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Operations Management (Prof. Bechis) Appunti scolastici Premium

Appunti relativi al corso Operations Management di Marco Bechis, del primo anno di Business & Management all'Università degli Studi di Torino. Sono in formato pdf, integrati con lo studio delle dispense e con tutto il necessario per passare l'esame. Scarica il file in formato PDF!

Esame di Operations management docente Prof. M. Bechis



Operations Management, of course, consist in designing and improving the

system that create and deliver (deliver Supply Chain Management).

Supply Chain Management is concerned with setting broad policies and plans

for using the resources of an organization and must be integrated with

corporate strategy (for example a strategy can include goals related to the

environment and Social Responsibility).


(ISO 26000) basis for Social Responsibility

1 Accountability

2 Transparency

3 Ethical behavior

4 Respect for Stakeholders interests

5 Respect for the rule of the Law

6 Respect for the international norms of behavior

7 Respect for Human Rights.



PDCA is a methodology of improvement for organizations to produce

(goods and services) based on activities, inputs and outputs (which

consist in a process). PROCESS



• Plan: establishing the objectives and processes necessary to

deliver results in accordance with customer requirements and

the organization’s policies.

• Do: implement the processes.

• Check: monitor and measure processes and products against

policies, objectives and requirements for the product and report

the results.

• Act: take actions to continually improve process performance


A Process can be convergent (different raw materials1product) or

divergent (1 raw materialdifferent products).



PROJECT: series of related jobs usually directed toward some major

output and requiring a significant period of time to perform.

PROJECT (ISO definition): is a unique process consisting of a set of

coordinated and controlled activities with start and finish dates,

undertaken to achieve an objective conforming to specific

requirements, including the constrains of time, cost and resources.

The outcome of a project can be one or several units of product.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT: planning, directing and controlling

resources (people, equipment, material) to meet the technical, costs

and time constrains of the project.

CUSTOMER: organization or person that receives a product or a

service (can be internal or external to the organization).

SUPPLIER: organization or person that provides a product or a

service (can be internal or external to the organization).

STAKEHOLDER: person or group having an interest in the

performance or success of an organization.

PRODUCT: result of a process.

DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT: is a set of processes that transforms

requirements into specified characteristics or into specification of a

product/service/process or system (ISO 9000).

REQUIREMENT: is a need or an expectation that is stated, generally

implied or obligatory (ex. law).

SPECIFICATION: is a requirement written in a document/a document

stating a requirement.

CHARACTERISTC: is a distinguishing feature and can be:

• INHERENT: existing in something, especially as a permanent

characteristic (physical, sensorial, behavioral, temporal,

ergonomic, functional)

• ASSIGNED: is not a quality characteristic (ex. price).


DOCUMENT: information with its supporting medium (specification,

report, record, procedure).

RECORD: is a document stating results achieved or providing

evidence of activity performed.

PROCEDURE: specified way to carry out an activity or a process (if

writtendocumented procedure).

SYSTEM: set of interrelated or integrating elements.

MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: system to establish policy and objectives

and to achieve those objectives.

customer’s perception of degree to


which customer’s requirements have been fulfilled (ex. customer’s

complaints= index).


Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements

which can be:

1. Stated in a document.

2. Obligatory (law).

3. Implied: means that is custom or common practice for the

organization, its customers or other stakeholders that the need

or expectation is implied.

Requirements can be generated from different stakeholders. The

customer’s complaints doesn’t implies necessary

absence of high

customer satisfaction*.

QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: management system to direct a

control on an organization with regard to quality.

Quality Policy: overall intentions and directions of an organization

related to quality as formally expressed by Top Management.


Quality Objective: generally based on the organization Quality Policy.

Quality Manual: document specifying the Quality Management System

of an organization.

Quality Plan: document specifying which procedure and associated

resources shall be applied by whom and when to a specific project,

product, process or contract. Definitions

TOP MANAGEMENT: person or group of people who directs and

controls an organization at the highest level.

IMPROVEMENT: increasing the ability to fulfill requirements.

EFFECTIVENESS: extent to which planned activities are realized and

planned results achieved.

EFFICIENCY: relationship between the results achieved and

resources used.

CONFORMITY: fulfillment of a requirement.

NOT CONFORMITY: not fulfillment of a requirement (you have to act

to eliminate it, through the PDCA methodology).

OBJECTIVE EVIDENCE: data supporting the existence or verify of




• PREVENTIVE ACTION: action to eliminate the cause of a potential not

conformity or other undesirable potential situation.

• CORRECTIVE ACTION: action to eliminate the cause of a detected not

conformity or other undesirable situation.

• CORRECTION: action to eliminate a detected not conformity.



AUDIT: are used to determine the extent to which the Quality Management

System requirements are fulfilled.

It is a systematic, independent and documented process to obtain audit

evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which audit

criteria are fulfilled.

There are 3 types of audit:

s t

1 P



t y A




t : they are conducted by, or on behalf of, the organization itself

an organization’s self

for internal purposes and they can form a basis for


n d

2 P


r t

y A




t : they are conducted by customers of the organization or by

other people on behalf of the customers.

r d

3 P




y A



i t

: they are conducted by external independent organizations.

Such organizations, usually accredited, provide certification or registration of

conformity. st nd rd

One audit can be internal (1 party audit) or external (2 and 3 party audit).

The second party audits are generally conducted by parties having an interest

in the organization.

AUDIT FINDINGS: are used to assess the effectiveness of the Quality

Management System and to identify the opportunity for improvement.

AUDIT CONCLUSION: audit outcome provided by the Audit Team (ex.


COMBINED AUDIT: when two or more Management System (Q.M.S.+

E.M.S. for example) are audited together.

JOINT AUDIT: when two or more auditing organizations cooperate to audit a

single auditee.

AUDITEE: is the organization audited.

AUDIT CLIENT: organization or person requesting an audit.

AUDITOR: person with the demonstrated personal attributes and

competence to conduct an audit. 8

AUDIT TEAM: is one or more auditors conducted an audit, supported, if

needed, by technical experts.

One auditor of the audit team is appointed as the auditor Team Leader (or

Lead Auditor). The audit team may includes auditors-in-training.

TECHNICAL EXPERTS: is a person who provides specific knowledge or

experience to the audit team. The technical expert does not act as an auditor

in the audit team.

OBSERVER: is a person who accompanies the audit team but does not

audit. An observer is not part of the audit team and does not influence or

interfere with the conduct of the audit. An observer can be from the auditee, a

regulatory or other stakeholders who witnesses the audit.

GUIDE: is a person appointed by the auditee to assist the audit team (ex.

translator); he is not part of the audit team.


is the description of the Is the arrangement for a

activities and set of one or more audit,

arrangements for an audit. planned for a specific

timeframe and directed to

a specific purpose (many

PRINCIPLES OF AUDITING: audit in a specific time).

1. Integrity (to be honest)

2. Fair presentation (be able to report truthfully and accurately)

3. Due professional care (diligent judgment)

4. Confidentiality (security of information)

5. Independence (impartiality, objectivity)

6. Evidence-based approach (dataaudit evidences)


AUDIT SCOPE: is the extent and boundaries of an audit. It includes a

description of the physical locations, organizational units, activities and

processes (can be outsource).

s t

1 P


r t

y A




t (

I n

t e

r n

a l A



i t )


The organization shall conduct (so is mandatory for certification) an Internal

Audit at planned intervals to provide information about whether the Quality

Management System:

• Conform to:

organization’s own requirement for its Quality Management

o The


o The requirements of the international standard.

• Is effetely implemented and maintained.

The organization shall:

1. Plan, establish, implement and maintain an audit program (including

frequency, methods and responsibilities).

2. Define audit criteria and scope for each audit.

3. Select auditors and conduct audit to ensure objectivity//impartiality of

the audit process.

4. Ensure that the results of the audits are reported to the Top Manager.

5. Take appropriate corrective actions without delay.

6. Retain documented information as evidence of the implementation of

the audit program and the audit results (report).

The PROCEDURE for Internal Auditing should define:

▪ responsibility

▪ requirements for planning audits

▪ requirements for conducting audits

▪ requirements for establishing regards and reporting activities.



Top management shall review the Quality Management System at planned

intervals to ensure its continuing suitability, adequacy, effectiveness and

alignment with the strategic direction of the organization.

Input :

1. The status of the action from previous Management Review

2. Changes in internal and external issues relevant to Quality

Management System

3. Information on the performance and effectiveness including:

a. Customer satisfaction and feedback

b. The extent to which quality objectives have been meet

c. Process performance/products & services conformity

d. Not conformity/corrective action

e. Results of monitoring/measurements

f. Audit results

g. Performances of external providers

4. The adequacy of resources

5. The effectiveness of the actions taken

6. Opportunities for improvement


1. Opportunity for improvement (action)

2. Need for changes to Quality Management System

3. Resources need

r d

3 P



t y A




t ( C


r t

i f i c


t i o

n A




t )


The initial certification audit of a Management System shall be conducted in

two stages:

• to audit the client’s Management System-


documentation. 11

• STAGE 2-AUDIT: to evaluate the implementation, including

of the client’s Management System.

effectiveness It takes place at the

site of the client.

Look at ISO 19011 for guidelines for auditing.


Audit the client’s management system documentation.

a. To evaluate the client’s

b. location and site specific conditions to

undertake discussions with the client’s personnel to determine the

preparation for Stage 2-Audit.

c. To review the client understanding regarding requirements of the

standard (in particular with reference to the identification of key

performance aspects, processes, objectives of the Management


d. To collect necessary information regarding the scope of Management

System, processes, location of the client and related statutory and

regulatory aspects and compliance.

e. To agree with the client on the details of the Stage 2-Audit.

f. To provide a focus for planning the Stage 2-Audit.

g. To evaluate if Internal Audit and Management Review are being

planned and performed.


a. Information and evidence about conformity to all requirements of the

applicable Management Standard and normative elements.

b. Performance monitoring, measuring, reporting and review against key

performance objective and targets.

The client’s Management System and performance as regard Legal

c. Compliance. of the client’s processes.

d. Operational Control

e. Internal auditing & Management Review.

Management Responsibility for client’s Policies.

f. 12




610.27 KB




+1 anno fa

Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea in economia aziendale
Università: Torino - Unito
A.A.: 2017-2018

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher Friz28 di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Operations management e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Torino - Unito o del prof Bechis Marco.

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