Cubism :A term describing a revolutionary style of painting created jointly by Braque and Picasso in the period 1907-14 and subsequently applied to a broad movement centred in Paris. Cubism was a complex phenomenon but in essence it involved a new way of representing the world. Abandoning the idea of a single fixed viewpoint, Cubist pictures used a multiplicity of viewpoints, so that many different aspects of an object could be simultaneously depicted in the same picture.
Such fragmentation of form meant that painting could now be regarded less a kind of window through which an image of the world is seen, and more as a physical object on which a subjective response to the world is created.
Braque and Picasso met 1907. At this time, Braque had been overwhelmed by the memorial exhibition of Cezanne's work at the Salon d'Automne and Picasso had spent much of the year working on Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, in which the angular and aggressive forms owed much to the influence of African Sculpture. These two sources-Cezanne and primitive art- were great importance in the genesis of Cubism. Cezanne's late work, showed how a sense of solidity and pictorial structure could be created without perspective or modelling; and primitive art offered an example of expressively distorted forms and freedom from inhibition. The pictures to which the term Cubism was a first applied were a group of landscape painted by Braque, and in reviewing this painting Louis Vauxcelles used the expression "bizarreries cubiques" and by 1911 the term Cubism had entered the English language.
Braque and Picasso's Cubist mature work is usually divided into two phases-Analytical Cubism and Synthetic Cubism. In the Analytical phase the relatively solid massing of their earliest Cubist paintings gave way to a process of composition in which the forms of the object depicted are fragmented. This pictorial structure led to colour being downplayed, and the archetypal Analytical Cubist paintings are virtually monochromatic.
Braque introduced the use of stencilled lettering. Picasso took this stage further when he produced his first collages,These developments - making a more relaxed and decorative art-ushered in Synthetic Cubism. The image being built up from pre-existing elements or shapes rather than being created through a process of fragmentation. One consequence of this concern was reintroduced colour to their paintings.
Cubism was the starting point of several other movements, including Futurism, Purism and Vorticism, as well as a spur to artist. In the applied art had huge and varied impact on modern pictorial culture: Cubist painting gave to artists complete freedom to deal with reality in art. These developments have been enormously fruitful- they have been and they continue to be the basis of much of the best of modern art.