Operations Management (Prof. Bechis)
Operations Management, of course, consist in designing and improving the
system that create and deliver (deliver Supply Chain Management).
Supply Chain Management is concerned with setting broad policies and plans
for using the resources of an organization and must be integrated with
corporate strategy (for example a strategy can include goals related to the
environment and Social Responsibility).
PRINCIPLES OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY:
(ISO 26000) basis for Social Responsibility
3 Ethical behavior
4 Respect for Stakeholders interests
5 Respect for the rule of the Law
6 Respect for the international norms of behavior
7 Respect for Human Rights.
PDCA is a methodology of improvement for organizations to produce
(goods and services) based on activities, inputs and outputs (which
consist in a process). PROCESS
INPUTS ACTIVITIES OUTPUTS
• Plan: establishing the objectives and processes necessary to
deliver results in accordance with customer requirements and
the organization’s policies.
• Do: implement the processes.
• Check: monitor and measure processes and products against
policies, objectives and requirements for the product and report
• Act: take actions to continually improve process performance
A Process can be convergent (different raw materials1product) or
divergent (1 raw materialdifferent products).
PROJECT: series of related jobs usually directed toward some major
output and requiring a significant period of time to perform.
PROJECT (ISO definition): is a unique process consisting of a set of
coordinated and controlled activities with start and finish dates,
undertaken to achieve an objective conforming to specific
requirements, including the constrains of time, cost and resources.
The outcome of a project can be one or several units of product.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT: planning, directing and controlling
resources (people, equipment, material) to meet the technical, costs
and time constrains of the project.
CUSTOMER: organization or person that receives a product or a
service (can be internal or external to the organization).
SUPPLIER: organization or person that provides a product or a
service (can be internal or external to the organization).
STAKEHOLDER: person or group having an interest in the
performance or success of an organization.
PRODUCT: result of a process.
DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT: is a set of processes that transforms
requirements into specified characteristics or into specification of a
product/service/process or system (ISO 9000).
REQUIREMENT: is a need or an expectation that is stated, generally
implied or obligatory (ex. law).
SPECIFICATION: is a requirement written in a document/a document
stating a requirement.
CHARACTERISTC: is a distinguishing feature and can be:
• INHERENT: existing in something, especially as a permanent
characteristic (physical, sensorial, behavioral, temporal,
• ASSIGNED: is not a quality characteristic (ex. price).
DOCUMENT: information with its supporting medium (specification,
report, record, procedure).
RECORD: is a document stating results achieved or providing
evidence of activity performed.
PROCEDURE: specified way to carry out an activity or a process (if
SYSTEM: set of interrelated or integrating elements.
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: system to establish policy and objectives
and to achieve those objectives.
customer’s perception of degree to
which customer’s requirements have been fulfilled (ex. customer’s
Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements
which can be:
1. Stated in a document.
2. Obligatory (law).
3. Implied: means that is custom or common practice for the
organization, its customers or other stakeholders that the need
or expectation is implied.
Requirements can be generated from different stakeholders. The
customer’s complaints doesn’t implies necessary
absence of high
QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: management system to direct a
control on an organization with regard to quality.
Quality Policy: overall intentions and directions of an organization
related to quality as formally expressed by Top Management.
Quality Objective: generally based on the organization Quality Policy.
Quality Manual: document specifying the Quality Management System
of an organization.
Quality Plan: document specifying which procedure and associated
resources shall be applied by whom and when to a specific project,
product, process or contract. Definitions
TOP MANAGEMENT: person or group of people who directs and
controls an organization at the highest level.
IMPROVEMENT: increasing the ability to fulfill requirements.
EFFECTIVENESS: extent to which planned activities are realized and
planned results achieved.
EFFICIENCY: relationship between the results achieved and
CONFORMITY: fulfillment of a requirement.
NOT CONFORMITY: not fulfillment of a requirement (you have to act
to eliminate it, through the PDCA methodology).
OBJECTIVE EVIDENCE: data supporting the existence or verify of
• PREVENTIVE ACTION: action to eliminate the cause of a potential not
conformity or other undesirable potential situation.
• CORRECTIVE ACTION: action to eliminate the cause of a detected not
conformity or other undesirable situation.
• CORRECTION: action to eliminate a detected not conformity.
CHECK PHASE (pdca)
AUDIT: are used to determine the extent to which the Quality Management
System requirements are fulfilled.
It is a systematic, independent and documented process to obtain audit
evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which audit
criteria are fulfilled.
There are 3 types of audit:
t y A
t : they are conducted by, or on behalf of, the organization itself
an organization’s self
for internal purposes and they can form a basis for
t : they are conducted by customers of the organization or by
other people on behalf of the customers.
: they are conducted by external independent organizations.
Such organizations, usually accredited, provide certification or registration of
conformity. st nd rd
One audit can be internal (1 party audit) or external (2 and 3 party audit).
The second party audits are generally conducted by parties having an interest
in the organization.
AUDIT FINDINGS: are used to assess the effectiveness of the Quality
Management System and to identify the opportunity for improvement.
AUDIT CONCLUSION: audit outcome provided by the Audit Team (ex.
COMBINED AUDIT: when two or more Management System (Q.M.S.+
E.M.S. for example) are audited together.
JOINT AUDIT: when two or more auditing organizations cooperate to audit a
AUDITEE: is the organization audited.
AUDIT CLIENT: organization or person requesting an audit.
AUDITOR: person with the demonstrated personal attributes and
competence to conduct an audit. 8
AUDIT TEAM: is one or more auditors conducted an audit, supported, if
needed, by technical experts.
One auditor of the audit team is appointed as the auditor Team Leader (or
Lead Auditor). The audit team may includes auditors-in-training.
TECHNICAL EXPERTS: is a person who provides specific knowledge or
experience to the audit team. The technical expert does not act as an auditor
in the audit team.
OBSERVER: is a person who accompanies the audit team but does not
audit. An observer is not part of the audit team and does not influence or
interfere with the conduct of the audit. An observer can be from the auditee, a
regulatory or other stakeholders who witnesses the audit.
GUIDE: is a person appointed by the auditee to assist the audit team (ex.
translator); he is not part of the audit team.
AUDIT PLAN AUDIT PROGRAM
is the description of the Is the arrangement for a
activities and set of one or more audit,
arrangements for an audit. planned for a specific
timeframe and directed to
a specific purpose (many
PRINCIPLES OF AUDITING: audit in a specific time).
1. Integrity (to be honest)
2. Fair presentation (be able to report truthfully and accurately)
3. Due professional care (diligent judgment)
4. Confidentiality (security of information)
5. Independence (impartiality, objectivity)
6. Evidence-based approach (dataaudit evidences)
AUDIT SCOPE: is the extent and boundaries of an audit. It includes a
description of the physical locations, organizational units, activities and
processes (can be outsource).
a l A
i t )
The organization shall conduct (so is mandatory for certification) an Internal
Audit at planned intervals to provide information about whether the Quality
• Conform to:
organization’s own requirement for its Quality Management
o The requirements of the international standard.
• Is effetely implemented and maintained.
The organization shall:
1. Plan, establish, implement and maintain an audit program (including
frequency, methods and responsibilities).
2. Define audit criteria and scope for each audit.
3. Select auditors and conduct audit to ensure objectivity//impartiality of
the audit process.
4. Ensure that the results of the audits are reported to the Top Manager.
5. Take appropriate corrective actions without delay.
6. Retain documented information as evidence of the implementation of
the audit program and the audit results (report).
The PROCEDURE for Internal Auditing should define:
▪ requirements for planning audits
▪ requirements for conducting audits
▪ requirements for establishing regards and reporting activities.
Top management shall review the Quality Management System at planned
intervals to ensure its continuing suitability, adequacy, effectiveness and
alignment with the strategic direction of the organization.
1. The status of the action from previous Management Review
2. Changes in internal and external issues relevant to Quality
3. Information on the performance and effectiveness including:
a. Customer satisfaction and feedback
b. The extent to which quality objectives have been meet
c. Process performance/products & services conformity
d. Not conformity/corrective action
e. Results of monitoring/measurements
f. Audit results
g. Performances of external providers
4. The adequacy of resources
5. The effectiveness of the actions taken
6. Opportunities for improvement
1. Opportunity for improvement (action)
2. Need for changes to Quality Management System
3. Resources need
t y A
t ( C
i f i c
t i o
The initial certification audit of a Management System shall be conducted in
• to audit the client’s Management System-
• STAGE 2-AUDIT: to evaluate the implementation, including
of the client’s Management System.
effectiveness It takes place at the
site of the client.
Look at ISO 19011 for guidelines for auditing.
Audit the client’s management system documentation.
a. To evaluate the client’s
b. location and site specific conditions to
undertake discussions with the client’s personnel to determine the
preparation for Stage 2-Audit.
c. To review the client understanding regarding requirements of the
standard (in particular with reference to the identification of key
performance aspects, processes, objectives of the Management
d. To collect necessary information regarding the scope of Management
System, processes, location of the client and related statutory and
regulatory aspects and compliance.
e. To agree with the client on the details of the Stage 2-Audit.
f. To provide a focus for planning the Stage 2-Audit.
g. To evaluate if Internal Audit and Management Review are being
planned and performed.
a. Information and evidence about conformity to all requirements of the
applicable Management Standard and normative elements.
b. Performance monitoring, measuring, reporting and review against key
performance objective and targets.
The client’s Management System and performance as regard Legal
c. Compliance. of the client’s processes.
d. Operational Control
e. Internal auditing & Management Review.
Management Responsibility for client’s Policies.
+1 anno fa
I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher Friz28 di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Operations management e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Torino - Unito o del prof Bechis Marco.
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