The civilization of ancient Palestine
The "land of Canaan", then known as Palestine, it is a vital trade hub, and thus enjoys an exceptional development. For a long time was dominated by the Egyptians and Hittites and invaded by the "sea people". The Jewish civilization and Phoenicians know full development only starting from 1100 BC.
The oldest history of the Jews are told in the Bible, a work that includes different texts dating back to a period between the 10th and 3rd-2nd century BC according to biblical tradition, around 1700 BC, some groups of Jews are emigrating in Egypt where they are enslaved. are then freed under the leadership of Moses and return to Palestine (1250 BC).
Towards the end of the 13th century BC the Jewish society enters crisis and cause serious socio-economic difficulties. Under pressure from the Philistines, the various Jewish tribes organize and recognize the authority of a ruler: the first is king Saul (BC 1020). The Kingdom of Israel was conquered by the Assyrians in 721 BC.
The Jewish monotheism
If the Jews give rise to marginal status in relation to the political history of the Near East, they inaugurated a whole new way of looking at religion: they are the first people in history to be monotheistic, or loyal to one God.