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Leo Lionni born in 1910 and he has written many stories. Leo Lionni was an engineer for a

computer company. When he retired, he came to Italy in Chianti, where he died in 2010. In his free

time, he love painting and create stories. A lot of stories are populated by animals.

There are a lot of research about how people learn the language. The greatest discoveries are

american, except for Piaget, who was swiss. We know a lot about how we learn a first language. A

child learns his first language just listening. We know that that child, when he was 6 months old,

starts to bubbling, but, when he was 12 months old, he can say “mama” and “good” first word.

When he was 18, he can speak quite complete sentences.

Piaget was a psychologist and an educated. His learning theory was based different stages of

development. According to Piaget, children learn when they interact with the world around them.

Children learn thought the assimilation: they create a sort of bag of solution. The accommodation

in when the child tries to change his behavior to solve problems. Child learns with the sensory

motor stage: watching, hearing, touching, tasting…. After children became able to categorize,

classification, establish relationships….. They actively explore the environment, as the house,

family relationships, the school…. But Piaget forgot mainly to consider social factors and the

interactions with other human beings. Vygotskij considered social envelopment for the child.

Children learn with the help and the interaction of the adults.

As a consequence of Vygotskij and Bruner’s studies on the development of the child a

methodology as worked out which takes into consideration the fact of child learns internalizing the

results of interactions with others and peers? Which is this methodology?

Vygotskij was known for the theory of the ZPD (Zone of Proximal Development). The zone is a

distance between what the child knowns and what the child is suppose to be able to know with the

the hell of his family, of a good teacher…. Interaction with peers is the most important element in

the children group.

Which methodologies teacher may use to develop strategies in children?

Bruner call this assistance and support from the adult as scaffolding.

A storyteller is a person who is able to capturing attention. In the Anglo-Saxon countries is born an

old tradition of storyteller. Storyteller are always existed: in the USA, in England… there were clubs

where members love tell stories in front of other people. A good storyteller can’t consider boring

form other people. A good teacher should love tell stories.

Frederick by Leo Lionni

Frederick is a story of a small mouse which lives in a big mice family in an abandoned farm in a


Frederick, a field mouse, did not collect food for the winter like his friends did. They often asked

him what he was doing. He would say he was collecting sun rays, colors and words for the winter.

His friends did not understand and continued to working. When winter came, and they went to their

winter hideout, the food supply reduced and mice was very sad because they had no more food. It

was Frederick who lifted them up with this sun rays, color, and poetic words he had collected

before winter that helped all his friends survive that winter.

Frederick, un topo di campagna, non raccogliere cibo per l'inverno come fanno i suoi amici.

Spesso gli chiedono cosa stesse facendo. Stava raccogliendo i raggi del sole, i colori e le parole

per l'inverno. I suoi amici non lo hanno capito e continuano a lavorare. Quando venne l'inverno, e

si sono rifugiati nel loro nascondiglio invernale, le provviste di cibo sono diminuite e così come i

loro spiriti. Fu Frederick che li sollevò con questo i raggi del sole, i colori e le parole poetiche che

aveva raccolto prima dell’inverno che aiutarono tutti i suoi amici a sopravvivere all’inverno. 1

Fish is fish by Leo Lionni

The protagonists of the story are a fish and a frog.

Avanotto (in Italian) and minnow (in english) is the name of the little baby of the fish.

Girino (in Italian) and tadpole (in english) is the name of the little baby of the frog.

Minnow and tadpole are destiny to grow in two different way. The tadpole will have very long legs

and, when the frog is quite ready, it can live in pond.

Non sense is stupidaggini.

Arguments is litigare.

Fish has no plural. The Italian language has different name for different groups of animals. Shoal of

fish is branco di pesci.

Bank is riva.

The story is about a minnow and a tadpole. Time goes on and the fish grows into a larger fish and

the tadpole into a frog. Finally the frog is able to leave the pond, but he returns to tell his old friend

about the world. The fish pictures the birds as colorful fish with wings, the cow as a hilarious furry

fish with horns and udders and the people as fish in clothing with hair. Of course the fish wants to

see these amazing things so he jumps out. So he discovers that he needs to be in the watery to

survive. The frog saves him. In the end, both fish and frog are happy with their own unique worlds.

Fish tells tadpole: "You were right ... Fish is fish."

La storia parla di un avanotto e un girino. Il tempo passa e il pesce diventa un pesce più grande e il

girino una rana. Alla fine, la rana è in grado di lasciare lo stagno, ma torna a raccontare al pesce il

mondo. Il pesce si immagina gli uccelli come pesci colorati con le ali, la mucca come un pesce

peloso esilarante con le corna e mammelle e le persone come pesci vestiti con i capelli.

Naturalmente il pesce vuole vedere queste cose incredibili così salta fuori. Lui scopre che ha

bisogno di stare nell’acqua per sopravvivere. La rana lo salva. Alla fine, il pesce e la rana sono

felici nei loro mondi unici. Il pesce dice al girino: “Avevi ragione ... il pesce è il pesce”.

There are two ways in which I can use the english language. I can use the english language to

teaching and, using the point of view popular, to work on something also through english.

Teaching skills

How to access your thinking skills?

The test TSA (Thinking Skills Assessment) tests problem-solving skills, including numerical and

spatial reasoning. Critical thinking skills,including understanding argument and reasoning using

everyday language.

Students don’t need any familiarity with specific tests or theoretical frameworks - they’re simply

being tested on their ability to think thought problems and arguments, critically and logically.


assesses a general academic aptitude that applies to a wide range of different countries, from

• Geography to Politics, provides a benchmark that all applicants can be measured against,

regardless of their background, nationality, gender or qualifications.

offers a vital additional selection filter for coursers that typically attract a large filed of high

• achieving applicants.

is useful for assessing the suitability of applicants to courses which attract candidates from a

• wide variety of subject backgrounds.

correlates with future academic achievement: research shows a strong positive relationship

• between TSA scores and on-courses success.

Every book of pedagogy has a chapter dedicated to Bloom. The 6 descriptors of thinking ability

developed by Bloom and revised about 20 years later by Anderson are:

Bloom’s taxonomy Anderson’s revised terms

knowledge remembering

comprehension understanding 2

Bloom’s taxonomy Anderson’s revised terms

application applying

analysis analyzing

synthesis evaluating

evaluation creating

These skills are divided in two levels: the first three are the low level (remembering, understanding

and applying) and the second three are the high level (analyzing, evaluating and creating).

In 1956, Bloom developed the taxonomy to describes the domain of critical thinking. In order to

propose higher form of thinking in education, this are the bases of pedagogy. We use them when

we design the education. Bloom identified three domains of educational activities:

Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge);

1. Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitudes);

2. Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills).


But there are some subcategories.

The verbs which can stay in the range of remembering are:


1. recalling;

2. listing;

3. describing;

4. identifying;

5. retrieving;

6. locating;

7. naming;

8. finding.

9. Sample Sentence Starters Potential activities and products

What happened after… Make a list of the main events of the story.

How many… ? What animals where in the story?

Can you name… ? Make a shopping list…

Can you recognize… ? Write something on a diary…

Who discovered… ? To create a timeline.

Do you know when… ? Play a memory game…

The verbs which can stay in the range of understanding are:


1. exemplifying;

2. classifying;

3. summarizing;

4. interferring;

5. comparing;

6. explaining;

7. distinguishing.

8. Sample Sentence Starters Potential activities and products

Can you write in your own words? Retell the story in your own words. 3

Sample Sentence Starters Potential activities and products

Can you explain.. ? Make a short summary.

Try to classify. Search for synonymous.

What is your interpretation… ? Interpreting a work for art.

What do you mean for… ? Describe an experience.

Can you rephrase… ? Classify why.

Draw a story map.

The verbs which can stay in the range of applying are:


1. working out;

2. producing;

3. completing;

4. organizing;

5. implementing;

6. making preparations.

7. Sample Sentence Starters Potential activities and products

Can you group by characteristics such as… ? Retell the story in your own words.

Try to work out a graphic… Produce something similar…

Can you organize… ? Organize in sequences….

How can you implement… ? Complete this chart…

Which factors would you change if… ? Can you distinguish between…

Can you execute… according to the given


Work out a man.

Organize a poster showing.

The verbs which can stay in the range of analyzing are:


1. focusing;

2. underlining;

3. outlining;

4. structuring;

5. integrating;

6. finding.

7. Sample Sentence Starters Potential activities and products

What do you see as others possible outcomes? Design a questionnaire to gather information.

Can you distinguish between… ? Write a commercial to self a new product.

What could happen if… ? Find the difference in… 4

Sample Sentence Starters Potential activities and products

Can you develop… ? Organize…

Try to underline. Make a family tree to show the relationship.

Can you select Develop an experiment.

Try to underline the most important sentence.

The verbs which can stay in the range of evaluating are:


1. decide;

2. argue;

3. conclude;

4. judge;

5. test;

6. score;

7. critique.

8. Sample Sentence Starters Potential activities and products

Is there a better solution to… ? Form a panel to discuss views.

Do you think … is a good or a bad thing? Express your opinion on a specific issue.

How do you feel if… ? Find advantages/disadvantages.

Collect, discuss and interpret data.

What do you think about… ? Draw inferences from data.

How effective are… ?

The verbs which can stay in the range of creating are:


1. combine;

2. create;

3. design;

4. invent;

5. hypothesize;

6. develop;

7. plan;

8. produce;

9. construct;

10. Sample Sentence Starters Potential activities and products

Can you design a… ? Invent a new ending.

What would happen if… ? Create a new product.

Can you create a new and unusual use for… ? Write about your feelings in relation to…

Write a role play.

How many ways can you… ? Sell an idea.

Can you develop a proposal which would… ? 5


Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences

We have to helping children to learning to think and learning to learn. Learning needs to be

constructive and situated.


1. Enjoy listening, but are always ready to talk

• Love poetry, music, dialogues, skits, debates

• Learn thought verbal instructions

• Discuss about different characters point of view

1. Compose a poem

2. Brainstorm on…

3. Introducing people

4. Give a speech about

5. Summarize

6. Dramatize and role play



2. They think in an ordered sequential way

• Use reason and logic to solve problems

• Put into sequences

1. Draw a chart or a diagram

2. Find causes

3. Count and rank

4. Compare and contrast

5. Divide according to patterns

6. Measure



3. Learn by seeing, watching demonstrations

• Enjoy leaning form visual display and colours

• Like pictures, graphical organizers, maps

• Make a picture, draw a map

1. Observe a situaton

2. Illustrate a story

3. Design cartoons

4. Make posters/collage

5. Build models/ give shapes



4. They learn by hands-on experiences

• Like working with materials

• Remember that they have done more than what they have listened to or seen/read

• Make puppets

1. Move following instructions

2. Mime something

3. Perform thought dance, drama…



5. They can compose and perform musically

• They have a natural rhythm

• Have the ability to comunicate through music, poetry

• Sing and reproduce sounds

1. Make a rap

2. Compose poem, a song, a nursery rhyme

3. Play an instrument

4. Produce a short video

5. 7

Keep the rhythm



6. They work well as members of a group

• They are good leaders

• They are very persuasive

• When making decisions, they listen to the others

• Work in pairs, groups

1. Do interviews

2. Invent and perform skits

3. Develop games

4. Share the rules

5. Organize for the group



7. Listen a lot to theirs own dreams, aspirations, emotions

• Self-focused

• Keep a diary, record…

1. Write about yourself, your experiences

2. Carry out an activity and explain to the others

3. Make a list of things you are interested in and link them to the topics



8. They love categorizing

• They always observe things in nature others would miss

• They are able to recognize and make distinctions between things

• Run a terrarium

1. Keep a garden and grow vegetables

2. Observe and explore nature

3. Use recycle materials to recreate something

4. Collect and use leaves, flowers, herbs, brunches…

5. 8

Knowing is not enough: we must apply. Willing is not enough, we must do. [Johann Wolfgang von


Faccio dunque capisco. [Maria Montessori]

Learning by doing

Stories, which rely so much on words, offer a mayor and constant source of life and of language

experience for students. Stories are motivating and memorable, rich in language experience and


Surely stories should be a central part of the work all teachers, whether they are teaching the

mother tongue or a foreign language.

Here are some of the most important reasons why stories should play in a central role in teaching a

foreign language. [A. Wright, Oxford 2008]

Storytelling and language teaching

Stories are a powerful means of language teaching. A skillful teacher can use stories to develop

“more efficient listening, more fluent speaking and the ability to read and write easly and

competently”. [Garvie, 1990]

How can stories develop students’ language skills?

Stories can be used:

- to practice both speaking and writing skills;

- to encourage group sharing, team building and cooperative text-making;

- as opportunity to develop oral fluency and confidence;

- for specific language practice of tenses/adjectives;

- for specific language practice of functions;

- for development of extensive writing (narrative, description, dialogue and character


- to provide an incentive for learners to write, edit, reformulate, their writing so it can be shared

with others;

- to prepare students for the narrative components of exams such as First;

- to encourage learners to read more appreciatively. [Jane Spiro Storybuilding, Oxford 2006].

Stories can develop memory, we remember even whole “chunks” of language. In retelling we also

summarize, edit and develop. We add or cut, we can exaggerate a character to make him/her

more frightening or funner. We need to be clear about what we want to say. Why, how and for

whom. Broad skills and abilities are required:

Have I made my point clear?

Have I marked clearly the stages of my narrative?

A good writer of stories is a good writer. A good storyteller is a skilled and confident. Can people be

taught to tell a story?


How to practice:

- giving emphasis;

- making the characters “rounded” and realistic;

- choosing details to make a story come alive; 9


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Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea in scienze della formazione primaria
Università: Firenze - Unifi
A.A.: 2016-2017

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher likelikelike di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Laboratorio di lingua inglese e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Firenze - Unifi o del prof Mancini Francesca.

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