Riassunto esame Lingua e cultura inglese I, prof. Fusco
However only in 1944 primary and secondary state schools became compulsory.
Beside STATE SCHOOLS, there were:
church schools and
schools privately financed by rich people.
The latter provided proper education for the future managerial class,
while the working class received too basic education.
Despite state schools provided a free education to pupils until the age of 14, that was still insufficient in 1918.
SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION remained a prerogative of the independent sector.
In the early 20th century: state education was extended and some grants given to the best students
whose parents couldn’t afford school fees.
After the EDUCATION ACT OF 1944,
schooling was divided in primary from 5 to 11 years,
secondary school from 11 to 15.
The 11-plus is the exam which gives the access to the secondary school (the grammar school).
Students who failed the exam went to the technical school.
In the 1950s the eleven plus was criticized by the Labour party as the perpetuation of the class system.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
THE EDUCATION ACT
reorganized state primary and secondary schools in England and Wales and inflecned future generations of
State schooling became FREE and COMPOLSORY up to the age of 15 and was divided into 3 stages:
1- PRIMARY SCHOOL: from 5 to 11
2- SECONARY SCHOOL: 11-15
3- FURTHER POST SCHOOL TRAINING.
The eleven - plus examination was adopted by most LEA consisted of intelligence tests
last year of PRIMARY SCHOOL at age of 11.
and was taken in the
THE OBJECT was to differentiate between academic an non-academic children
and it introduced the based on ability.
Those who passed the ELEVEN-PLUS went to the grammar school.
While those who failed went to the secondary modern and technical schools.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
In 1964 the Labour government decided to abolish the eleven-plus.
The idea was to extend schooling to all social classes, even though LEAs (Local Education Authorities)
had the final word whether choosing comprehensive schools or retaining grammar schools, in accordance with
While the abolition of the grammar schools has been approved almost everywhere in the Uk, there are still
Britons think that schooling should be more selective and based on continuous tests and assessment.
STATE SCHOOL is free and compulsory for pupils from 5 to 17, to 18 in 2015.
They have an AUTONOMOUS ORGANIZATION which depends on headmasters.
GRAMMARS SCHOOL ARE STILL CONSIDERED THE BEST ONES to prepare future academic
students unlike comprehensive schools.
FAITH SCHOOLS. Public schools
Public schools are not state schools, but independent schools which have a long history.
They depend on
1_the FEES PAID BY THE PARENTS of present pupils but also
2_on money from property and
3_investments which have inherited in the past.
Non-state schools are not LEA (Local Education Authority) controlled
but they are registered with the Department of Education and Science and may be inspected by Her Majesty’s
Not all independent schools can truthfully call themselves Public Schools — they have to be selected by a
CONFERENCE OF HEADS of well-established Public Schools.
Public schools are criticised for being too elitist and perpetuate the class system.
However most people make financial sacrifices also through insurance scheme to send their children to a public
school as they believe that would advantage their future.
40% of non-state school are boarding schools where pupils live for three quarters of the year. The change to
full secondary education comes later in many public schools at the age of 13. The intellectual level and the
standard of teaching in some Public Schools is very high indeed.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
State education in UK is free and compolsury (obbligatorio) for children between tha ages of 5 and 16.
The school leaving age for compolsury was raised to 18.
Schools are mainly mixed, althought some are single-sex.
The sistem is complicated but the vast majority of children receive free education in state primary and
COMPHRENSIVE SCHOOL PUPILS are of mixed abilities and come from a variety of social
backgrounds in the local area. Some critics argue that disadvantaged students from poor homes receive a poor
Scotland has its own ancient educational system, with schools, colleges and universities wich are among the
oldest in Europe
Its state school sistem is comprehnsive and NON-SELECTIVE.
The scottish public schools are state and not private institutions.
In Northern Ireland the state schools are mostly divided along religious lines into Catholic and Protestant
are often single-sex.
Pupils' performances at these schools are generally superior to those of their counterparts in ENGLAND and
THE INDIPERNDENT (FEE-PAYNG) SCHOOL
The indipendent school sector operates mainly in England,
is separate from the state school sector
and caters for some 7% of British cildren (from the ages of 4 to 18 at differents levels of education)
The sector is FINANCED by payements of FEES from parents of chidren. (ex. Eton Harrow and
Many indipendent schools were created to proide EDUCATION FOR SONS OF THE RICH AND
Indipendent school play a significant role in the British education and many leading figures have been educated
Entry today is competitive, normally by an ENTRANCE EXAMINATION.
Indipendent schools can vary considerably in quality and reputation.
The indipendent sector is criticized for being elitist, socially deversive and based on the ability to pat for
The is divided into 3 terms of approximately 13 weeks each.
All types of secondary schools have 5 year courses for pupils from 11 up to the school leaving age.
PROMOTION TO A HIGHER CLASS every year does not depend upon examination results — it is almost
At the end of the five-year course the
GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary School) and
GCE (A level) exams can be taken.
Children in Britain still leave school with no formal leaving examination certificate.
THE SCHOOL DAY
The in each school runs at avariable times from about 9.00 A.M. Untill 4 P.M.
The sixth form
Comprehensive and grammar schools have SIXTH FORM DEPARTMENTS PROVIDING ONE, TWO
OR THREE-YEAR COURSES;
secondary modern schools do not usually have a sixth form.
Pupils who want a change from school may decide to transfer to a College of Further Education which seems
In various schools have combined their sixth forms to make a new and separate Sixth Form College.
It offers a wider choice of courses than the individual schools could do.
At the sixth form stage, studies are highly specialized.
At “A” level only three or four subjects are taken.
Examples of groups of subjects taken at “A” Level:
Some reforms introduced by the Conservative Party remained under Labour, an example is the creation of a
As the system is not centralized, teachers are not civil servants, they move freely between state and non-state
The individual teacher has wide responsibility inside the classroom for what is taught
and how it is taught.
The Local Education Authority has full local responsibility for school within the state system.
Discipline problems and even physical assaults upon teachers have made the teaching particularly stressful.
There is a lack of support for teachers from local authority and governement.
Tests are set to establish what children should be expected to know at the ages of 7, 11, 14.
Another was the creation of a National Curricculum in England and Wales.
The AIM was to create a curriculum for primary and secondary levels which was
centrally devised and
appropiate to che needs and demands of contemporary world.
There are 116 universities.
These are divided in four types:
1) the OLD ESTABLISHED UNIVERSITIES such as Oxford, Cambridge…
2) The 19° CENTURY UNIVERSITIES “redbrick” such as London, Manchester.
3) the UNIVERSITIES ESTABLISHED AFTER WORLD WAR II such as Essex, Lancaster, the new
university of Ulster.
the NEW UNIVERSITIES created in 1992: polytechnics.
Competition to enter universities is now vary strong in both popular abd demanding subjects, and students
who do not do well at A level or equivalent may be unable to find a place.
The bachelor's degree is usually taken in final examination at the end of the third year of study.
DEGREE is divided into
FRIST SECOND THIRD
Students live either on campus in university accomodation or in rented propiety outside the university.
The old universities consist of a collection of independent colleges.
Together they form the university which is governed by a Senate.
Some 19th century universities have a combination of independent colleges
and research institutes.
London University is an example.
Other universities were founded after World War II because the demand for higher education had increased.
In certain areas of the country existing Colleges of Technology
and other further education colleges were combined to form polytechnics.
There are NOW MANY OF THEM OFFERING COURSES IN THE FULL RANGE OF SUBJECTs,
from engineering to art.
National Academic Awards
The council of supervises polytechnics examinations and makes sure that a
high standards is maintained in all polytechnics.
The term “media“ may include any commuication system by wich people are informed, educated or
In Britain has historically referred to the print industries and broascasting.
These system have overlapped with each other and with other media outlets such as books, theatre,
film, records, video and CDs.
The media have envolved from :
simple methods of producing, distribution and communications
to their present sophisticated technologies
their influence is very powerful and an inevitable part of daily life .
However, the internet,
online communication system,
electronic technology and
mobile phones have in recent year rapidly come to be the dominant media forces.
They have become a crucial part of
buisiness, politics, news and
education, publishing, entertainment.
THE PRINT MEDIA
The print media began to develop in the 18 century.
The growth of literacy provided the owners of print media with an increased market.
Newspapers and magazines, wich had previously been limitated to the middle and upper classes,
reached a wider readership.
They were used for:
news but also for profit
information, and entertainment.
- kind of newspaper
NATIONAL DAILY PAPERS (PUBLISHED IN THE MORNING),
1. NATIONAL EVENING PAPERS,
2. LOCAL MORNING
3. LOCAL EVENING PAPERS.
4. QULITY PAPERS
5. POPULAR PAPERS
NATIONAL DAILY PAPERS (PUBLISHED IN THE MORNING),
National papers are mostly printed in London, distributed from there on the same day and they are
avaiable in all parts of Britain.
National papers are either “quality” or “popular”.
In Britain people are encouraged to read a newspaper regularly because, for a small extra charge, it is
delivered daily to their door (by LOCAL NEWSAGENTS).
16 century: Regional newsletters and newspapers appeared in the 16 century and the frist titled
London newspapers, Corante (DAILY COURANT) was published in 1621.
18 century: the frist national newspaper with a limited national circulation appeared in the early 18
and were followed by others, such as:
• the Observer
• the Sunday Times.
The competiotion between the Sun(1964) and the Mirror(Daily mirror - 1903) continues today,
with each aimng for a bigger share of the mass daily market.
The success of the early popular press was due to:
1 - growing literacy,
2 - a desire for knowledge
(Many newspaper now have colour pages and daily and weekend supplements covering a range of
interest to attract more newspapers-reading).
Most national newspapers noe have online Internet versions, wich are often free.
The popular papers
Popular papers are called “TABLOIDS”
because they are published in a small page format.
Some names: The Sun, Daily Mirror, Daily Express, Daily Mail, Daily Star.
Tabloids are characterized by:
a minimum amount of political news and
1. a maximum about sports.
2. Many pictures,
3. not so much text.
The quality papers
founded in 1785,
• suspended publication in November 1978
• because the workforce would not accept the management’s plans for modernization.
• Now being published again.
THE DAILY TELEGRAPH,
bought by the majority of middle-class readers;
• Conservative in outlook.
• humanitarian in outlook;
• politically non-committed.
reporting not restricted to money matters;
• covers the arts and politics: well informed.
The National Sunday Press
The Sunday Times, Sunday Telegraph, The Observer.
All the quality papers depend a great deal on advertisements to finance them.
They all bring:
➢ comment about politics and business throughout the world.
➢ The specialize in reviewing new books,
➢ the London theatre,
➢ new films
All Sunday papers also provide reading material about:
The quality papers also include a magazine called “a colour supplement”.
The provincial press
National papers are more popular with British readers than provincial papers are,
yet many people still prefer a paper published in their own region.
Every town and country district has at least one newspaper of its own, devoted to local news.
If the British still feel short of reading material, they can choose from 8,500 journals and magazines
published weekly or monthly.
There is a periodical for all tastes and interests.
What can be published in the press?
The press in Britain is keen to guard its freedom to print whatever it wants to.
However, it is restricted in 5 ways:
1 - By the laws of libel:
newspaper or periodical can be used in the law courts for damages (money) if it publishes a harmful
untruth about someone;
2 - By the Official Secret Act, a law which restricts the reporting of some military and government
3 - By legal restrictions on reporting certain court proceedings or commenting on a trial in progress in
case the publicity would be unfair to the persons on trial;
4 - By the Press Council.
The Press Council is an official organization which was first set up in 1953.
Its aim is to maintain high standards in the press.
It hears complaints from the public about the behaviour of journalists
and the stories newspapers sometimes print.
THE COUNCIL IS INTENDED TO SAFEGUARD THE PRIVACY OF THE INDIVIDUAL AS
WELL AS THE FREEDOM OF THE PRESS.
Television seems to be the first choice among the various media in Britain.
People with a television set have to pay an annual government licence.
The BBC has to manage with the licence money plus profits from the sale of
programmes it sells abroad.
There is no advertising on the BBC.
ITV (independent television)
ITV gets its money from advertisers who pay to show films advertising their goods between
programmes and during breaks in programmes: “commercial breaks”.
THE ROLE AND INFLUENCE OF TELEVISION
A large number of the programmes shown on television are made in Britain,
but also many imported American series of high quality wich prove popular.
• SINGING TALENT SHOWS
• CONFRONTATIONAL PROGRAMMES
• CONFESSIONAL PROGRAMMES
• GENRES such as makeover, decorating and proprity have led to charges of dumbing down to
• British television.
Most of these programmes are calculated to appeal to a mass audience,
in serch of high ratings and involve celebrity worship, a desire for instant fame, public emotional
People all over the world listen to the BBC World Service radio programmes of
• comment and
The habit started during World War II when the BBC gained a reputation for telling the truth.
Apart from the information it provides the World Service helps many people to improve their English.
The BCC is based at:
Broadcasting House in London;
• but has also centres throughout the country wich provides regional networks for radio and
The company generates a considerable INCOME FROM SELLING ITS PROGRAMMES ABROAD.
The BCC does try to be NEUTRAL IN POLITICAL MATTERS
BROADCASTING AND POLITICS
The time given to political parties for their broadcasts is strictly controlled
throughout the year as well as at election times.
In 1978 an experiment began:
twice a week, “Question Time” is broadcast from the House of Commons.
Questions are put to the Prime Minister and to other ministers by Members of Parliament and the
answers, too, are heard on television.
The contemporary BROADCAST MEDIA are still divided into 2 sectors:
PUBLIC SECTOR: is the BCC INDIPENDENT SECTOR:
financed by payement consist on :
of LICENCE FEE - commercial channels (or sectors)
financed by ADVERTISING REVENUE.
REGIONAL AND ETHNIC NEWSPAPER
They largely focus on local or regional news,
but also contain: NATIONAL and INTERANTIONAL
FEATURES are supported financially by regional advertising,
and may be:
daily morning or evening paper,
Sunday or weeklies .
There has been a growth of “free newspapers“ throughout Britain, such as the daily Metro.
Britain is mainly a country.
Religion was subsequently characterized by CONFLICT between Roman Catholics and Protestant.
DIVERSITY OF RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS
Britans still possesesa wich have been added to
over the years by immigrants and their religions (ISLAM
Roman occupation of England.
The ORIGINS of Christianity date back the
ROMAN OCCUPATION OF ENGLAND
Missioned had converted some of the PAGANS IRISH KINGS to Christianity.
much of Ireland was convrted by St. Patrick and other monks.
This process continued and
Southern English Christanity was based on the BELIFES AND PRACTICES of the CHURCH OF THE
Between AD 596-7 the Anglo-Saxon Kings foster the spread of Christianity as a support of their
then the connection between state and church started
(it was part also of the ADMINISTRATION, GOVERNEMENT, LAW).
Hierarchy Of Monks, Priests, Bishops And Archbishops.
The church was BASED ON
relationship between Englan and Rome became difficult
The when English monarchs resented the
influence of Rome in
- ACT OF SUPREMACY IN 1534
HENRY VIII ACT OF SUPREMACY IN 1534:
in the act of SUPEREMACY, Henry 8 argued that the KING OF ENGLAND was the SUPREME
LEGAL AUTHORITY in the country.
Henry VIII titled by the Pope: Fidei Defensor.
THE CATHOLIC COUNTER-REFORMATION AND MARY TUDOR:
Mary Tudor Catholic faith
The CATHOLIC (Henry 8' s daughter) tried to restore rhe during he
reign , but did not succeed.
Queen Elizabeth I (half sister of Mary Tudor) Queen Elizabeth I
The protestant status of the church of england is definitely established by
the protestant elisabeth i
(1558-1603) or Church Settlement.
by the terms of her
Thirty- Nine Articles of Faith (1571),
The CHURCH'S DOCRINE was started in the
Book of Common Player
its forms of worship were contained in the
(both revised in lather centuries).
THE ENGLISH CHURCH NOW OCCUPIED AN INTERMEDIATE POSITION BETWEEN
CATHOLICISM AND THE PROTESTANT CHURCHES OF EUROPE.
Dissenters and Free Churches
Dissenters were people that felt that the church had not distanced itself sufficently from Rome, so
they left and formed their own religious organizatoions.
They were initially called “dissenters“ beacouse they diagrea with the majority view,
THEY WERE LATER KNOWN AS NONCONFORMIST and today are members of FREE
During the Civil War (1642-51), there were tensions between PARLAMENTARIANS and
ROYALISTS (adherents of Protestantism).
The Puritan regime of Oliver Cromwell brought the discrimination of minority religions.
this led to the PROTECTORATE of Oliver Cromwell.
THE COLLAPSE OF CROMWELL'S NARROWLY PRUTIAN REGIME AFTER HIS DEATH
and THE RESTAURATION OF THE STUART MONARCHY (1660), did bring some moderations.
IT WAS NOT UNTIL 19 CENTURY TAHAT MOST RESTRICTIONS WERE FORMALLY
1688 William III
the , sympathized with the Catholic cause.
In there were reactions to rationalist developments in the Church of England;
Evangelical wing was strongly affected by Methodism.
(Today, the of the Church of England is influenced by Evangelicalism;
Low Church wing
the is represented by Anglo - Catholic)
High Church wing th
the end of the 19 :century
By also non-Christian Churches scattered throughout England.
Today there is no tie between any religion and political parties,
the only exception is that the monarch is also the head of the Church of England.
decline in religious observance
It has been observed a and
attendance at services.
In the IMMIGRANTS added further religious diversity (MULISM MOSQUES,
SIKH, HINDU TEMPLES,WEST INDIAN CHURCHES are common in large ethnical
THERE IS RELIGIOUS FREEDOM IN CONTEMPORARY BRITAN.
The Christians Traditions
Chrisstianity in Britan is represented by the Church of England (Anglican) and the Roman Catholic
Church (wich are the largest dominations), the Church of Scotland and the Free Churches.
NON- CHRISTIAN CHURCHES
The Church of England
The Church of England is not a state church.
The Church is ruled by :
The Archibishops of Canterbury
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
with the 24 senior bishops
Together HOUSE OF LORDS.
sit in the
BISHOPRICS are divided in 13,000 parishes
each headed by a vicar or a rector.
The is also the abode of the vicar.
The Church of England is considered to be a “board church“, in wich a variety of belifes and practice
FINANCIAL REVENUES property and investments holdings.
All the FINANCIAL REVENUES of the Church come from its
The Church of England is the third largest landholder in the UK,
its patrimony is estimated at £400 million.
Differences between the High and Low Church services (Evangelical influences).
membership of the Church of England is MANIFOLD.
The OPEN DEBATE ON THE ROLE OF WOMEN
There is still an in the Church of England as well as
on the presence of gay priests.
The held every ten years in London.
The Church of Scotland
It is more commonly called the and
independent since 1707.
it has been from the Church of England
(in 1707 was asserted [=affermò] his freedom in spiritual matters and indipendence of all
1560 by John Knox
It was established in
in opposition to the Church of England accused to be still too close to Roman Catholicism.
It is based on which in Scotland bears the name of .
Presbyterianism means GOVERNEMENT BY ORDAINED [=imposto] ministers and elected elders.
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY main structural body
is the of this church.
The Scottish followed the TEACHINGS OF (a leadin exponent of the European
Reformation). DEMOCRATIC STRUCTURE:
The church has a Kirk Session,
Individial churches are governed locally by a
• GENERAL ASSEMBLY comprises
MINISTERS (who includes women) have equality with one another
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
The GENERAL ASSEMBLY meets every year under the presidency of an ELECTED MODERATOR,
who serves for 1 year
and is the leader of the churc during a preiod of office.
The church has FINANCIAL PROBLEMS.
It is experencing difficulties with the acceptance of homosexuality in general and among its
has struggled to mantein its relevance to the younger generations.
The Roman Chatolic Church
There are 7 Roman Catholic provinces in Great Britan, each under the supervision of an
ARCHBISCHOP of Westminister
DUKE OF NORFOLK.
and a senior lay Catholic is the
The Free Churches
“FREE CHURCHES” reject the hierarchical structure of the
The are Protestant churches which
Church of England. Nonconformist Protestant denominations
There are of those
(wich are not established like in the Church of England and Scotland) 19th century.
Some were created after the Reformation other, much later, during the
They dissented from some of Church's theoligical belifs,
refused to accept Episcopal rule or hierarchical structures
and most have ordinated women ministers.
They have developed their own convincitions and practices, wich are often mirrored in their simple
church services, worship and buildings.
egalitarian and humanitarian principles
They base their BELIEFS on and are traditionally
supported by the MORE DIFFUSED IN:
The Free Churches are
the north of England, Scotland and
Wales, Northern Ireland
. LEADING ONES
Methodist Church, United Reformed Church
the The and
Baptist Church, Salvation Army.
The latter also plays an important role in social services and is worldwide spread.
OTHER CHRISTIAN CHURCHES
considerable smaller Free Churches
There are a number of denominations throughout Britan.
The the Religious Society of Friends, is a Christian group but has no ministers and its worship
meetings are somewhat unconventional.
They emphasize the miraculous and spiritual side of New Testament.
diversity of Christian groups produces a vary varied religious life in Britan today
This , but one wich
is an important relity for signigicant numbers of people
THE JEWISH COMMUNITY Norman Roman
1- First evidences of a Jewish presence in England date back to the or even the
They were also involved in FINANCE and COMMERCE.
expulsion 13 century,
2- After the in the
From the mid-seventeeth century:
3- new communities came and established.
There are mainly divided in two groups:
the Orthodox the Liberal
and they can practice their religious cult in the 300 synagogues.
The majority of JEWS live in London.
OTHER NON- CHRISTIAN RELIGIONS
Immigration in Britan has bring a substantial GROWTH OF NON-OTHER CHRITIAN
RELIGIONS, such as
• SILKHISM and
The numbers of practitioners is growing beacouse of RELATIVELY HIGH BIRTH RATES in these
Non- christian groups have altered the religious face of British society and influenced employement
Islam, Hinduism and Sikhims
Beside the Jewish community, these are the main non-Christian religions.
massive immigration from former British colonies
The have established in England as result of a .
The number of practicioners is increasing due to the high birth rate.
Muslims try to influence the public opinion on a wide range of matters.
, above all,
This cultural interchange is made possible also at school.
Religious education is still compulsory despite some proposals to remove it .
A debate about the opportunity to have religion as a school matter is still open.
Supporters believe that it will increase tolerance, others (the Labour Party especially) wish to have
more faith schools.
ATTITUDES TO RELIGION AND MORALITY
There are 3 oppossed positions on religious life in modern Brita.
1_ the 1 suggest falling levels of involvement with the main Christian churches and a general decline
in religious faiths.
2_ the 2 position suggest a religious renewal in some churches and an actual growth in others
beacouse of religious pluralism and a divesity of faiths.
3_ The 3 is that while formal membership of denominarions and observance may no longer be
popular in Britain.
Top Architectural Attractions
1. The London Eye
2. The Millennium Bridge
3. The Gherkin
4. The Shard
5. The Crescent (The Circle and the Crescent)
The London Eye
The London Eye was opened on New Year’s Eve 1999 to celebrate
It is 135 metres high and from the top you can see all London.
On a clear day you can even see Windsor Castle which is 40 km
The London Eye has 32 capsules, each with room for 25 people.
Each ‘trip’ lasts 30 minutes.
It moves slowly, at a speed of about 15 metres a minute, but it never stops.
Passengers have to get on when it is moving
The Millennium Bridge
London's Southwark Council sponsored a competition in 1996 to
choose the designer of a new Millennium Footbridge that would
between the Southwark Bridge and the
This would be the first bridge built across the Thames River since
the building of the magnificent Tower Bridge of 1894.
THE WINNING ENTRY ‘the
, a suspension bridge, was tagged
blade of light’ by Arup, Foster and Partners and Sir Anthony Caro.
and was designed
This footbridge would stretch a total of 325 meters
and would include supporting cables below the deck level in order to
preserve the view of several landmarks on either side.
The design allowed for a 4-meter-wide deck for walkers and
THE STRUCTURE was designed to hold 5,000 pedestrians at any given time.
CONSTRUCTION of the bridge began in late 1998 and was completed in
- The southern end: of this suspension bridge is located near the Globe
Theatre and the Modern Tate Museum.
- The northern end: sits near St. Paul’s Cathedral Pedestrians can gain a wonderful view of the
cathedral's dome from the bridge and the sight is especially marvelous at night.
The Gherkin frame with circular floor plans and
The cigar-shaped structure has a steel
a glass façade
with diamond-shaped panels.
THE SWIRLING STRIPED PATTERN visible on the exterior
is the result of the building's
(which allows the air to flow up through spiraling wells).
On the street level, the Gherkin's base is well integrated with an open public plaza.
Huge white X braces create a dramatic entrance.
THE TOP OF THE TOWER, where visitors find an open hall covered by a glass conical dome is
even more spectacular.
From here you have great views over the city.
THE BUILDING IS NOT OPEN TO THE PUBLIC.
Its unique, bold and energy efficient design has won the Gherkin many awards including the Stirling
Prize, the London Region Award.
The Shard Renzo Piano,
Designed by the Italian architect
the tallest skyscraper in Europe:
the Shard is 310 metres with 72 floors.
95% of re-cycled materials
It was built using the
and the position of the mirrors is designed to make the most of the light and the wind.
As a whole, The Shard is a kind of vertical city with open spaces.
There are :
1-restaurants andconvivial lounge bar between floors 31
2-some decidedly private such as luxury apartments
between floors 53 and 65, wide,
with an enviable view and, for this reason, quite
(between 30 and 50 million pounds, about 6,000 per square meter)
It is situated in the trendy area of Southwark close to the river Thames.
The Crescent by John Wood the Elder
THE ROYAL CRESCENT IN BATH was designed and
built by his son John Wood the Younger in the 18th century (between 1767 and
Although some changes have been made to the various interiors over the years,
the Georgian stone (the Bath stone) façade remains much as it was when it was first
Many notable people have either lived or stayed in the Royal Crescent
since it was first built over 230 years ago,
some are commemorated on special plaques
and attached to the relevant
buildings. now includes:
The Royal Crescent
• Georgian house museum,
• flats offices.
while some of the houses have been converted into and
It is a popular location for the makers of films and
a major tourist attraction in its own right.
Before the 18th century people moved from one place to another in search of better living conditions,
for military reasons
or for commercial exchanges.
TOURISM a symbol of the modern age and one of the
is therefore a relatively recent phenomenon,
consequences of the Industrial Revolution (XVIII-XIX century).
It combined several factors for its success:
development of transport and communications,
1. increased leisure time available,
2. thanks to the grant of leave, and, of course,
improvement of families’ living conditions.
The Grand Tour
tourism was an elitist activity reserved to the privileged.
Only the of the British population could travel for pleasure,
mostly the aristocracy or rich merchants and landowners.
The was to travel to improve one’s personal artistic and intellectual education.
The Grand Tour
This experience took the name of .
- From north to south
Young English intellectuals,
but also German and French,
made this trip, which usually lasted a long time,
to the Mediterranean culture and
the (heritage of the classics),
2. artistic heritage of the classics,
3. Ancient Rome Greece.
especially of and
Tourism as a MASS PHENOMENON kicks off in the fifties,
namely in a phase of economic recovery after the devastation of the Second World War.
Guided tours became very popular.
Two-thirds of all British people have their holidays in July and August,
which are the most popular months for holidays.
ENGLISH SCHOOL from the end of July to the beginning of September.
children are on holiday seaside holiday
THE TRADITIONAL BRITISH HOLIDAY is a :
Torquay, are some of the most favourite destinations.
EUROPE is the most popular destination for UK residents,
accounting for 80 per cent of visits abroad.
SPAIN has been the most popular country to visit since 1994,
• with 13.8 million visits in 2005.
FRANCE was second in popularity, with 11.1 million visits.
• visits by UK residents to the USA increased
The number of
by 2 per cent in 2005 to 4.2 million,
6 per cent higher than the number in 2001.
visits abroad made by UK residents
The number of has more than tripled since 1985,
66.4 million in 2005.
to a record visits
Italy and the Britons
Beside the famous artistic Italian cities and archaeological sites,
the Chianti region in Tuscany, an area very dear to the British
(hence the term Chiantishire)
is a symbol of the good life.
Yet, the tourists who frequent it are relatively few compared to those who flock to the beaches of the
Mediterranean. Time off
Most museums in London are free of charge.
1_ FREE MUSEUMS are, for instance:
The British Museum,
-the National Gallery
-the Tate Gallery
. (Britain and Modern).
2_ONE HAS TO BUY A TICKET FOR OTHER MUSEUMS,
for example: Victoria and Albert Museum,
The Tower of London – The National Treasure.
The British museum
(*are the provenience of the Secretary of State for Culture)
One of the world's oldest museums,
is vast and its collections,
the British Museum
only a fraction of which can be on public display at any time, comprise millions of objects.
mainly an ARCHEOLOGICAL MUSEUM.
It is GREAT COURT
The is a large and beautiful covered piazza,
designed by Foster and Partners,
surrounding the free reference library in former Round Reading
Interior details - Main attractions two must-see masterpieces:
The British Museum contains, among many other things,
The former is a stele which allowed the decoding of Egyptian hieroglyphics.
2-The ELGIN MARBLES
These marbles are the Parthenon Marbles,
which Thomas Bruce,
Seventh Lord Elgin, gathered during his service as
ambassador to the court of the Ottoman Sultan in Istanbul.
In practice, the term is commonly used to refer to the
objects he gathered or - according to critics- looted - from
Athens between 1801-05.
Elgin marbles (Lord Elgin’s Marbles)
The national Gallery
(*are the provenience of the Secretary of State for Culture)
in Trafalgar Square
in the heart of London,
Situated precisely .
It’s a neo-classical building was founded in
to display a collection of just 36 paintings, today.
The National Gallery is home to more than 2,000 works.
There are masterpieces from virtually every European school of art.
Among the extraordinay pieces of art, the National Gallery boasts the
presence of a very famous painting of the Renaissance:
“The Ambassadors” by Hans Holbein The Younger(1533).The
painting is characterized by a visual device called anamorphosis.
Tate Britain Gallery
Probably the most British museum in London. Pimlico
south of London
It is situated in the in an area called .
Its name comes from the name of the collector of works of art who
founded the gallery, the rich owner of a sugar plantation.
Dante gabriel rossetti
The Tate Gallery is the home the most important British painters:
3-and, above all, the brotherhood of artists
The latter consists of a (painters, poets, designers)
who considered the art before Raphael as the ideal one and tried to reproduce it.
(Proserpine) venus verticordia
The arts once had some precious and exclusive image associated with notions of high culture,
SECOND WORLD WAR:
but AFTER THE increased educational opportunities
increased the gradual relaxions of social barriers.
The growth of popular culture has increased EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES, it has
increased the (potential) AUDIENCE FOR CULTURAL ACTIVITIES
and ARTS has spread to greater numbers of people. AMATEUR GROUP
Virtually every TOWN, SUBURB, VILLAGE has an .
There are some 500 professional arts and cultural festivals held each year throught out Britan.
MEMBERS OF THE REGIONAL RTS UNCILS IN England, Scotland, Wales, Northern
S S C M
Ireland: ARE APPOINTED BY ECRETARY of the TATE FOR ULTURE, EDIA AND
There are limited founds and, for this there are inevitably criticism.
founds from the National Lottery,
Some cultural organizations have recived such as:
ROYAL OPERA and MUSEUM.
Time off- THEATRES
During the Middle Ages the only theatre performances allowed were the religious ones called
MYSTERY, MIRACLE AND MORALITY PLAYS.
The situation drastically changed during the Renaissance, especially under the reign of Queen
Elizabeth I, in which the theatre reached its peak of popularity. The audience was heterogeneous and
included all social classes.
Theatres were built outside the City Corporations to avoid censorship.
However, during the Republican period, under Oliver Cromwell, theatres were closed in 1642 because
they were supposed to corrupt people.
When they were opened again in 1660 nothing was as it used to be anymore. Theatres became an
elitist entertainment reserved to the upper classes.
Women were finally allowed to act on the stage.
British Theatre has a INTERNATIONAL REPUTATION.
English man’s leisure time theatres,
A great deal of the is spent in going to concerts
Although there are very good professional companies in most provincial towns,
London is the leading centre of dramatic activity.
There are about 50 theatres in London the most important of which are:
the National Theatre on the south ban of the river Thames.
• Drury Lane and
• the Aldwich Theatre.
• CAPITAL'S “West End“.
The dominant influence for thetre is in the
In the regions outside London the are many repertory theatres
(REPERTORY THEATRES means that they provide a number of plays ina given season and have a resident
theatre company and organization.)
The majority of West End theatres: are organized for profit
and receives no public found.
(London theatres are subsidized by grants supplied by the Arts Council, among them:
-the Royal Shakespeare at Stratford- upon- Avon
-the English Stage Company.)
Concerts are mainly given:
at the Albert Hall,
– at the Royal Festival Hall.
In the National Theatre Company was formed and started putting on plays at the Old Vic.
In the past, Laurence Olivier,
under the leadership of its director,
the National Theatre Company reached world-wide renown.
Royal Shakespeare at Stratford –on-Avon,
Another very important company is the every year from
April to November. St. Martin’s Theatre
It is a legendary place in the heart of London considered as Agatha Christie’s home. Indeed it is the
set where her masterpiece has been represented for 60 years.
The Mousetrap has celebrated over 25,000 performances. It is quite simply a great piece of theatrical
history because of what it is, “a whodunit” written by the greatest crime writer of all time.
The Covent Garden Opera House
Opera and ballet have their home at the Covent Garden Opera House.
Originally built in 1858, the current Royal Opera House is the embodiment of the highbrow culture
hub, and legends including Maria Callas, Margot Fonteyn, Luciano Pavarotti and Rudolf Nureyev
have graced its stage. The Globe
It is the London theatre associated to
It was built in 1599 outside the city corporation to avoid censorship.
architectural structure is very unusual:
Its it is circular without a roof and the stage in the middle.
After Broadway, London is the European hub of musical performances. London hosts
Beside the classical Andrew Lloyd Webber’s musical like Cats, Jesus Christ Superstar,
more classical musicals like:
-Singin’n the Rain
-new productions entirely British.
The best examples are:
We will rock you based on Queen’s music.,
or Billy Eliot which was also a successful film in 2000.
The cinema too enjoys great popularity in Britain in competition with television.
most of the films the British see have been made in U.S.A.
BRITISH CINEMA very high artistic level
The has reached a the amount of film production is not
and many British films have gained international success, but
Pinewood Studios are the legendary television and cinema stages.
Foreign films have subtitles.
are not dubbed, but they
Time off - Eating out
Food and drink
Food in Britain has had a bad reputation abroad for a very long time.
Visitors complain the meals they order in restaurants and cafés.
from foreign countries
However, in a city like there is great variety.
There are so many restaurants serving continental and non-European dishes
that it can be difficult to find one serving only own cooking to Britain – Asian, Caribbean, Greek
Cypriot. various foreign cooking
There are restaurants specializing in addition to the many Italian and French
ones. Meals great interest in cooking among
In spite of complaints about uninteresting food, there seems to be a
people in Britain.
COOKERY BOOKS NEWSPAPERS MAGAZINES
are published, and and regularly print unusual
recipes from foreign countries and revive old recipes from the past and from various regions of
A good combination of tradition and innovation is represented by gastropubs.
There are generally three main meals:
breakfast – lunch – dinner.
The latter has tripartition:
starter – main course – dessert.
“CREAM TEA” : can substitute dinner.
“cream tea” is the traditional way to enjoy tea drinking which
+1 anno fa
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