The development of English industry is based upon internally as companies reinvest profits by exploiting labor. Later there was the birth of the corporation: the capital of a company was divided into several units called actions. The stock market became the mirror of the economy of the country. Also with the railroad and the steel industry there was an involvement of banks and the state, and this evolution took place gradually in England.
According to the German economist Max Weber in his essay The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, the mentality Protestant (Calvinist) is particularly suited to the development inustriale since it focuses on the importance of economic success understood as a sign of divine favor in against the individual. Other scholars have highlighted the role of education with the development of technical schools or the importance of culture dell'intrapresa and others have emphasized the role of minorities that make forms of guaranteed income.
There was a large urban population growth especially in the cities of London and Manchester because of location of factories in the cities. There were, however, dramatic living conditions of the lower classes who were the center of attention and became known as the social question.
The duration of the working day was exhausting, and the workers were working in unhealthy environments lack protection and subjected to the threat of dismissal. Even women and children worked after six years in the textile industry especially for small fingers and tapered. They also perceived a lower wage than men. The situation of workers worsened but improved the living conditions of the general population.