Fabrics are classified according to their fibres. There are two main classes of fabrics - the natural and man-made fabrics. Each class is further classified into sub-classes.
These are from either plants which are known as "vegetable fibres" for example cotton and linen; or from animals specifically called "animal fibres" for example wool and silk.
Man-made or artificial fibres can be cellulose-based like rayon and acetate or non-cellulose based for example polyesters.
Manufacturing process of cotton fibres:
Cotton fabrics are the number one mostly used materials in the world for obtaining various clothes types and they are processed from the bolls by the following steps:
1. Ginning: This is the process of separating or removing cotton fibres from the seeds. The hairs left in the seed after gunning are called linters.
2. Balling: The ginned cotton is pressed into bales. The bales are sent to factory or mill.
3. Carding: At this stage, many shorter fibres are removed. The longer ones are formed into thick ropes. The ropes are called silvers.
4. Combing: This is the process or removing more short fibres.
5. Drawing: This is the process of twisting the ropes and making them ready for spinning.
6. Cleaning: The impurities in the cotton are removed in the mill.
7. Spinning: This is the process of making the twisted fibres into yarn or thread.
8. Dyeing: The yarn can be bleached or dyed iron different colours and woven into fabrics.
9. Weaving: The yarns are used to produce fabrics.