Video appunto: English Pronunciation

Standard Southern British English ( is just one variety of English pronunciation)compared with General American

Pronunciation and spelling

Language is not only oral but even written.(to communicate)
Speech(oral) is the primary way human express.
Speech is a sequence of sounds.
Speech and language are linked.


Necessary to understand people, to speak and to improve our skills.
Is for speech, while the spelling is for writing.
We need to know both(they are closer)
ssbe ga
•secretary /ˈsekrətri//ˈsekrɪˌteri/
•wonder/ˈwʌndə(r)/ /ˈwʌndər/
•wander/ˈwɒndə(r)/ /ˈwɒndər/
•queue/kjuː/ /kjuː/
•maid/meɪd/ /meɪd/
•made/meɪd/ /meɪd/

In English there are 26 letters, but 44 sounds in the language. (so the number of sounds is not always the same as the number of letters) and also there isn't a correspondence between the grapheme(the letter) and a sound. Graphemes could be , , .. sounds are /ei/ o /a:/... It is the spelling of a sound, the letter (writing system) <..>

The sound of speech is studied by phonetic and phonology.
Phonology is the study of the sound system. Its unit of analysis is the phoneme. The phoneme is the minimal unit of the sound; it is abstract. /.../
Phonetics is the study of the physical properties of speech sound (acoustic), how they are pronounced and how they are perceived. The unit is the phone [...] The phone is the physical realisation of a phoneme , the "noise".

International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), since 1888. It is universal. Many of the symbols are drawn by the Roman Alphabet.

12 monophthongs = 5 long and 7 short.
8 diphthongs.
Vowels are described according to the opening of the mouth, position of the tongue, the shape of the lips.

Minimal pair is a pair of words that differ just for one single sound, very similar.

Rhotic vs non-rhotic accent. by John Wells for two kind of spoken English.
Rhotic accent = /r/ pronounced wherever it is graphically present. (GA)
non-rhotic accent = /r/ is pronounced in initial position and inter vocalically but not post-vocalically(beard, work) or in final position(mother) (SSBE)