The Industrial Revolution
The industrial revolution took plays in England from 1760 to 1840 and it spread to other parts of the word. It reshaped Great Britain from the social and economic point of view, it was a process of change from a farming country to industrial one.
The most important events of industrial revolution are:
- increase of population, which meant a request for more goods;
- new technical innovations;
- the use of new materials, coal, iron and stell;
- the use of new power sources, such as the stell engine;
- transportation and communication;
- the new organization of work, that is called “factory system”. It consist in a division of labor and specialization of functions.
The bad consequences are:
- great social unrest;
- drastic reduction of people employed;
- people lived their native places to look for work. A lot of people were reduced to starving.
A lot of workers are badly paid, badly fed and badly clothed. People had to work in the factories for up to 16 hours a day in bad condition of hygiene and sanity. Women and children were paid less than man. They lived in slums which lacked the most elementary sanitation and were common alcoholism and illness. There was a high death rate.
In this period, there was "Romantic Age". The Romantic Age is the period which goes from 1776 to 1830. This period is called also "age of revolutions". We have got three important revolutions: French revolution, American revolution and industrial revolution. French and american revolution have together the seam ideas: freedom, brotherhood and loyalty. But we must remember this revolution because it reshaped the social and political background of the nation, because it started a change from an agriculture to industrial one.
1775: the War of American independence
1773: the famous Boston tea party. Rebels dressed like native Americans through the british tea from India and from other parts of English empire into the harbor.
1776 on 1st July in Philadelphia: the congress sins the Declaration of Independence. This Declaration was written by Thomas Jefferson. Thomas Jefferson was a famous lawyer from Virginia. With the Declaration of Independence, the new colonies became a new nation. This declaration claimed that the men had a natural right to life, freedom and pursuit happiness.
The Pelgrim fathers, in 1620, stopped themselves on the East Coast and they founded a New England. New England was composed by six states: Maine, Vermont, Massachusetts, Hampshire, Rode Island and Connecticut. The first American president is George Washington. The American constitution is called Federal Constitution.