An inhabitant is someone who lives in a particular place. A synonym for inhabitant is dweller. An animal can also be referred to as an inhabitant.
EX: As a fellow inhabitant of the coastline, I can identify with people who spend the rainy season worriedly checking water levels in the hopes that their homes [s]will be safe from water damage.
EX: Though there are few animal inhabitants of the desert due to harsh climate, some animals do thrive there, having the necessary adaptations to cope with conditions.
A cohabitant is a person living with another in an unmarried state. The term cohabitation usually implies a sexual relationship.
EX: In some countries, the number of cohabitants is greater than those living together in a state of marriage.
EX: Studies show that apartments on the east side of town have the greatest number of cohabitants, while those on the west side have more single residents.[/s]
A resident is a person who lives in a place, usually with the connection of work or a house or other dwelling. Resident usually implies more connection to a place than simply dwelling there. In a legal sense, one can become a resident of a country by fulfilling or meeting certain requirements.
EX: As a resident of the Brookside Manor housing development, I feel that my thoughts about the roads that run through our neighbourhood should be taken into account!
EX: Lily currently has legal status as a resident of Italy, and intends to apply for citizenship there within a year.
An artist/poet/etc. in residence is a person who is committed to live in a place, such as a university or church, for a specific period of time and will use their talents for the benefit of that place.
EX: A young man served as an artist in residence at our church for a period of two years, which proved a great boon to our music programme.
EX: The university's English department had a poet in residence this semester who guest lectured in all the introductory literature courses.