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Materiale teorico per superare la parte teorica dell'esame di Laboratory of business process management. Molto schematico e di facile comprensione, con brevi e semplici esercizi. Appunti basati su appunti personali del publisher presi alle lezioni del prof. Casati.

Esame di Laboratory of business process management docente Prof. F. Casati



What is the difference between multiple start events and event­based gateways?

When should each of these be used?

The difference is that in the Event­Based Gateways the sequence flow that is activated next

depends on which event occurs. In Multiple Event­Based Gateway when one of the event

occurs, the other events stop “listening” for events and the flow proceed in the flow. In the

Multiple Start Event Node if a new event arrives a new instance of the process is created

and it never stops listening. Even if Event­Based Gateways can be used to start a processes

it is advised not to because it is confusing and just use them as ordinary gateways.

The difference is that in a event­based gateways the token is waiting for an event, and once

it had been triggered the gateway stop listening.

The start event is always listening for that event and once triggered creates a new instance

of the process! We use them in different contexts, If we have a process that can be triggered

by different events we use multiple starts events, while if during a process execution we

have to wait for different events in order to proceed, we use event­based gateways and the

gateway will be “listening” only when a token reach it. ​ ​

“An activity can have two or more different start events as input, as shown in F

igure 6.1

. Whenever

one of them occurs, a new instance is created and the token flows. Notice that the start event “listens”

to events only when there is no instance active. Once the in­ stance is active, start events do not wait

for events to arrive in that instance (a different instance will be generated if another such event

arrives). This pair of start events is therefore analo­ gous to a multiple start event.” p. 67

What is the purpose of start events in BPMN and in process modelling in general?

Why is it important to model start events accurately?

The allow us to clearly model when or under what condition a process instance will start. It

can be associated to a trigger (such as the arrival of a message or at a certain time) or it can

be started when someone in the organization decides to.

What is the difference between error and terminate end events?

Both error and terminate events terminate all activities. But with the Error Event an error is

thrown and it can be catched only by an error intermediate event or by a boundary catching



What is an ad hoc subprocess? When is it useful?

Ad hoc subprocesses are a collection of activities without a prescribed order or flow. Ad hoc

subprocesses provide a more flexible way to specify ordering among activities, or, rather,

they allow to avoid specifying ordering among activities. They can be in parallel or sequential

mode. They allow to avoid specifying order between activities. They are useful when we

don't want to specify an order constraint.

The parallel​

one works like this: at the start, all activities without input flows are enabled.

In a sequential​

subprocess, we have the same flexibility of choice but we can activate only

one activity at a time.

What is the difference between a parallel multi­instance and a parallel ad hoc


A parallel multi­instance activity executes in parallel multiple instances of the same activity.

Is An ad hoc subprocess can execute in parallel different activities.

What is the difference between a multi­instance sequential and a a multi­instance

parallel task?

A multi­instance sequential task execute multiple instances of the same activity one after the

other while the parallel one execute all of them at the same time, in parallel.

When should we use an event subprocess instead of simply using event nodes?

We should use an event subprocess when we want to reduce complexity of the diagram and

maintain it all at the same level of abstraction.

Event subprocess can be used also when the interested event can be triggered during the

execution of the overall process.

These subprocesses are not part of the normal flow, but they are activated when the specific

event is triggered.

The event subprocesses are the dotted boxes that are not part of the flow :). They are useful

for capturing specific events without interrupting the normal flow of the process. These

events can happen at any time during the process, so if you tried to model the same thing

with event nodes, you would have to listen for events at every step (e.g. with boundary


When should we use send and receive tasks instead of send and receive event


We should use send and receive tasks instead of event nodes when the action to be

performed is not just to send or receive a message but it requires also work to be done.


Which is the difference between public and private processes? what is the relation

between them?

A private process describes how a process is run and what tasks is made of from the

internal point of view of the organization. A public processes is a view of the private process

from the perspective of an external participant and it defines whatever the other participants

need to know to interact with the service.

What does a task in a choreography represent?

A task in choreography is a message exchange pattern. It can be one­way, request­reply or

multi­party message exchange. It represents the interactions in terms of information

exchange between two entities.

Can we use an xor gateway in a choreography, and if we can, which are the rules we

need to follow?

In a choreography we can use XOR gateway only if all participants that initiate actions after

the gateway, are able to evaluate the gateway. If they are not they must implement an

event­based gateway and be ready to alternatives.

What is the purpose and intended usage of choreographies?

Choreographies are used to describe the flow of interactions and coordination between

participants and define the sequence and conditions of the exchange of messages.

Choreographies are used for top­down design of a service delivered in collaboration by

multiple participants. With the choreography we are able to derive the public processes of

each participant.


What is the difference between a regular subprocess and a transaction subprocess?


What is an ACID transaction and what are the ACID properties?

An ACID transaction is a logical unit of execution, a set of data operation that must be

executed as a whole. ACID stands for Atomicity (the operations must be executed all of

them or none of them), Consistency (the database must be in a correct state after the

execution), Isolation (updated must not be visible before committed), Durability (if the

changes are committed they must not be lost because of subsequent failure).

Why ACIDity is sometimes i) not achievable and ii) not desirable in BPM?


What is two phase commit and when it is used?

2­phase commit is a protocol for achieving ACIDity among multiple participants where both

parties first agree to attempt the transaction, then all must agree to either go forward with the

entire unit of work or not.


Key performance metrics:

● Flow time (T) (or throughput time): Total time spent by flow unit in a process from

start to end. Measured in units of time (minutes, seconds..). Reducing flow time




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+1 anno fa

Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea in informatica
Università: Trento - Unitn
A.A.: 2016-2017

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher tito1992 di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Laboratory of business process management e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Trento - Unitn o del prof Casati Fabio.

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