Video appunto: Brexit
The term Brexit comes from the combination of the words "Britain" and "Exit", which designates in fact the exit of the UK from the European Union, which is an economic and political union between 28 countries that guarantees free trade and free movement to work and live.
The UK joined the EU in 1973, but overtime they felt less and less integrated because of their geographical position, so the country experienced a growing mistrust of the EU (Eurosceptisism). In addition, before the UK entered the EU, it was a powerful country, so citizens thought that they would be better off without being in the EU.
For all these reasons, in 2013 the Prime Minister David Cameron promised a referendum on the EU, which took place on the 23rd of June 2016; 52% of Britons voted for Leave, while 48% voted for Remain. Leave voters were overall benefits claimants, poorer areas and workingclass people. Besides, many campaigns gave misleading information, aimed at certain group of people to influence their vote.
The day after the referendum, Cameron resigned and Theresa May became Prime Minister.
Brexit was due to happen on the 29th of March 2019, two years after May invoked article 50, but the Members of the Parliament rejected the deal three times. The deal is a withdrawal agreement that sets out the terms of the separation process.
When Boris Johnson became Prime Minister, he affirmed that the UK would have left the EU at all costs; his slogan "do or die" became famous among British citizens.
He wanted to remove the Irish backstop from the deal but the EU refused, so he said that he would have left with or without an agreement.
However, many experts and economists have assumed the consequences of a no-deal Brexit and they are not pleasant. There will be more checks on British goods at the ports, causing traffic bottlenecks and delays in the delivery. People will only have 10 days of fresh food, since the UK imports many goods from the EU, and shopping bills will increase by 10%. Finally, medicine supplies may be delayed and there will be a shortage of food, drugs, vaccines and products for transplants.
When the UK leaves, EU citizens will need to apply for "settled status", in order to remain in the country.
Originally, October 31st 2019 was meant to be the day when the UK left the European Union, however, it didn't happen. On the 28th, in fact, it was revealed that Brexit would no longer go ahead as planned and had once again been delayed and a General Election would be held on the 12th December.
Brexit hasn't happened that day because Donald Task, President of the European Council, announced that the EU had agreed to another Brexit extension for the UK. The new deadline was set on the 31st of January 2020.
As you might know, the UK did finally leave on the 31st of January, but now there is a transition period which will end on 31 December 2020, during which the UK and the EU will negotiate their future relations. Besides, the UK remains subject to EU law and remains part of the EU customs union and single market during the transition, but is no longer part of the EU's political bodies or institutions.