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James Joyce

Life

He is from Dublin, but during his life hi lives out from Ireland, in particular in Paris. He is one of the few that writes about Ireland: he writes about every kind of people that there are in Ireland. He denounces the Irish people because, also now that Ireland is independent, they are still in front of life.

Works

The Dubliners (1914): is a collect of 15 short stories. In every story is narrated the life of a particular group, or person, for every period of life.

The Ulysses (1920): Joyce writes it in Paris, the center of all innovative culture of the world: here are written the most provocative works. It is a story of one day, settled in Dublin. The protagonist is called Leopold Bloom. Joyce describes in each details Leopold’s day, trough his thoughts, seen by his mind. Leopold represents the anti – hero. It is written in stream of consciousness, that let us see the man from inside.

Technique

Interior monologue: monologue seen by characters interiority; is a description of characters thoughts, of what happens in character’s mind.

Stream of consciousness: interior monologue brought to the extreme consequence; there is a free flowing of thoughts. Is base on association of images, perceptions, and sensations, without any punctuation.

Themes

Epiphany: the moment when the character understands that his life is a sort of prison and the only way to go out is escape.

Escape: is the solution to exit from the character’s situation.

Paralysis: is the character’s incapability to react in front of the situation of his life. The Dubliners are slaves of the all features of their life, so they are victims. They can’t have any public relation.

Anti – hero: for this person live the everyday life is a difficult, because this living is a problem. He isn’t able to face with every day life. Modern man has problem to live: hasn’t ideal to fighting for.

Joyce refuses the tradition of the church because it is a too static tradition, because pushes people in a strict scheme

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