There was a passing from a war of action to a war in trenches characterized by passivity, stagnation.
The war in trenches imposed sacrifices not only to the soldiers, but also to the people who suffered serious restrictions. In 1917 the food situation became critical, increased inflation and spread diseases such as tuberculosis and cholera.
Trench warfare was characterized by the immobility and didn’t bring results in conflict. In many countries, such as France, England and Italy were born currents that opposed the war. The workers went on strike and promoted often violent demonstrations and on the front there were the first cases of desertion, driven by a climate of resignation among the soldiers .
On 3 March 1918 Russia signed peace with Germany and came out from the war.
After the withdrawal of Russia, Austria and Germany attacked the Italian front; On 24 October was attacked Caporetto: The "route" of Caporetto testified the limitation of the Italian troops.
The government promised economic benefits for the soldiers after the war, including a distribution of lands.
In the spring of 1918 the German army attacked France. German troops penetrated into the lines of the Anglo-French, which launched a violent and victorious counterattack that destroyed the German front. The German emperor proposed an armistice, but the command of the Entente demanded a complete surrender. After successfully resisted the attacks Austrians, the Italian army defeated them in Vittorio Veneto 24 October 1918.
Austria signed the armistice November 4, 1918 and Germany 11.