Colonialism and imperialism
In the second half of the 800 colonialism it seemed sets. Over the century, however, an increase in the population of Europe brought about a strong emigration not only to America, but also to Africa, Asia and Australia. Financiers and bankers had also invested in mines and plantations of other continents and want to closely monitor their capital. Industrialists and merchants, in turn, wanted to expand their markets by exporting processed products and buying raw materials outside Europe. Finally, the Europeans wanted to export their culture: so also resumed exploration of unknown lands and the action of Christian missionaries. Colonialism turned into imperialism when it is aimed at the total economic exploitation of the colonized countries, both in their territorial control. It came about through military conquest of vast areas of Asia and Africa, the political domination of the colonies and a new type of economic exploitation, and did not bring any progress to the colonized peoples.
In 1884 the great powers met in Berlin Congress to set the rules by which divide the world that immediately sparked rivalries between nations. Italy, after trying in vain to compete with France for control of Tunisia, went to the conquest of Ethiopia, but the venture ended in disaster (1896); in 1911 took the turkish Empire Libya Price of vicious massacres. In 1912 he took away also Rhodes and the Dodecanese islands. The conquest turned out, however, expensive and disappointing. Among the many nefarious deeds of imperialism shows the behavior of the English, who were buying silver in China barattandolo with opium, a drug that spread rapidly reducing the population in a state of total dependence. The Emperor of China tried to react by moving the war to the English, but was defeated in 1842, after three years of so-called Opium War. Over the last 800 years also the United States and Japan began to follow a policy of imperialist type. America won the Hawaiian Islands and Samoa, the Philippines and Cuba. Japan, which in 1868 overthrew the feudal system by starting a run forced Westernization, became, around 1900, a major industrial power and conquered Manchuria and Korea.