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Aim

To aim is to direct something toward a particular object or purpose. For example, you could aim for a target or aim for a specific goal, such as graduating from college a year early. As a noun your aim is a measurement of ability to direct something toward a particular purpose, goal, or target. For instance, you could have excellent or very poor aim when playing golf.
Ex: Timothy aims to become a district attorney before he is 25 years old. In order to do so, he will need to complete law school and pass the bar exam very soon.
Ex: My cousin was recognized with a sharpshooter's award by the military for his excellent aim which has distinguished him amongst the others in his unit.
To take aim is to concentrate and physically prepare yourself to hit a target, for instance, you would take aim when preparing to shoot a bow and arrow for a bullseye.
Ex: Before you start shooting, take a moment to lower your shoulders, check your stance and take aim at the target.
Ex: Before the bombers left the ground they had attended several instructional sessions where maps were displayed with the places where they were to take aim.

Target

A target is something that you are trying to hit, or an object or goal you are aiming at. A target is usually physical, but it can be non-tangible, such as a target weight or a target number of sales.
Ex: After paying my four pounds to try the game, I tried to throw the ball into the basket, but I kept missing my target over and over again.
Ex: Hank could tell that the arrow was well on its way to hitting the target. He was relieved, because another miss would have eliminated him from the competition.
To be on target is to be where you need to be in order to accomplish a goal. If you are on target in a physical sense, you are going to hit the target. In a figurative sense, you will meet your goal.
Ex: Since the ball Fred threw was right on target, the wicket fell and Jonathan was out on the first ball of the cricket match.
Ex: Michelle wanted to lose enough weight to fit into her new dress for the university dinner. She is on target to meet her goal right now, having lost over 15 pounds thus far.
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