Inglese - inglese medico
Human Anatomy can be defined as the study of structures of organisms,
while Pathology is the study of the nature and cause of disease which
involves changes in structure and function.
The study of different organs and tissues necessitates a number of sepa-
rate branches of investigation. The study of separate systems without li-
mitation to one region of the body is called sistematic anatomy.
Anatomy is the study of the sizes,forms ,positions and relationship of the
various parts of the human body. The study of how disease affects these
parts of the body constitutes pathology.
Parts of the body
words : forms/ content
upper part / lower part
right side/ left side
strong/ weak strenght/ weakness
To define / to describe / to identify
to compare /to contrast / to draw a parallel between
A standard approach is that of systematic anatomy, through which
the various structures are grouped and treated according to the natural
system into which they fall. Thus the account deals with
osteology ( bones)
angiology (heart and vessels)
splanchnology ( visceral organs)
neurology (nervous system and sense organs)
Similarly, under microscopic anatomy, several subgroups are recog-
organology :deals with the architectural plan and arrangements with the
various organs of the body;
histology : describes the building materials that enter into the compo-
sition of these organs ; such aggregations of specialized cells
are tissues ,of which epithelium, connective tissue, muscle
are examples; cytology is the study of the structure of the actual
cells which are the ultimate building units of all tissues.
The skeleton has three main functions:
1. to bear the weight of the body and keep it from falling
2. to keep the body safe and help protect it from injury
3. to provide the framework on which muscles can act to initiate
a. Skeletal tissues are hard substances formed by living cells. Frequen-
tly they contain non-living mineral matters such as calcium salts.
The structures made of such non-living material can neverthless
grow and change as a result of the activities of living cells which
dissolve away and replace the hard material.
b. the function of the skeleton can be grouped conveniently under the
headings: support, protection, locomotion and muscle attachment.
3. Support. A rigid skeletal ssupport raises the body from the ground
and allows rapid movement, it suspends some of the vital organs
and prevents them from crushing each other and maintains the sha-
pe of the body despite vigorous muscular activity.
4. Protection. Certain delicate and important organs of the body are
protected by a casing of bone. The brain is enclosed in the skull,
the spinal cord in the vertebral column, while the heart and lungs
are surrounded by a cage of ribs between the sternum and the
Locomotion. Where two bones meet, a joint is formed.
Sometimes, as in the sutures between the bones of the skull,
no movement is permitted; in others, e.g. the vertebrae of the
spine, only a very limited movement can occurr, while the most
familiar joints, synovial joints, allow a considerable degree of
movement. The ball-and-socket joints of the humerus and sca-
pula or femur and pelvis allow movement in three planes.
The hinge joint of the elbow allows movement in only one
plane. The surfaces at the heads of the bones which move
over each other are covered with tough cartilage which is
slippery and smooth. This, together with a liquid called synovial
fluid which is formed in the joint, allows friction-free movement.
The relevant bones of the joint are held together by strong ligaments,
which prevents dislocation during normal movement.
Muscles are bundles of elongate cells enclosed in sheaths of
connective tissue. Each end of a muscle is drawn out to form a
tendon, which is attached to the tough membrane, periosteum,
surrounding the bones of the skeleton.
Muscle cells, if stimulated by a nervous impulse, will contract to
about two-thirds or one half their resting lenght. This makes the
muscle as a whole shorter and thicker and, according to its atta-
chement at each end, it can pull on a bone and so produce move-
ment. Muscles can contract and relax, they cannot lenghten of
their own accord. Consequently, most muscles are in pairs, one for
producing movement in one direction, and one for the opposite
movement. Where such antagonist pairs act across a hinge joint
they are called extensor and flexor muscles. When the body is at rest
the antagonist muscles remain in a state of tension or tone and so to
hold the body in position.
1. Define the discipline of Anatomy
2. In which way does Anatomy differ from Pathology?
3. What is systematic Anatomy?
4. Outline systematic and microscopic Anatomy
5. Describe the skeleton
6. Outline the functions of the skeleton
7. Explain the function of the bone cases
8. What are muscles?
9. What is the Periosteum?
10. What are the antagonist pairs?
11. What is the synovial fluid?
12. What is the cartilage?
B as BLOOD
Blood as Haemoglobin
BLOOD : composition and function
Human blood is composed of a liquid (plasma) in which are suspended
red and white cells, platelets and fat globules.
The amount of blood is around 85 millimitres per kilogram of body
weight, or 8.5 per cent of the weight of the body.
The functions of the blood are:
a) nutrition and respiration of tissues located far from the food and air
b) transportation of waste products from the tissues to the excretory
c) chemical and thermal coordination of the body
d) defence against infections through the action of antibodies and
1. The chief function of the blood, the conveying of oxygen to the cells
of the body, is indicated by its colour, which is due to a pigment,
haemoglobin, that can pick up oxygen and release it readily. Not
only does the blood carry oxygen to the tissues but it takes up the
waste materials of cell metabolism (such as carbon dioxide and
(processo di degradazione o “fram
protein breakdown products)
mentazione in cui le proteine vengono tagliate) and carries them
to the lungs, kidneys, skin and liver from where they are eliminated.
It carries foodstuffs, mineral substances and hormones to the cells, and
it protects the tissues of the body through its anti-infective
components, i.e. the white cells and the plasma antibodies.
The blood is a composite fluid, which contains some solid elements and
a liquid part , the plasma.
Under the microscope the solid elements are seen to be of three types
– the red cells (those which contains haemoglobin)
– the white cells (various types)
– the platelets (which partecipare in the blood clotting)
In every cubic millimetre of blood there are usually about 6 million
red cells, between 5,000 and 10,000 white cells, and up to half a million
2. Haemoglobin, which is contained in the red blood cells and co-
lours the blood, is a chemical compound which readily combines
with oxygen and readily releases it, depending on certain factors
in the environment such as oxygen concentration and acidity.
The process of combination, which occurs in the lungs when blood
passes through the alveolar capillaries, turns the purplish reduced
haemoglobin into bright-red oxy-haemoglobin. The reverse process
occurs in active tissues of the body and accounts for the difference
in colour between arterial and venous blood.
White cells are of two main types those with and those without
3. granules in their cytoplasm. The granular cells (granulocytes), which
are formed in the marrow, are phagocytic and can engulf foreign matter
(such as bacteria) , and in the presence of tissue damage, they are sti-
mulated to activity. Most of the non- granular cells are lymphocytes.
When exposed to foreign materials, like transplanted tissues or micro-
organism, lymphocytes multiply and play a part in the elaboration of
antibodies in an effort to neutralize the alien substances. They are thus
involved in the fight against infection and in the rejection process.
The immediate arrest of haemorrhage after injury to small blood-
4. vessels is due to vaso- constriction and plugging of the leaks by
aggregation of the platelets which control the bleeding until a firm blood-
clot forms. Coagulation is a complex process and involves the in-
teraction of many coagulation factors.
Fibrinogen is a vital substance for the clotting of the blood, which con-
sists essentially of the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin.
This forms a fibrous net and together with enmeshed platelets and red and
white cells makes up the clot.
Platelets are very fragile. If vessels walls and tissues are damaged, as oc
curs whenever there is bleeding, they break up and release substances
which react with a number of other substances in the blood and tissues
to form thromboplastin.
Prothrombin , which like fibrinogen is another plasma protein, in the
presence of calcium salts, is converted by the newly-produced thrombo-
plastin into thrombin. This is the agent that induces clot formation, for
it is a protein- destroying enzyme which digest part of the fibrinogen. The
remainder of the fibrinogen then combines with itself to form fibrin.
The fluid part of the blood , the plasma, is a colourless solution con-
5. taining proteins and smaller amounts of salts, glucose, amino-acids,
and other substances . The plasma proteins in terms of quantity are the
most important plasma constituents , and by their osmotic effect they
help to keep fluid within the blood-vessels and prevent it from accumu-
lating in the tissues.
The different proteins can be separated in the laboratory by means of a
process involving an electrical field (electrophoresis). About two-thirds
of the protein is albumin. Most of the remaining third of the plasma pro-
teins is constituted by the globulins. Three main groups are recognized-
alpha, beta and gamma.
Draw a chart showing the composition of the blood
Coagulation of the blood
Thromboplastin + Calcium
Red blood cells (Erythrocytes)
Cells white blood cells (leukocytes)
Plasma Blood Serum albumin
Proteins Serum globulin
THE CARDIO-VASCULAR SYSTEM
The cardio-vascular system is concerned with the circulation of the
blood throughout the body and consists of the heart and blood
vessels. The following reading passage deals with the position, struc-
ture and section of the heart, whose four cavities, each provided at its
outlet with a valve, maintain the circulation of the blood.
Owing to the fact that the heart has important connections with
the nervous system, and that its action is liable to be increased or
diminished by influences which powerfully affect the nervous system
, the heart was regarded in older times, and is still metaphorically
spoken of, as the seat of the emotions.
THE HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS
1. The heart has four chambers, the right and left atria (s. atrium)
and the right and left ventricles. The ventricles empty blood into the
pulmonary arteries and aorta, while the atria collect blood from veins
The thickness of the walls of the chambers is in relation to the pres-
sure they have to generate and, consequently, the walls of the ventri-
cles are much thicker than those of the atria.
2. The aortic and pulmonary valves are placed at the outflow of the
left and right ventricles, and mitral and tricuspid valves divide off
the left and right ventricles from the adjacent atria.
The cusps of the valves float freely in the blood, passing through
them, and their position depends on the pressure difference on their
two sides. When the valves close the cusps come together to form a
blood- tight membrane.
3. Blood from the tissues enters the right atrium via the venae
cavae. This blood has relatively little oxygen and a relatively high
carbon dioxide content , and it passes through the tricuspid valve
into the right ventricle, from where it goes into the pulmonary
artery and to the lungs. The blood pressure on the right side of the
heart is lower than on the left and so the chambers are comparatively
thin-walled.* (noun as p.p.)
In the lungs carbon dioxide is removed and the blood oxigenated .
Blood returns to the left atrium via the pulmonary veins and now has
relatively more oxygen and less carbon dioxide.
It then flows through the mitral valve into the thick left ventricle and
is pumped out through the aortic valve into the aorta, from where
it is distributed throughout the body.
4. The cardiac cycle is the name given to the series of events which
occurs in a single heart beat. During each cycle the two atria con-
tract together and then the ventricles contract , and blood is forced
from the atria into the ventricles and from these into the aorta and
the pulmonary artery. This takes place 50 to 80 times a minutes in
normal adults. The period in which the ventricles are contracting is
called systole and that in which they relax diastole.
5. The muscular contractions of the heart are produced by regular
electrical impulses originating in a tiny area of muscle, the sino-
or “pacemaker”, at the junction of the right atrium and
superior vena cava.
6. The cardiac action initiated by the sino-atrial node can be recor-
ded in the form of an electrocardiogram (ECG)
1. What is the CVS concerned with?
2 . What does it consist in?
3. Is heart regarded as the seat of the emotions?
4. Can you describe the shape and function of the heart?
5. Is there any valve in the heart?
6. where is it /are they placed exactly?
7. What is venae cavae?
8. Describe and show the cardiac cycle
9. How many cycles take place in a normal adult?
10. What is the name of the two ventricular periods?
11. How is muscular contraction effected?
12. Can the cardiac action be recorded and seen?
Diseases of the Heart and the Blood Vessels
Many general diseases affect the heart and they are usually classified
according to either the part of the heart affected or the nature of the
Some important causes of heart disorders are:
– acute rheumatism
– high blood-pressure
– diseases of the coronary arteries
Other causes include:
– disease of the thyroid gland
– certain chronic forms of diseases of the lungs
A small but important group of cases of heart disease are those due
to congenital abnormalities of the heart
1. Diseases of the cardiovascular system are the commonest cause
of death. With an ageing population it seems likely that there will
be further increases in the incidence of those varieties of cardio-
vascular disease which occur in both middle and advanced age,
namely coronary artery disease and hypertension.
2 Rheumatic Heart Disease. Organic disease of the heart valves is
most frequently the result of damage sustained during an episode
of acute rheumatism (rheumatic fever). Approximately 25 per cent
of patients who suffer an attack of rheumatic fever will eventually
after an interval of often more than ten years, develop permanent
abnormalities in the heart valves.
Rheumatic fever commonly develops one or two weeks after a strep-
tococcal sore throat. Fever is a common accompanying feature
and less often there may in addition be a skin rush, nodules under the
skin and chorea, a disturbing involuntary movement disorder.
A rapid pulse is an almost constant feature, the heart may be palpably
enlarged and there may be various murmurs suggesting that the
valves, the heart muscle or its outer covering, the pericardium, are
inflamed. The white blood cell count and ESR (erythrocyte sedimenta-
tion rate) are characteristically elevated and an ECG (electrocardio-
gram) and chest ray will confirm the nature and the degree of the
When irreversible damage to the heart valves occurs it becomes
manifest as stenosis or incompetence or both. A stenosed valve is one
which fails to open completely and so forms an obstruction to the pas-
sage of blood to its aperture. An incompetent valve on the other hand
fails to close completely and therefore allows leakage of blood to
occur in a direction opposite to that of normal flow.
The valve most commonly affected by these forms of damage, is the
mitral valve, which separates the left ventricle from the left atrium.
Unfortunately, in many instances the individual's disability tends to
be progressive with treatment becoming less and less effective. Com-
plications occur frequently. The most important of these are :
heart failure, infective endocarditis and cerebral embolism.
+1 anno fa
I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher kalamaj di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Inglese e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Foggia - Unifg o del prof Loiacono Anna.
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