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TEXT 1

HUMAN ANATOMY

Human Anatomy can be defined as the study of structures of organisms,

while Pathology is the study of the nature and cause of disease which

involves changes in structure and function.

The study of different organs and tissues necessitates a number of sepa-

rate branches of investigation. The study of separate systems without li-

mitation to one region of the body is called sistematic anatomy.

Anatomy is the study of the sizes,forms ,positions and relationship of the

various parts of the human body. The study of how disease affects these

parts of the body constitutes pathology.

Parts of the body

words : forms/ content

outer/ inner

upper part / lower part

right side/ left side

sound /sick

strong/ weak strenght/ weakness

To define / to describe / to identify

to compare /to contrast / to draw a parallel between

A standard approach is that of systematic anatomy, through which

the various structures are grouped and treated according to the natural

system into which they fall. Thus the account deals with

osteology ( bones)

arthrology (joints)

myology (muscles)

angiology (heart and vessels)

splanchnology ( visceral organs)

neurology (nervous system and sense organs)

Similarly, under microscopic anatomy, several subgroups are recog-

nized:

organology :deals with the architectural plan and arrangements with the

various organs of the body;

histology : describes the building materials that enter into the compo-

sition of these organs ; such aggregations of specialized cells

are tissues ,of which epithelium, connective tissue, muscle

are examples; cytology is the study of the structure of the actual

cells which are the ultimate building units of all tissues.

THE SKELETON

The skeleton has three main functions:

1. to bear the weight of the body and keep it from falling

2. to keep the body safe and help protect it from injury

3. to provide the framework on which muscles can act to initiate

movement.

a. Skeletal tissues are hard substances formed by living cells. Frequen-

tly they contain non-living mineral matters such as calcium salts.

The structures made of such non-living material can neverthless

grow and change as a result of the activities of living cells which

dissolve away and replace the hard material.

b. the function of the skeleton can be grouped conveniently under the

headings: support, protection, locomotion and muscle attachment.

3. Support. A rigid skeletal ssupport raises the body from the ground

and allows rapid movement, it suspends some of the vital organs

and prevents them from crushing each other and maintains the sha-

pe of the body despite vigorous muscular activity.

4. Protection. Certain delicate and important organs of the body are

protected by a casing of bone. The brain is enclosed in the skull,

the spinal cord in the vertebral column, while the heart and lungs

are surrounded by a cage of ribs between the sternum and the

vertebral column.

Locomotion. Where two bones meet, a joint is formed.

5.

Sometimes, as in the sutures between the bones of the skull,

no movement is permitted; in others, e.g. the vertebrae of the

spine, only a very limited movement can occurr, while the most

familiar joints, synovial joints, allow a considerable degree of

movement. The ball-and-socket joints of the humerus and sca-

pula or femur and pelvis allow movement in three planes.

The hinge joint of the elbow allows movement in only one

plane. The surfaces at the heads of the bones which move

over each other are covered with tough cartilage which is

slippery and smooth. This, together with a liquid called synovial

fluid which is formed in the joint, allows friction-free movement.

The relevant bones of the joint are held together by strong ligaments,

which prevents dislocation during normal movement.

Muscles are bundles of elongate cells enclosed in sheaths of

6.

connective tissue. Each end of a muscle is drawn out to form a

tendon, which is attached to the tough membrane, periosteum,

surrounding the bones of the skeleton.

Muscle cells, if stimulated by a nervous impulse, will contract to

about two-thirds or one half their resting lenght. This makes the

muscle as a whole shorter and thicker and, according to its atta-

chement at each end, it can pull on a bone and so produce move-

ment. Muscles can contract and relax, they cannot lenghten of

their own accord. Consequently, most muscles are in pairs, one for

producing movement in one direction, and one for the opposite

movement. Where such antagonist pairs act across a hinge joint

they are called extensor and flexor muscles. When the body is at rest

the antagonist muscles remain in a state of tension or tone and so to

hold the body in position.

QUESTIONS

1. Define the discipline of Anatomy

2. In which way does Anatomy differ from Pathology?

3. What is systematic Anatomy?

4. Outline systematic and microscopic Anatomy

5. Describe the skeleton

6. Outline the functions of the skeleton

7. Explain the function of the bone cases

8. What are muscles?

9. What is the Periosteum?

10. What are the antagonist pairs?

11. What is the synovial fluid?

12. What is the cartilage?

B as BLOOD

Blood as Haemoglobin

Haemathology

Blood cells

BLOOD : composition and function

Human blood is composed of a liquid (plasma) in which are suspended

red and white cells, platelets and fat globules.

The amount of blood is around 85 millimitres per kilogram of body

weight, or 8.5 per cent of the weight of the body.

The functions of the blood are:

a) nutrition and respiration of tissues located far from the food and air

supplies;

b) transportation of waste products from the tissues to the excretory

organs;

c) chemical and thermal coordination of the body

d) defence against infections through the action of antibodies and

phagocites.

1. The chief function of the blood, the conveying of oxygen to the cells

of the body, is indicated by its colour, which is due to a pigment,

haemoglobin, that can pick up oxygen and release it readily. Not

only does the blood carry oxygen to the tissues but it takes up the

waste materials of cell metabolism (such as carbon dioxide and

(processo di degradazione o “fram

protein breakdown products)

mentazione in cui le proteine vengono tagliate) and carries them

to the lungs, kidneys, skin and liver from where they are eliminated.

It carries foodstuffs, mineral substances and hormones to the cells, and

it protects the tissues of the body through its anti-infective

components, i.e. the white cells and the plasma antibodies.

The blood is a composite fluid, which contains some solid elements and

a liquid part , the plasma.

Under the microscope the solid elements are seen to be of three types

– the red cells (those which contains haemoglobin)

– the white cells (various types)

– the platelets (which partecipare in the blood clotting)

In every cubic millimetre of blood there are usually about 6 million

red cells, between 5,000 and 10,000 white cells, and up to half a million

platelets.

2. Haemoglobin, which is contained in the red blood cells and co-

lours the blood, is a chemical compound which readily combines

with oxygen and readily releases it, depending on certain factors

in the environment such as oxygen concentration and acidity.

The process of combination, which occurs in the lungs when blood

passes through the alveolar capillaries, turns the purplish reduced

haemoglobin into bright-red oxy-haemoglobin. The reverse process

occurs in active tissues of the body and accounts for the difference

in colour between arterial and venous blood.

White cells are of two main types those with and those without

3. granules in their cytoplasm. The granular cells (granulocytes), which

are formed in the marrow, are phagocytic and can engulf foreign matter

(such as bacteria) , and in the presence of tissue damage, they are sti-

mulated to activity. Most of the non- granular cells are lymphocytes.

When exposed to foreign materials, like transplanted tissues or micro-

organism, lymphocytes multiply and play a part in the elaboration of

antibodies in an effort to neutralize the alien substances. They are thus

involved in the fight against infection and in the rejection process.

The immediate arrest of haemorrhage after injury to small blood-

4. vessels is due to vaso- constriction and plugging of the leaks by

aggregation of the platelets which control the bleeding until a firm blood-

clot forms. Coagulation is a complex process and involves the in-

teraction of many coagulation factors.

Fibrinogen is a vital substance for the clotting of the blood, which con-

sists essentially of the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin.

This forms a fibrous net and together with enmeshed platelets and red and

white cells makes up the clot.

Platelets are very fragile. If vessels walls and tissues are damaged, as oc

curs whenever there is bleeding, they break up and release substances

which react with a number of other substances in the blood and tissues

to form thromboplastin.

Prothrombin , which like fibrinogen is another plasma protein, in the

presence of calcium salts, is converted by the newly-produced thrombo-

plastin into thrombin. This is the agent that induces clot formation, for

it is a protein- destroying enzyme which digest part of the fibrinogen. The

remainder of the fibrinogen then combines with itself to form fibrin.

The fluid part of the blood , the plasma, is a colourless solution con-

5. taining proteins and smaller amounts of salts, glucose, amino-acids,

and other substances . The plasma proteins in terms of quantity are the

most important plasma constituents , and by their osmotic effect they

help to keep fluid within the blood-vessels and prevent it from accumu-

lating in the tissues.

The different proteins can be separated in the laboratory by means of a

process involving an electrical field (electrophoresis). About two-thirds

of the protein is albumin. Most of the remaining third of the plasma pro-

teins is constituted by the globulins. Three main groups are recognized-

alpha, beta and gamma.

Draw a chart showing the composition of the blood

…..................................................

Cells ….................................................

….................................................

BLOOD ….................................................

Plasma...........................................................

….......................................................

….........................................................

…........................................................

….......................................................

….........................................................

Coagulation of the blood

Thromboplastin + Calcium

Phrotrombin------------->Thrombin

Fibrinogen----------------> Fibrin

Red blood cells (Erythrocytes)

Cells white blood cells (leukocytes)

Platelets (Thrombocytes)

BLOOD Water

Gases Oxygen

Carbon dioxide

Nitrogen

Foods Carbohydrate

Fat

Protein

Plasma Blood Serum albumin

Proteins Serum globulin

Fibrinogen

Salts Chlorides

Bicarbonates

Sulphates

Phosphates

Protective substances

WASTE

THE CARDIO-VASCULAR SYSTEM

The cardio-vascular system is concerned with the circulation of the

blood throughout the body and consists of the heart and blood

vessels. The following reading passage deals with the position, struc-

ture and section of the heart, whose four cavities, each provided at its

outlet with a valve, maintain the circulation of the blood.

Owing to the fact that the heart has important connections with

the nervous system, and that its action is liable to be increased or

diminished by influences which powerfully affect the nervous system

, the heart was regarded in older times, and is still metaphorically

spoken of, as the seat of the emotions.

THE HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS

1. The heart has four chambers, the right and left atria (s. atrium)

and the right and left ventricles. The ventricles empty blood into the

pulmonary arteries and aorta, while the atria collect blood from veins

The thickness of the walls of the chambers is in relation to the pres-

sure they have to generate and, consequently, the walls of the ventri-

cles are much thicker than those of the atria.

2. The aortic and pulmonary valves are placed at the outflow of the

left and right ventricles, and mitral and tricuspid valves divide off

the left and right ventricles from the adjacent atria.

The cusps of the valves float freely in the blood, passing through

them, and their position depends on the pressure difference on their

two sides. When the valves close the cusps come together to form a

blood- tight membrane.

3. Blood from the tissues enters the right atrium via the venae

cavae. This blood has relatively little oxygen and a relatively high

carbon dioxide content , and it passes through the tricuspid valve

into the right ventricle, from where it goes into the pulmonary

artery and to the lungs. The blood pressure on the right side of the

heart is lower than on the left and so the chambers are comparatively

thin-walled.* (noun as p.p.)

In the lungs carbon dioxide is removed and the blood oxigenated .

Blood returns to the left atrium via the pulmonary veins and now has

relatively more oxygen and less carbon dioxide.

It then flows through the mitral valve into the thick left ventricle and

is pumped out through the aortic valve into the aorta, from where

it is distributed throughout the body.

4. The cardiac cycle is the name given to the series of events which

occurs in a single heart beat. During each cycle the two atria con-

tract together and then the ventricles contract , and blood is forced

from the atria into the ventricles and from these into the aorta and

the pulmonary artery. This takes place 50 to 80 times a minutes in

normal adults. The period in which the ventricles are contracting is

called systole and that in which they relax diastole.

5. The muscular contractions of the heart are produced by regular

electrical impulses originating in a tiny area of muscle, the sino-

or “pacemaker”, at the junction of the right atrium and

atrial node

superior vena cava.

6. The cardiac action initiated by the sino-atrial node can be recor-

ded in the form of an electrocardiogram (ECG)

QUESTIONS

1. What is the CVS concerned with?

2 . What does it consist in?

3. Is heart regarded as the seat of the emotions?

4. Can you describe the shape and function of the heart?

5. Is there any valve in the heart?

6. where is it /are they placed exactly?

7. What is venae cavae?

8. Describe and show the cardiac cycle

9. How many cycles take place in a normal adult?

10. What is the name of the two ventricular periods?

11. How is muscular contraction effected?

12. Can the cardiac action be recorded and seen?

Diseases of the Heart and the Blood Vessels

Many general diseases affect the heart and they are usually classified

according to either the part of the heart affected or the nature of the

changes produced.

Some important causes of heart disorders are:

– acute rheumatism

– high blood-pressure

– diseases of the coronary arteries

– syphilis

Other causes include:

– diphteria

– disease of the thyroid gland

– certain chronic forms of diseases of the lungs

A small but important group of cases of heart disease are those due

to congenital abnormalities of the heart

1. Diseases of the cardiovascular system are the commonest cause

of death. With an ageing population it seems likely that there will

be further increases in the incidence of those varieties of cardio-

vascular disease which occur in both middle and advanced age,

namely coronary artery disease and hypertension.

2 Rheumatic Heart Disease. Organic disease of the heart valves is

most frequently the result of damage sustained during an episode

of acute rheumatism (rheumatic fever). Approximately 25 per cent

of patients who suffer an attack of rheumatic fever will eventually

after an interval of often more than ten years, develop permanent

abnormalities in the heart valves.

Rheumatic fever commonly develops one or two weeks after a strep-

tococcal sore throat. Fever is a common accompanying feature

and less often there may in addition be a skin rush, nodules under the

skin and chorea, a disturbing involuntary movement disorder.

A rapid pulse is an almost constant feature, the heart may be palpably

enlarged and there may be various murmurs suggesting that the

valves, the heart muscle or its outer covering, the pericardium, are

inflamed. The white blood cell count and ESR (erythrocyte sedimenta-

tion rate) are characteristically elevated and an ECG (electrocardio-

gram) and chest ray will confirm the nature and the degree of the

heart involvement.

When irreversible damage to the heart valves occurs it becomes

manifest as stenosis or incompetence or both. A stenosed valve is one

which fails to open completely and so forms an obstruction to the pas-

sage of blood to its aperture. An incompetent valve on the other hand

fails to close completely and therefore allows leakage of blood to

occur in a direction opposite to that of normal flow.

The valve most commonly affected by these forms of damage, is the

mitral valve, which separates the left ventricle from the left atrium.

Unfortunately, in many instances the individual's disability tends to

be progressive with treatment becoming less and less effective. Com-

plications occur frequently. The most important of these are :

heart failure, infective endocarditis and cerebral embolism.


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DETTAGLI
Esame: Inglese
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in medicina e chirurgia (a ciclo unico - 6 anni)
SSD:
Università: Foggia - Unifg
A.A.: 2013-2014

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher kalamaj di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Inglese e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Foggia - Unifg o del prof Loiacono Anna.

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