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AIDS is the result of damage to the immune system. AIDS is an extremely serious condition and at this stage the body is unable to protect the virus HIV; but a damaged immune system is not only more vulnerable to HIV, but also to the attacks of any sort of infections. AIDS is right caused by the virus HIV; HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It’s necessary say that some viruses stay in the body only for a few days; some viruses, such as HIV, never go away. When a person becomes infected with HIV, that person becomes "HIV positive" and will always be HIV positive: besides a person, who is HIV positive, is said to have AIDS. The link between AIDS and HIV was not established until 1984.
The names HIV and AIDS can be confusing because both terms describe the same disease. Think of AIDS as advanced HIV disease. A person with AIDS has an immune system so weakened by HIV that the person usually becomes sick from one of several opportunistic infections or cancers. AIDS usually takes time usually between 2 to 10 years or more.


Hiv is present in the blood, semen and vaginal fluids of infected people, but can only be passed on to another person if those fluids get into that person’s body.
Ways in which you can be infected with HIV :
· Unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected person
Sexual intercourse without a condom is risky, because the virus, which is present in an infected person's sexual fluids, can pass directly into the body of their partner.
· Contact with an infected person's blood
If sufficient blood from an infected person enters the body of an uninfected person then it can pass on the virus.
· From mother to child
Most of the children who have HIV got it because their mothers were infected and passed the virus to them before they were born. Babies born with HIV infection may not show any symptoms at first, but the progression of AIDS is often faster in babies than in adults. Doctors need to watch them closely. Kids who have HIV or AIDS learn more slowly than healthy kids and tend to start walking and talking later.
· Use of infected blood products
Many people in the past have been infected with HIV by the use of blood transfusions and blood products which were contaminated with the virus - in hospitals, for example. In much of the world this is no longer a risk, as blood donations are routinely tested.
· Injecting drugs
People who use illegal injected drugs are also vulnerable to HIV infection. In many parts of the world, often because it is illegal to possess them, injecting equipment or works are shared. A tiny amount of blood can transmit HIV, and can be injected directly into the bloodstream with the drugs.
It is not possible to become infected with HIV through :
· sharing crockery and cutlery
· insect / animal bites
· touching, hugging or shaking hands
· eating food prepared by someone with HIV
· toilet seats


Most people don't feel any different after they are infected with HIV. In fact, infected people often do not experience symptoms for years. Some people develop flu-like symptoms a few days to a few weeks after being infected, but these symptoms usually go away after several days.
An HIV-positive person will eventually begin to feel sick. The person might begin to have swollen lymph nodes, weight loss, fevers that come and go, infections in the mouth, diarrhea, or he or she might feel tired for no reason all of the time. Eventually, the virus can infect all of the body's organs, including the brain, making it hard for the person to think and remember things.


People can help stop the spread of HIV by avoiding sexual contact with infected people. Health care workers (such as doctors, nurses, and dentists) help prevent the spread of HIV by wearing plastic gloves when working on a patient. Hospitals have strict procedures for handling samples of blood and other body fluids to prevent others from coming in contact with HIV.


New drugs make it possible for people who are HIV positive to live for years without getting AIDS. They can work or go to school, make friends, hang out, and do most of the things other people can do. They will have to take certain medicines every day and see their doctors very often, and they may get sick more than other people do because their immune systems are more fragile.
Even though they may look OK, people who are HIV positive may sometimes feel scared, angry, unhappy, or depressed. They may feel afraid that the people at work or school could find out and start treating them differently. It is important for all of us to remember that usual social contact, like eating lunch or playing games, with people who are HIV positive does not bring any risk of infection.
When HIV infection gets worse or turns into the disease called AIDS, life really changes. The person may need to spend a lot of time in bed or in the hospital because of serious illnesses. He or she may feel very tired or weak most of the time. The person also might lose weight.


Number of people living with HIV/AIDS in 2005 Estimate* Range*
Total 40.3 36.7-45.3
Adults 38.0 34.5-42.6
Women 17.5 16.2-19.3
Children 2.3 2.1-2.8
People newly infected with HIV in 2005 Estimate* Range*
Total 4.9 4.3-6.6
Adults 4.2 3.6-5.8
Children 0.70 0.63-0.82
AIDS deaths in 2005 Estimate* Range*
Total 3.1 2.8-3.6
Adults 2.6 2.3-2.9
Children 0.57 0.51-0.67

* millions
More than 25 million people have died of AIDS since 1981.
Africa has 12 million AIDS orphans.

By December 2005 women accounted for 46% of all adults living with HIV worldwide, and for 57% in sub-Saharan Africa.

Young people (15-24 years old) account for half of all new HIV infections worldwide - more than 6,000 become infected with HIV every day.

Of the 6.5 million people in developing and transitional countries who need life-saving AIDS drugs, only 1.3 million are receiving them.


Region Adults & Children Living with HIV/AIDS* Adults & Children Newly Infected* Adult Infection Rate (%) Deaths of Adults & Children*
Sub-Saharan Africa 25.8 3.2 7.2 2.4
East Asia 0.87 0.14 0.1 0.041
South and South-East Asia 7.4 0.99 0.7 0.48
Oceania 0.074 0.0082 0.5 0.0036
Eastern Europe & Central Asia 1.6 0.27 0.9 0.062
Western & Central Europe 0.72 0.022 0.3 0.012
North Africa & Middle East 0.51 0.067 0.2 0.058
North America 1.2 0.043 0.7 0.018
Caribbean 0.3 0.03 1.6 0.024
Latin America 1.8 0.2 0.6 0.066
Global Total 40.3 4.9 1.1 3.1

* millions
During 2004 around five million adults and children became infected with HIV.
By the end of the year, an estimated 40.3 million people worldwide were living with HIV/AIDS.
The year also saw more than three million deaths from AIDS, despite recent improvements in access to antiretroviral treatment.
Western European country HIV diagnoses in 2004 (or 2003) Rate per million in 2004 (or 2003) Cumulative total
Andorra 35 - 35
Austria 470 57.9 2,817
Belgium 984 95.2 16,781
Denmark 292 54.3 4,254
Finland 128 24.5 1,753
France 2,697 - 5,778
Germany 1,979 24.0 23,722
Greece 434 39.5 7,134
Iceland 5 17.1 176
Ireland 356 89.0 3,764
Israel 315 48.0 4,309
Italy (1,104)* (65.8)* (5,896)*
Luxembourg 60 130.7 652
Malta 17 42.9 17
Monaco - - -
Netherlands 1,169 72.0 10,371
Norway (225)* (49.6)* (2,755)*
Portugal 2,825 280.5 25,968
San Marino (4)* (144.9)* (43)*
Spain - - -

Sweden 426 47.9 6,704
Switzerland 779 108.7 27,889
United Kingdom 7,258 122.1 68,556
Total 20,229 - 219,374


Future projections of the extent of the HIV/AIDS epidemic cannot be made with any precision; what happens next will depend on what action is taken. In some scenarios, governments and societies mount a very vigorous and wide-ranging response which recognises AIDS as much more than just a health issue, and so HIV prevalence eventually decreases; in other projections, good intentions fail to deliver anything more than short-term and fractured responses in the worst-affected countries, and the number of people living with HIV soars.1
What are needed to turn the tide are massive responses at the national and international level:
· People need to challenge the myths and misconceptions about human sexuality that translate into dangerous sexual practices.
· Work and legislation is needed to reduce prejudice felt by HIV+ people around the world and the discrimination that prevents people from "coming out" as being HIV positive.
· HIV prevention initiatives need to be increased, people across the world need to be made aware of the dangers, the risks, and the ways they can protect themselves.
· Condom promotion and supply needs to be increased, and the appropriate sexual health education needs to be provided to young people before they reach an age where they become sexually active.
· Medication and support needs to be provided to people who are already HIV+, so that they can live longer and more productive lives, support their families, and avoid transmitting the virus onwards.
· Support and care needs to be provided for those children who have already been orphaned by AIDS, so that they can grow up safely, without experiencing poverty, exploitation, and themselves falling prey to HIV.

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