he is taking notes. At the end of the

ten minutes he immediately gives the

target language version.

CONSECUTIVE INTERPRETING

The most important aspect of consecutive

 interpreting is concentration. The tiniest

slip in concentration can be fatal.

Therefore you need to make sure that

there is nothing which impairs your full

concentration during the sessions.

CONSECUTIVE INTERPRETING

Since the interpreter will be in full view of

 an entire international gathering

appropriate clothing is very important.

Interpreter’s note-taking skills must be of

 a very high standatrd because there is no

chance for revision.

What is note taking?

Note-taking is a method of recording

 information heard.

It is largely non-language specific

 It often consists of little “pictures” which

 convey an idea rather than an individual

word. What is note-taking?

It is an aid for the interpreter’s memory

 but it does not replace listening.

Consecutive interpreters must learn to

 listen carefully while they are taking

notes

Simultaneous Interpreting

definition

Simultaneous interpreting is given

 alondside of the origianl utterance

While the speaker continues his speech

 the interpreter begins delivering the target

language version.

The amount of time between the source

 utterance and the interpreter’s utterance

is called the “

décalage ”

What does the simultaneous

interpreter do?

Taking in and memorising information

 Transferring the information into the other

 language

Rendering

 Taking in and memorising new information

 Simultaneous intepreting

Equiptment used

Simultaneous interpreting

Interpreters work in a sound-proof booth

 with headsets.

They listen to the speaker and

 simultaneously translate what he is saying

into a microphone.

Only a few seconds pass between hearing

 and giving the utterance in the target

language.

Simultaneous interpreting without

equptment

In situations where there is no equiptment

 interpreters may engage in ‘whispered

interpreting’ which is also called

‘chucotage’

The interpreter sits just to the side of the

 person for whom he is interpreting, listens

to the source language utterance and then

whispers the target language version into

that person’s ear.

Simultaneous interpreting –sight

translation

Another form of simultaneous interpreting

 is sight translation.

The interpreter is called upon to read and

 simultaneously translate a document

which he is seeing for the first time.

Simultaneous interpreting

Conference interpreters who are working

 simultaneously are sometimes given a

written copy of the speaker’s speech as an

aid to their interpretation.

This can be helpful but the interpreter

 should be aware that speakers often

change what they have planned to say,

add other remarks or shorten their

speech.

The working modes of conference

interpreting are:

C……………

 S……………

 W…………..

 S…………….

 Language directionality

The AIIC (Association des Interprètes de

 Conference or

International Association of Conference

 interpreters)

has established a number of guidelines

regarding the ways in which conference

interpreters should be employed depending on

their levels of language proficiency.

A’ language = mother tongue or best

active langage.

B’ language = active language commanded

with near-native proficiency.

C’ language = passive language allowing

complete understanding.

Western tradition of conference

interpreting

An interpretor listens to utterances in his B

 or C language and then gives them in his

A language.

This means the target language version is

 always given by a mother tongue speaker

Retour interpreting

Occasionally in smaller international

 gatherings and interpreter will be asked to

translate from B or C into A and then back

again from A into B.

This type of interpreting is called RETOUR

 Interpreting.

Relay interpreting

Where there are no A interpreters for a

 particular language the source utterance

is sometimes interpreted into an

INTERMEDIATE language first.

This method was often used in the ex

 U.S.S.R. For example, a source utterance

in Bulgarian is first given in Russian and

then in the target language, Czech

Relay directionality

An A speaker of Russian who is a B or C

 speaker of Bulgarian renders the source

utterance into Russian and then

An A speaker of Czech who is a B or C

 speaker of Russian renders the utterance

in Czech

PROBLEMS WITH RELAY

There is a greater chance for inaccuracy

since the original utterance passes

through two interpretive processes rather

than one.

Review questions

What does the word ‘dragoman’ mean?

 Where was interpreting first regulated by

 govenment authorities?

What is multilateral interpreting?

 Explain the difference between

 simultaneous and consecutive interpreting.

What is décalage?

 Mediazione lingua inglese I

Introduction to interpreting

Origins

Ancient human practice that pre-dates

 writing

The word ‘dragoman’ can be traced back

 to 1200 b.c. = ‘one who interprets’

Greek word hermeneus means mediator

 or go-between.

Latin interpres means one who mediates

 betweeen people

dragoman

An interpreter or guide in countries where

Arabic, Turkish, or Persian is spoken.

Middle English dragman

Old French drugeman

Medieval Latin: dragumannus

Medieval Greek: dragoumanos

Arabic: tarjuman

Hebrew: targ ûm

dragoman

herm êneus

Hermes

messenger, go-between,

negotiator,mediator, bargainer, deal

broker, middle-man.

interpres

The Latin word ‘interpres’

inter’ between

pres’ catch, grasp, lay hold of

(understand)

definitions of interpreting

Conventional dictionary defintition as ‘oral

 translation’ is inadequate since it excludes

sign language, sight translation and live

sub-titling. Kade’s criteria

Otto Kade - professor at the University of

Leipzig in the 1960s

the source text is presented only once and

 thus cannot be reviewed ;

the target utterance is produced under

 time presssure with no chance for revision

or correction.

Interpreting

is a form of translation in which the

first and final rendition in another

language is produced orally on the basis

one-time presentation

of a of an

utterance in a source-language.

Earliest inter-social settings

Trade, exchange of goods

 Political relations between separate

 cultural communities,for example,

diplomatic/military relations

Earliest intra-personal setting

In multi-ethnic socio-political entities,

such as the Roman Empire,

different linguistic communities

needed to communicate within the

institutions of government.

Interpreters were needed to ensure

that even those who did not speak

the language of the authorities could

be held responsible under the law.

First official provision for the

presence of courtroom interpreters

was made in Spain in the 16th

century.

modernday multi-ethnic

society

interpreters are essential in many

community relations

fields of :

healthcare, immigration,

employment, education, the law and

justice system

Forms of Interaction

bilatareal

multilateral

Bilateral interaction

three-party interaction:

 a bilingual interpreter

 assumes the pivotal role between

two monolingual clients.

liaison interpreting; community

 interpreting

Multilateral interaction

a one-to-many form of interaction

 one interpreter produces target utterance

 for many listeners

conference interpreting

 Conference Interpreting

began in the early 20th century with

Paris Peace Conference 0f 1919 and

the League of Nations

and has become increasingly more

important because of the

European Economic Community

Working modes

in conference interpreting

Consecutive

 Simultaneous

 Whispered (chuchotage)

 Sight translation

 Consecutive interpreting

Interpreter listens to about 10 mintues of

source language utterance, during which

time he is taking notes. At the end of the

ten minutes he immediately gives the

target language version.

CONSECUTIVE INTERPRETING

The most important aspect of consecutive

 interpreting is concentration. The tiniest

slip in concentration can be fatal.

Therefore you need to make sure that

there is nothing which impairs your full

concentration during the sessions.


PAGINE

132

PESO

4.72 MB

AUTORE

flaviael

PUBBLICATO

+1 anno fa


DESCRIZIONE APPUNTO

Appunti di Inglese I nella materia di Lingua e letteratura inglese. Nello specifico gli argomenti trattati sono i seguenti: Ancient human practice that pre-dates writing, The word ‘dragoman’ can be traced back to 1200 b.c. = ‘one who interprets’, Greek word hermeneus means mediator or go-between, ecc.


DETTAGLI
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea in mediazione linguistica e comunicazione interculturale
SSD:
A.A.: 2013-2014

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher flaviael di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Lingua e letteratura inglese e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Gabriele D'Annunzio - Unich o del prof Marchetti Leo.

Acquista con carta o conto PayPal

Scarica il file tutte le volte che vuoi

Paga con un conto PayPal per usufruire della garanzia Soddisfatto o rimborsato

Recensioni
Ti è piaciuto questo appunto? Valutalo!

Altri appunti di Lingua e letteratura inglese

Traduzione testi e frasi, Lettorato di lingua inglese
Esercitazione
Lingua e Letteratura Inglese - Romanticismo
Appunto
Letteratura inglese
Appunto
Lingua e Letteratura Inglese – linguistica generale
Appunto