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Grape and soil

There are many types of soil and grape variety. A vineyard must be situated in a full sunlight, in a well-drained soil because the water is most important for a soil. Also for the vineyard, it is not necessary that soil is fertile.
Vitis vinifera
Vitis vinifera is a common grape wine, and has two species native from central Europe to northern Iran. Vitis vinifera is important because produces enough grapes. In addition, grapevines of v.vinifera require sun, medium water and a drainage.
Vitis lambrusca
Vistis lambrusca is an aromatic grape native to Canada. It is typically dark blue or purple and it is used for soft drinks


Winter: begin around November the vines are pruned after severally and manure is placed their base.
Spring: is around April, the buds begin to break through the weeds are removed.
Summer: the grapes grow on the wines, the lease around them are pruned to allow most sun to reach grapes.
Autumn: is harvest season. The winemakers goes out to measure the sugar levels of the grapes to determine the optimum level.


Several factors depends the period for harvesting , like climate conditions, area of production, type of grape and type of wine to be obtained.
We have 2 types of harvesting: manure and mechanical.
The first is the most important technique, but the most expensive because of the labor.
The second is most important like the first, but causes much damage to wines.
Wine making
Different types of wine require different quantities of sugar, acids and aromatic compounds.

Red wines

Red wines is obtained by mixing marc and must in fermentation. The phase of fermentation consist in conversion of the sugar and must into alcohol and last from 6-10 days.
White wines
To obtained a white wine must do the basic step:
• Removal grapes stalks
• Grape crushing
• Cleaning
• Decantation
• Filtering
• Alcoholic fermentation
• Draining off

Rose wines

In the rose wine, the juice is in contact with the dark skins to pick up a pinkish color
Sparkling wines
To obtain a sparkling wine, must do an additional fermentation.
Sweet wines
All the end to obtain a sweet wine, the fermentation only proceeds up to a certain except, than either steps stops naturally or it’s stopped artificially by the addiction of alcohol
The fermentation is divided in primary and secondary. In the primary fermentation, the yeasts convert the sugar contained in the grape juice into ethanol. In the secondary fermentation, the remaining sugars are converted into alcohol.


Olive oil is obtained from the olive of Mediterranean area where climate are wild and sung. Olive trees grow slowly and live very long, olive are harvested in late autumn. Al the end, the best olive is the extra-virgin.

Sunflower oil

Originated in North America. Today it is grown worldwide, in Italy is cultivated in the central regions. Sunflowers gives oil extracted from seeds and it is used in food and cosmetics.

Peanut oil

Peanut oil is organic material oil derived from peanuts. It is most commonly used when frying foods.

Hydrogenated oil

Hydrogenated oil is and oil in which the essential fatty acids have been converted to a different chemical form which has several effects. He was realized that is products might have deleterious health effects.

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