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Esame di Migration in Europe docente Prof. A. Venturini



Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018

• Empirical perspective: national States have weaken and other actors

(supra-national institutions, local authorities, CSOs, etc) have gained


The mechanisms which lead to multilevel governance settings

Top-down processes develop:

• from higher levels of government to lower ones


• from public to non-public actors.

Bottom up processes are initiated:

• by lower levels of governments and/or

• by non-public actors.

Integration policies

The degree of Europeanization of specific issues

1.Free movement regulation of citizens of Eu member states in

the EU

2.Refugee and asylum migration

3.Irregular migration


5.Secondary migration (for example family reunification)

6.Ethnic migrants who are no subject to European immigration


7.Labour migration



(Faist and Ette 2007)

EU decision-making on integration

EU integration policymaking is based on an intergovernmental agreement

(third pillar): policies have to

be decided through consensus of member states and there is no binding


(Scholten & Penninx, The Multilevel Governance of Migration and Integration,


Before 2003

Until 2003 EU policies started from the implicit assumption that if the legal

position of immigrants was

made as equal as possible to national citizens’, and if adequate instruments

were put in place to combat

discrimination, then integration processes could be left to societal forces.


Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018

From 2003 onwards

• Communication on Immigration, Integration and Employment (2003)

• Specific Funds: INTI programme (Integration of Third-Country

Nationals) (2004-2006); European Integration Fund (EIF) & European

Refugee Fund (ERF) (2007-2013); Asylum, Migration and Integration

Fund (AMIF) (2014-)

• Collection of information, monitoring, exchange of good practices and

mobilisation of civil society actors

• Direct cooperation with and funding of local authorities, and

promotion of city networks

• Common Basic Principles for Immigrant Integration Policy (CBP)


Common Basic Principles for Immigrant Integration Policy

two-way process

CBP 1 ‘Integration is a dynamic, of mutual accommodation

by all immigrants and residents of MS’

respect for the basic values

CBP 2 ‘Integration implies of the European


CBP 3 ‘Employment is a key part of the integration process and is central to

the participation of immigrants, to the contributions immigrants make to the

host society, and to making such ontributions visible’

knowledge of the host society’s

CBP 4 ‘Basic language, history, and

institutions is indispensable to integration; enabling immigrants to acquire

this basic knowledge is essential to successful integration’


CBP 5 ‘Efforts in are critical to preparing immigrants, and

particularly their descendants, to be more successful and more active

participants in society’

CBP 6 ‘Access for immigrants to institutions, as well as to public and private

goods and services, on a basis equal to national citizens and in a

nondiscriminatory way is a critical foundation for better integration’


CBP 7 ‘Frequent between immigrants and Member State

citizens is a fundamental mechanism for integration. Shared forums,

intercultural dialogue, education about immigrants and immigrant cultures,

and stimulating living conditions in urban environments enhance the

interactions between immigrants and Member State citizens’

diverse cultures and religions

CBP 8 ‘The practice of is guaranteed under

the Charter of Fundamental Rights and must be safeguarded, unless practices

conflict with other inviolable European rights or with national law’


CBP 9 ‘The of immigrants in the democratic process and in the

formulation of integration policies and measures, especially at the local level,

supports their integration’

integration policies and measures

CBP 10 ‘Mainstreaming in all relevant

policy portfolios and evels of government and public services is an important

consideration in public policy formation and implementation.’


Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018

clear goals, indicators and evaluation mechanisms

CBP 11 ‘Developing

are necessary to adjust policy, evaluate progress on integration and to make

the exchange of information more effective.’

Milestones of Italian integration policies

1980s. Main cities of Central and Northern Italy set up housing plans and

immigration offices, and acknowledged certain social rights in the absence of

a specific legislation.

1986. The first law on immigration gave responsibilities to Regions and

Municipalities in the field of migrant integration but did not allocate any funds

for this purpose.

1990. The second law of immigration gave economic resources to Regions and

Municipalities but only for setting first-aid shelters.

1990s. Many Centre-North Italian cities, often funded by the Regions,

undertook innovative interventions (intercultural education, migrants’ political

participation, etc.).

1998. Organic Law on Immigration (L. 49/1998) tried to overcome

fragmentation of local policies and assigned competences and funds to

Regions (annual and triennial plans) + Federalist reform completed the

devolution of power in migrant integration to the Regions (2001)

Multilevel governance settings of Italian migrant integration policies

Central State: general legislation which sets migrants’ formal rights and

institutional competences

Regions: planning and funding competences

Local actors (Municipalities, other public institutions such as the Health

Units, civil society organisations): defining and implementing concrete

integration measures


The past: The birth of EU asylum policy

Approaches to asylum that emerged in the early 1990s – at both national and

EU level – were based on some core features:

- impulse towards harmonization of asylum system

- the focus on the so-called ‘external dimension’ of cooperation (safe

third countries and readmission agreements)

- the perception that many asylum-seekers were abusing generous

European systems

The EU asylum policies emerged in the 1990 were very much shaped by the

major countries of asylum such as Germany, The Netherlands and the UK.

Many MS have played a two-level game. Some national governments have

used harmonization as a way of justifying more liberal or more restrictive


Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018

approaches at home, evading the juridical and parliamentary scrutiny of

domestic policy-making venues. At the same time, they have used domestic

constrains as a reason to tighten EU measures.

(Boswell and Geddes 2011). 32

Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018

The present: CEAS (Common European Asylum System)

1.Dublin Regulation (claim must be made in the first-entry country)

2. Directives

Qualification Directive defines the status of refugees and beneficiaries

of subsidiary


Reception Directive lays down minimum standards for the reception of



Asylum Procedures Directive specifies minimum standards for

processing claims

made by asylum seekers (length of and access to asylum procedures)

Temporary Protection Directive enables refugees to be granted a


residence status without having to go through an asylum procedure

Return Directive harmonizes the standards and procedures for return

3. EURODAC which gathers and stores asylum seekers’ fingerprints

4. European Asylum Support Office

Tampere Conclusions of the European Council (1999)

The apparent contradictions of the EU policymaking on asylum

European Council

The generally sets vague and high objectives (eg.

Tampere Conclusions):

- To commit Member States to humanitarian and human rights principles

- To pose little threat to those States which are skeptical about EU

integration and to keep everybody on board.

European Commission

The is requested to follow up but faces the

Council of European Union

opposition from the where Ministries defend

national interests and sovereignty.


Relocation is the transfer of asylum seekers who are in clear need of

international protection from one EU Member State to another Member State

where their asylum application will be examined once the relocation has taken


In 2015 EU Member States agreed to relocate 160,000 asylum seekers from

Member States experiencing high migratory pressure (Greece, Italy and

Hungary) ↔ Visegrad Group (vertical and horizontal tensions – Hampshire


Eligibility for the relocation scheme is limited to applicants who are in clear

need of international protection and are a national or stateless resident of


Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018

those countries for which the EU-wide average recognition rate is more than

75 percent.

As of 31 December 2017, with only a limited number of registered

beneficiaries remaining in Greece and Italy, 33,154 persons have benefitted

from relocation.

Asylum in Italy

2002. National Commission for the right to asylum and 10 Territorial

Commissions for the recognition of international protection & foundation for

(Sistema di Protezione per Richiedenti Asilo e Rifugiati

the SPRAR –

Protection System for Asylum Seekers and Refugees)

2005. Adoption of the Directive 2003/9/EC → in case of unavailability of

places in the receiving structures of the SPRAR, the applicant must be

temporary hosted in the identification centers (CARA) and temporary

reception centers (CAS) set uo by the Ministry of Interior.

2011. Inflows triggered by the Arab Springs in North Africa, for which the

central government declared the state of emergency → centralization of

competences (Ministry of Interior & Prefectures, Protezione Civile)

2014. Memorandum of Understanding to overcome the emergency: to set up

a multi-level setting for the management of asylum reception (National

Coordinating Group and Regional Coordination Groups), and to expand the

SPRAR system reducing the recourse to CAS.

2016. Establishment of a precise ratio for asylum seekers’ redistribution

across municipalities (2.5 asylum seekers out of 1,000 residents) &

Accommodation bonus for the Municipalities to be spent without constrains

and not necessarily for refugees (500 euro for each refugee), as a response to

local authorities’ protests. (Corte d’Appello)

2017. Suppression of one appeal level with the aim of

reducing the pending asylum

applications (150,000 at the end of 2017).

Local good practices

Morus Onlus association in Val di Lanzo

Main activities

- § Teaching Italian language

- § Organising meeting opportunities in order to break down mistrust

- § Lobbying local authorities to develop further solutions for asylum

seekers’ reception in the area

The most successful projects:

- §COROMORO: folk music choir

- §MOROTEAM: soccer team

- §MOROSTYLE: sewing business

New activities: 34

Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018

- §Helping refugees who leave the reception centers to find housing

solutions and jobs.

- §Providing civic education courses for the newcomers in order to

develop better conditions for positive interactions with local residents.

Qualifying elements

- Ø Institutionalization of the local community’s mobilization

- Ø Active participation of asylum seekers and refugees in integration


Refugee integration project in Val Pellice – Diaconia Valdese

Main activities

The guiding principle: achieving refugees’ autonomy

- § Accommodation: from the Crumiere hotel to apartments scattered

across the Val Pellice + accommodation by local families

- § Employment: 60 internships and employment grants

- § Integration services: provision of legal, medical and psychological

advice, language training, vocational training

- § Events open to the whole population to foster exchanges

Volounteers’ activities

- § Ciclofficina: a bicycle-repair shop for repairing second-hand bicycles to

be used for bike-sharing

- § Collection of second-hand cloths

- § PC workshop for repairing second-hand computers to be used by

refugees trained by volunteers

- § Music workshop to create a refugees’ orchestra

- § Fishing and traditional cuisine of zero-kilometer fish, organization of

food events (eg. Refugee kitchen”)

- § Horticulture

- § Language workshops for practicing the language in informal chats

- § Tailoring workshops

Alongside local volounteers, the project employs also young volunteers from

the National Civil Service and European Volountary Service.

Qualifying elements

- Ø Employment of external resources (private apartments, Youth

Guarantee programme, National Civil Service, etc) to support refugees’


- Ø Reference persons able to coordinate the actions in a certain field

(employment, housing, language training, etc) across territorial areas

and projects

- Ø Activation of a local supportive network and actual opportunities for

contacts preventing social tensions

Micro Accoglienza Diffusa (MAD) Diffused Micro Accomodation in Val di Susa

Goals 35

Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018

The project aims:

- § to overcome the duality of the current refugee reception system: the

Municipalities issue the public calls for CAS retaining the control over

the quality of services

- § to distribute refugees across the area with small numbers per

municipality (from 4 to 12, i.e. around 1 refugee per 1,000 residents).

Main activities

- § Legal counseling

- § Psychological support and health support

- § Language training

- § Support to access the labour market (tutoring, competence

assessment, visits to local companies, internships)

- § Vocational training (enrollment in regional courses)

- § Support to access the housing market

- § Sport activities within local teams

- § Cultural events, workshops

- § Refugees’ volunteering for the local community considering their

competences and aspirations

+ Communication activities & Monitoring activities

Qualifying elements

- Ø The coordination among the Municipalities of the target area and

between them and the local Prefecture

- Ø The dispersal model of refugees’ settlement

Pettinengo: a welcoming village

Main services and activities

- § legal support

- § classes of Italian language that in summer take place in the central

square of the town

- § refugees’ voluntary activities

- § professional training in textile weaving, terracotta (baked clay),

beekeeping/apiculture, horticulture, gardening: the main idea is to

transform laboratories and workshops into productive activities in order

to create jobs for both refugees and local residents.

- § cultural events such as music festivals, film festivals on migration and

music workshops

- § seminars on issues related to migration

- § field visits for university students

+ Communication activities & Monitoring activities

Positive side-effects

- § Estimated monthly economic impact on the local community (1,500

residents): 70-80 thousands euro

- § 90% of people employed in the project is from the local population


Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018

Qualifying elements

- ØProduction of an added value for the local population in terms of

economic resources and jobs

- ØTraining and cultural activities open to the whole population

- ØValorisation of local know-how and resources by developing training

and workshops on activities rooted in the area

- ØTransformation of training activities into productive activities

- ØActive participation of asylum seekers and refugees in the integration


19 aprile

Assimilation of Migrants


Migrants receive the same remuneration and have the same probability of

finding a job than similar natives.

Assimilation in the labour market: WAGE. Methodological problems

Political issue

Economic assimilation is a prerequisite for social assimilation or integration,

and in any case for peaceful lives of foreigner in the destination country.

Policies to implement

Special integration policies, like language courses, special training policies or

selective migration policies to avoid non-assimilating workers or, as in the

case of refugees, special schemes to reduce their welfare state dependency,

which also refer to specific localizations in the country.

- reference group

- selection of the migrants (probability of remaining)

In the case of the USA, the debate mainly centres on the work of Barry

Chiswick, George Borjas, La Londe and Topel, but there are many other

relevant contributions. The estimated equation uses as explanatory variables

for the wages of workers (i): a vector of socio-economic characteristics Xi, the

worker’s age as a proxy of his experience Ai, a dummy Ii which specifies

whether the worker is an immigrant, and a variable yi which indicates the

number of years the worker has been resident in the destination country,

which is of course 0 for natives.

LogWi =a Xi + b1Ai + b2Ai² + g°Ii + g’yi + g”yi² + εi

Barry Chiswick in his pioneering work of 1978, using a cross section drawn

only from one census, identified a negative coefficient for g – which indicates

the percentage difference between immigrants and natives at the time of

arrival – and a positive coefficient for g1 – which identifies the rate at which


Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018

wages grow with respect to those of the natives – while g2 increases at a

decreasing rate.

The conclusion tended to support an “over” assimilation of immigrants. In

that, in the short-term they are able to catch up with and overtake

corresponding natives. The causes of this result were not attributed to the

lack of specific human capital in the receiving country at the time of arrival

but to the fact that these people possess a greater propensity to risk and

possess more human capital, which came to the fore over time.

Census is a snapshot of society and divide people of age group. To build a

wage profile I can use wages.


Migrants start when they entered in the labour market with a lower wage.

Now they earn more than natives. This is “over assimilation”.

Cohort Effects and the Immigrant Age-Earning Profile

The typical person migrating in 1960 is skilled and has age-earnings profile

PP. the 2000 immigrant is unskilled and has age-earnings profile RR. The 1980

immigrant has the same skills as the

typical native and has age-earnings

profile QQ. Suppose all immigrants

arrive at age 20. The 2000 census

cross section reports the wages of

immigrants who have just arrived

(point R*). The wage of immigrants

who arrived in 1980 when they are 40

years old (point Q*) and the wage of

immigrants who arrived in 1960 when

they are 60 y.o (point P*). The cross-

sectional age-earnings profle erroneously

suggest that immigrant earnings grow

faster than those of natives.

Borjas in 1985 research came to a different

conclusion using 2 census he showed how

different wages structures of two cohort can

be missed in a single cross section analysis,

while a longitudinal analysis reveals a

phenomenon of “under” assimilation which


Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018

can be attributed to the lower “quality” of the most recent cohorts, therefore,

a higher g° and a lower g’.

Frontier earnings functions of inhabitants and immigrants

Age-earnings profiles for the Canadian-

born (CB), british immigrants

Canadian citizens (BritIm_C) and non-

citizens of Canada (BritIm:NC),

Chinese Immigrants Canadian citizens (ChinIm_C) and non-ciizens of Canada


The different quality of cohorts at the time of immigration is imputed to

different factors: 39

Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018

- changes in the immigration policy which chooses individuals with

different characteristics

- different economic conditions in the destination country which

changes the national mix of the immigrants; thus, causing changes in

the productivity of the workers if you arrive in a period of recession

you accept any jobs.

- changes in the composition of the cohorts due to non-casual

repatriation in a case of repatriation (eg Mexico)

Finally, La Londe-Topel (1992) report similar resultrs to those of Borjas (under

assimilation of foreigners and a lower g1), but they attribute this not to the

lower quality of the cohorts but to worse economic conditions in the receiving

country at the time when the foreigner entered the labour market, offering

his/her labour at a lower entry wage (negative g°) and having few career

prospects (a lower wage pattern g’). The debate is still ongoing with new

specifications and tests being introduced.

From an analytical point of view the problem is well-known in labour

literature. Building up the pattern of wages in the life cycle using census data

poses numerous problems of specification. 15 The wage of an individual who

belongs to the arrival cohort i in the year of the census t(wit) is a function of a

limited number of individual variables, Xit and the error ε made up of three

components, ait, the vintage factor, that is to say, the average value of human

capital specific to the receiving country and accumulated by the cohort (i) on

arrival, bit, the time factor, that is to say, the changes in the labour market

which can have a different effect on a foreign worker’s human capital on

arrival and ui the cohort factor, that is to say, the average value of the quality

of the cohort which is fixed for each given arrival cohort.

W it = X it t + it; it = ait+bit+ui

It is not possible to identify the different kinds of error in an analysis of only

one year, but with two periods of reference the estimated error is as follows.

The estimate is correct if there is no time factor between the two cohorts

[E(b55,t-b65,t) =0] – a solution adopted in Borjas, 1985 – and if there is no

difference in terms of the average values of the quality of the worker [E(u55-

u65) =0] in the cohorts. If the quality of the worker falls or if transitory

changes reduce the new immigrant’s wages, the assimilation of the foreigner

will be over- or under-estimated. LaLonde and Topel abandoned the use of

cross section estimates to create a quasi panel in order to follow the growth of

wages of the immigrant cohorts from 1970 to 1980. It was indexed to a group

of natives and using other simplifying assumptions it was possible to specify

the time component.

If you have longitudinal data you do have this complex program.


Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018

longitudinal data

Using would simplify the problem because the error due to

different qualities of cohorts would be eliminated.

Since than panel data are used, but also with the panel analysis some

the self-selection or attrition

problems remain: some people are exiting

from the dataset. Germany.

A controversial situation is the case of

The empirical study carried out by Dustmann (1993) uses the individual data

penel of GSOEP and shows lower earnings for foreing workers during all their

working life and such a finding can be traced to the temporary nature of the

migratory flow.

This conclusion is contradicted by an analysis of the same dataset by Schmidt

(1993) which shoes that a foreign worker’s earnings are aqual to a native

worker’s earnings after a period of 17 years.

Pischke (1992) finds that there is no difference in the rate at which incomes

grow between foreigners and natives in comparable jobs, even though

foreigners never reach the same wage level as the natives.

The different findings depend on the reference group with which the

foreigners are compared and as Dustmann has used all natives, white collar

and blue collar workers, the lack of convergence can be explained by the low

skills of the foreigners. However, the small number of recent immigrants in

the sample makes it difficult to study wage trends.

Schmidt low skilled; Pischke male.


Chiswick B.R. 1980, The Earnings of White and Coulored Male Immigrants in

Britain, Economica n.47, pp.81-87

Dustmann C. et, 2003, Labour market performance of immigrants in the UK

labour market, Home office online Report 5/03.

Integration in the labour market

 Wage synthetic index of integration

 Age

 Education

 Experience in and out of the job

 Year since migration

 Linguistic Distance

 Community Size

 41

Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018

Experience- log wage profiles for foreigners and locals, blue collars males in

manufacturing in north west entering in the labour market at age 18 by type

of jobs.

The probability of exits from this type of jobs is positively related to the

linguistic distance • Important policy implication also for refugees.

The New Integration Strategy that support a rapid transition to the labour

market in particular for asylum seekers

• Become a Trap

• The probability of exit form the low skill profession is function of the

linguistic distance

• There is the need of a revision of the linguistic and training policies

which should be distributed in the week, month.

The exit from low skilled position is also affected by the size of the community.

In general is negative. 42

Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018

The scientific research on the role of the Ethnic communities has found

positive and negative effect.

A large ethnic community favours the access to the labour market but likely in

a segmented labour market (Ethnic) where the increase in supply reduce the


A large ethnic community reduces contacts outside the ethnic group, reduces

linguistic knowledge of the destination language and discourage professional


A large community can also favour the employment and the wage of

conationals providing support, contacts

Danish Dispersal Policy 1986-1998

Anna Piil Damm, Michael Rosholm, IZA DP.925,2003, Employment Effects of

Dispersal Policies on Refugee Immigrants, Part II: Empirical Evidence

But if you control for the linguistic distance, only the linguistic distance

communities plays a negative role while the closer one have a positive effect.

Policy implication.

Linguistic policies should be extended to the family members.

Assimilation in the labour market- duration of employment

unemployment rate and turnover rate

Change in the economic


The recent work of

Rosholm, Scott and

Husted (2000) found both

in Sweden and Denmark

that from 1985 to 1995

the job opportunities for

male immigrants got

worse. They used a panel

of administrative data

showing that the

worsening situation was

independent of the

different market trends in

the two countries, but

was due to the structural changes taking place in the markets where the

demand for labour was for workers with high interrelation and communication

abilities, which meant that immigrants were at a disadvantage.


Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018

The first for native workers and the second for foreign workers which will

result in two different estimated vectors of coefficents and = bn Xin + in

2.wi f = b f Xi f + f

i 44

Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018

Given the average characteristics of native workers — and foreign workers

and the estimated coefficients and , the average wage for native and foreign

workers can be computed as:

3.wn= X nb ˆ n

4.w f = X f b f

X f ) b f - n +(b bn X ) f W )=( X n - f W - c f W )+( c n W - n W =( f W

Explained by the different characteristics Quantity

Unexplained by the different characteristics Prices

In general the wage differential is larger between female and male

In general the unexplained part is larger for female than for immigrants


Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018

State and association interventions

Citizenship legislation and implementation which favours

o settlement (double passports)

Cina incentives return of students

o Recognition of qualification

o Better job search and matching i.e. Anapec Morocco

o Protecting workers rights

o Educational training i.e. foreign language at school

o Pre-departure training: legislation, minimum wage, rules of the

o labour market, the


Under assimilation prevails with different interpretation according to the

specific study undertaken.

The main policy issue driven from the empirical letterature is that unskilled

assimilate less and that skilled migrants should be prefered because they

assimilate more.

If destination countries want to reduce the cost of under assimilation or invest

in selection or invest in policies which reduce.

Assimilation in the sociology literature

In classical sociology progressive change from a more diverse to a less diverse


The different paradigms

• The straight line assimilation process (Chicago School, Warner and

Srole 1945)

• The melting pot (Glazer and Moyniham 1970)

• The bumpy line (Gans 1979)

• The segmented line (Portes and Zou 1993)

European debate of the 80s focused on the policies

- France integration by assimilation

• Germany integration by separation

• The Netherland quasi melting pot Multicultural approach


Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018


Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018

26 aprile

What Migration Policy for Innovation?

Ob. to understand:

- If migration policies can spur innovation

- If research results and common wisdom match

In the European debate the role played by migrants in strengthening the

competitiveness seems the last resort to find a positive contribution of

migrants in the destination economy.

Claims on the larger use of the welfare state by migrants, their potential

competitive role in the labour market, the difficult integration has diverted the

attention versus policies restricting the immigration and of limiting the

inflows not only to the workers in demand but only to highly skilled which

could reduce the negative effect previously mentioned and spur the


The debate on the highly skilled migrants legislations is very rich:

- In the USA H1B visa for STEM if you are not Stem a lottery

- EU Blue Card, no regional preferences (NRP)

- Dutch Highly Skilled Migrants Scheme (NRP)

- Belgian Permit B

- Swedish HSM

What is the common wisdom

- Low skilled migrants cope with the drawbacks of an aging society

working in agriculture, construction, care and health sector

- Highly skilled migrants favour innovation and growth

Why migrants should spur innovation?

• Quantity interpretation

Migrants are equal productive than natives

• Excess demand for labour in quantity or prices; more flexible

Migrants are different from natives

• Quality as individual and as group

• (Human capital, self selection, motivation, soft skills, network, brain waste),

Migrant as group- diversity of migrants,

• Jackobs 1968,Complementarity

beween sectors

Definition of innovation

“An innovation is the implementation of a new or significantly improved

product (good or

service) or process, a new marketing method or a new organizational method

in business

practices, workplace organization or external relations ( OSLO Manual, OCDE

2005, pag 12)” 48

Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018

How to measure?

Innovation is a multi-faced phenomenon: popular indicators of innovation

are 1. The number of Patent applications

Innovative capacity of a country

It provides valuable information on technological activities of inventors

good proxy for the technological effort of

and companies are a

companies and non-firm organizations aiming to create new

products and processes LIMITED TO THE MANUFACTURING


2. Total Factor Productivity

Technical progress in its broadest sense

It is the residual after subtracting from the growth rate of value added

the growth rates of capital and labour, weighted by their respective

shares in the FOR ALL THE ECONOMY

aggregate value added.

3. Firms’ Survey as the Community Innovation Survey

What is relevant for the destination country?

- The production of patents?

- Or its implementation which can produce employment and surplus in the

balance of payment?

Whitout the first is difficult to have other but not always.

What the government should do?

- Invest in research? Small country versus large countries

- Invest in education? Which type of education? STEM or genral?

- Favouring the entrance of Highly Skilled Foreigners?

- Or only Foregners specialized in STEM?

- Or only Foreign students?

Research approaches and results

Are highly skilled contributing to innovation?

The case of Foreign inventors

Is migration policy playing a role? 49

Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018

On this issue the research is very clear foreigners has a positive effect and

over-perform natives.

In the USA the change in Visa (H1-B) policy which favored the entrance of

highly skilled in Science and Technology migrants favored the growth of

foreign inventors.

Policy prescription

More liberal entrance of S&T migrants

But other conditions are even more important:

• Highly Skill Jobs available

• Wage premium: wage dispersion in the US is high wage 5 times low wage;

France and Netherland 2.9, Demark and Switzerland 2.7 Belgium and Sweden


• Language

• Open «Society» culture

• Open «Firm» Culture

Are migrants contributing to innovation?

Only STEM workers or also Tertiary educated foreigners?


• Variables used

• Quantity of migrants level or share

• Quality of foreign workers: education, occupation

• Age

• Diversity of country of origin

• Regional/sector/firm level

Theoretical background

• Immigrant diversity (Alesina et al. 2012)

– Contacts and interchanges between culturally diverse individuals

foster creativity (Jacobs, 1969)

– Culturally diverse environment attract creative individuals (Florida,


– Diversity in production or diversity across sectors ? (Jacob 1969,

Griliches, 1979)

– Difficulties in communication (language) reduce social capital

– Positive impact more likely for high skilled

sectoral specificities

• Innovation has important

– Knowledge base, technological opportunities, appropriability


– Waves of Immigrants contribute differently in different sectors and

diversity at the production level’ plays an important role


Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018

– Help disentangling the ‘black box’ of the positive coefficients for

diversity at the territorial level

Jacobs (1961): NY after WWII

- Externalities

- Importance of the environment

- Also low skilled and migrants not in the labour force

- Diversity index

Prevaling results with all the approaches are:

• Highly skilled migrants hold a positive role, but when the comparison with

the natives is done they hold a lower coefficient than natives.

• Low skilled migrants has a negative effect in low tech sector

• At sector level different effect according to the sector diversity not

significant at sector level 51

Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018

Additional evidence of sector complementarity:

Foreign low skilled workers in the family services are complement to native

highly skilled woman.

Migration Policy should not favour country of origin diversity, thus they

not use QUOTA

should preferences

• A. USA no national preferences

• B. Eu Blue card universal, no geopolitical preferences however used by

Germany, Belgium and France with geopolitical limitation

Bilateral partnership agreements Neighbourhood policies

• and which

have territorial limitation do not pursue this objective

Total factor Productivity

• Variables used

• Share of migrants

• Quality of foreign workers: education, occupation

• Age

• Diversity of country of origin

• Regional/sector/firm level

Results of TFP:

• Positive effect of highly skilled migrants but not in all sectors,

• Diversity significant at regional but not at sector level,

• Age of migrants 52

Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018

• negative in High teck sectors Young workers are more productive,

• positive in services Old workers are more productive

Firm level

Results are very different for different sampling and different environment.

But in general diversity can be significant only outside the firm.

Which migration policy could favour innovation?

demand driven,

The migration policy should be no quota limitation is

highest human

neccesary (diversity is not an innovation driver), while the

capital should lead the selection.

foreign inventors

If the country is in search of who overperform natives, it

STEM and needed

should implement a clear migration policy which focus on


highly skilled migrants

But also will contribute to patent production even if

less than the natives.

• If the priority is the growth and the TFP is the appropriate measure =>the

policy should be open to tertiary educated migrants who spurr growth in all

the sectors.

complementarity between sectors

• of different intensity in human capital

complementarity of soft skills

and the play an important role.

• low-skilled workers contribute to the creation of a synergic environment,

which favours the increase in productivity

The instruments to be used are at disposal, the EU Blue Card, the national HS

system but they should be led by the demand.

An open only to highly skilled migration policy as a supply side policy will

produce a lot of brain waste which is not what is needed.

Both native and migrants suffer of brain waste.

27 aprile

The effect in the sending countries

The effect

The effect of migration in the sending countries

- Population: size, growth and skill composition

- Growth of the economy

- Employment rate

- Wealth-poverty

- Through remittances and mouvement of..


A-Channel of entrance of remittances:

-banks, (loans)

-money transfers, 53

Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018


-in kind

Difficult to measure 54

Migration in Europe mod.2 – A. Venturini a.a 2017/2018





3.43 MB




4 mesi fa

Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in scienze internazionali
Università: Torino - Unito
A.A.: 2018-2019

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher itscay di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Migration in Europe e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Torino - Unito o del prof Venturini Alessandra.

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