Imperialism and Revolution in continents outside Europe
At the beginning of '900 European supremacy began to be threatened by the emergence of the United States, Japan and China. In addition, the European population continued to increase but not decrease the gap with the Eastern peoples in which the introduction of new agricultural techniques and modern methods of treatment and prevention did lower the death rate. In Europe it spreads the idea of a Yellow Peril (coined by Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany for the Boxer Rebellion).
2. The Russo-Japanese War.
The contrast Russia-Japan began after the victory of Japan against China that came into conflict for control of the North-east. After having allied himself with Britain, Japan proposed to Russia an agreement for the division of Manchuria that was rejected. The Japanese fleet attacked the Russian (siege to Port Arthur), penetrated into Manchuria defeating the army and the fleet.
Russia signed the Treaty of Portsmouth that ceded to Japan the southern Manchuria, the island of Sakhalin and Korea. This aggravated the internal tensions in Russia that led to the revolution of 1905. For the first time an Asian country beat a great European power and the East ceased to be scope for the undisputed European powers avviandosi to become arena of competition between 2 nascent imperialism: Japanese and US.
3. The Republic of China.
Japan's victory gave impetus to the national struggles of the peoples of Asia, especially in China. La Mancha dynasty was unable to promote a process of national rescue (failed with boxers). In 1905, Sun Yat-Sen (doctor who had stayed in Europe) established the Tung meng hui (secret organization) based on the three principles of the people:
1. national independence
2. representative democracy
3. well-being of the people
it was formed by intellectuals, army officers, the industrial proletariat and bourgeoisie business. The imperial court sought to introduce a program of modernization and when the control of the railway network was entrusted to foreign companies there were riots and mutinies. Subsequently revolutionary assembly declared the fallen dynasty Mancha electing Sun Yat-sen president. General Yuan Shi-kai was sent to quell the uprising but sided with the rioters and was appointed president. But the trade-off between the democratic forces broke down in a short time and the new president dissolved parliament and exiled Sun Yat-sen by establishing a personal dictatorship backed by foreign powers who blew up several civil wars.
4. Imperialism and reforms in the United States.
The United States continued to grow stronger thanks to their economic development:
• In industry (steel, mechanical, electrical and oil) were more concentrated financial shares. It was passed the Sherman Antitrust Act prohibiting price agreements between entrepreneurs in the same sector and they did raise prices, but got the opposite effect to that intended because companies merged and the United States became an exporter of industrial products.
• In the agricultural sector were used technology and chemistry. The excessive power of corporations and the rigid protectionism did spread the discontent of the farmers affected by the high prices of manufactured goods. The Populist Party formed by farmers was inspired by ideals of democracy and egalitarianism and was highly successful. During this period they also developed the workers' organizations but they had a party of reference but gained little later. But this is not rendered less harsh social contrasts and labor struggles collided with a tough resistance and had violent conflicts.
Roosevelt, the Progressive Republican, became president and defended American interests in the world with the economic pressure to threats of interventions (dollar diplomacy) and the threat of armed intervention (big stick). With the issue of the Panama Canal the United States obtained authorization from Colombia to build and operate a canal that would unite the Pacific and the Caribbean Sea. But then Colombia did not ratify the pact and the United States staged a riot and Panama became an independent republic under the protection of American and built the canal. In domestic politics Roosevelt opened to social problems and introduced a number of measures regarding social legislation. He tried to limit the power of large trusts (various companies) (publish profits). When Roosevelt left the presidency of the Republican Party was split. Wilson continued his social engagement by inserting it in a different political and ideological framework
He sought to strengthen the federal power
Left unchanged the protectionist customs regime was opposed to any restriction of the autonomy of the United
Taken the fight on lowering protective tariffs
Wilson was more cautious and respectful in international affairs and was convinced that the role of Member States should be based on the capacity expansion of the economy and on the loyalty to the basic principles of democratic tradition.
5. Latin America and the Mexican Revolution.
Latin America also experienced a great economic development based on the export of raw materials and agricultural products. It was also subject to immigration and grew large urban centers while not changing the subordinate position of the economy that depended on foreign investment. This increased reliance on exports and spread monoculture based on international demand. This did not allow the development in agriculture and kept the peasants in conditions semiservili, also was absent the manufacturing industry and the mining sector was controlled by foreign companies. These states were ruled by parliamentary regimes and inspired Republicans to liberalism 800 covering corruption and the total exclusion of farmers from politics. But it was assured political stability but there were upheavals:
• In Argentina there was a peaceful upheaval caused by the introduction of universal suffrage and the rise to power of the radical (expression middle classes)
• In Mexico, there was a revolutionary struggle against the regime of semidittatoriale Diaz leaned landed oligarchy. The liberal-progressive groups led by Madero and peasants led by Zapata and Villa forced Diaz to leave the country and Madero was elected president. But the moderate wing of the bourgeois (which aimed at a liberalization of public institutions) and the wing peasant (which aimed to land reform) came into conflict and President Madero was removed by a military coup that brought to power Huerta. The civil war continued violently to the presidency of Obregn which approved a democratic constitution.