The Greek Architecture
section above the columns contains much of
the traditional ornamental decoration of the
temple: the a long band that surrounded
the building, is the primary surface for this
decoration; it can be continuous or broken up
into segments¹. Above the frieze is the
pediment, which contains some of the largest
and most elaborate sculptural decoration on
temples, often including full size three
dimensional sculptures. Doric Ionic
Much of the decoration and appearance of the temple depends on whether it is of the or
The cult took place outside of the Greek temple, not inside. The temple housed the statue of worship
of god or goddess for which the temple had been built; the statue is in the main chamber called the
The temples were constructed with stonewalls and wooden roofs that protected the cult statue inside.
Decorative sculpture was placed on the outside and inside of the building and traditionally these
elements were typically painted in bright colours.
temple of Herod Parthenon.
Some examples of these constructions are the and the
temple of Herod at Paestum
The was built in Italy about 550 BC, during the Archaic Period. The
outer columns or are well preserved and typical of early Doric temple designs. The temple
is about 80 feet by 170 feet, with the one to two (1:2) ratio of columns, 9 on the ends and 18 along
The of the columns in close spacing suggest that the
architects were primarily concerned with supporting the roof and this
gave the structure a heaviness that was reduced in later Doric temple
Metopes (rectangular elements) and triglyphs (three narrow adjacent vertical elements).
1 Cella is the later Latin name of the room that was called naòs by the Greeks
Following the V century BC after the sack of Athens by the Persians,
the Athenians set out to rebuild the ruined The centre of the acropolis is the
the temple of Athena. The Acropolis also included an entrance gate west called the Propylaea and
two other temples, the temple of Athena Nike and the
Parthenon ideal proportions
The is often considered the culminating achievement of in Doric
temple design and the dominant ratio used in the structure can be described as an algebraic formula:
2x+1. ideal proportions illusion of perfection:
These were adjusted to create the if the outermost
columns of a temple are surrounded by light, they appear thinner to the naked eye; to counter this
effect the architects made the outer columns thicker than the inner columns, again creating the
illusion of having all the same size.
The Parthenon also set a new standard for the lavishness of temple decoration: dozens of lifesize,
or larger statues, adorn the pediments and the entire inner while the outer friezes were carved with
relief sculptures such as this one from the battle between the Centaurs and the Lapiths.
Other ornamentation included or female figures that stood in place of the columns.
Many of the designs of temple architecture spread into other aspects of Greek building such as the
THE CLASSICAL ORDER
The are essentially the building blocks of western architecture, and they have been
used for 2500 years. The Greek developed decorative systems, and that is what we are referring to
when we use term "Classical orders”, there are three basic orders; the the and the
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I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher gaia.vezzoli di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Lingua inglese corso avanzato e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Politecnico di Milano - Polimi o del prof Rossini Nicoletta.
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