The movements of the 30's
The three glorious days
In 1814, Louis XVIII granted a constitution inspired by the British bicameral model which kept the Napoleonic civil and penal legislation.
On the death of Louis (1824) he came with Charles X, a supporter of the reactionary right.
He immediately tried to reestablish an absolute monarchy, also giving back all the privileges of the nobility and the clergy. The liberal bourgeoisie expressed their dissent in the elections of 1827 in which the opposition won a majority in Parliament.
Therefore the king dissolved the Parliamentary Assembly and the calling of new elections, but was defeated by the opposition again. So he organized a coup
July 25, were issued four orders that:
- Dissolving the newly elected chamber;
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- Instituted strict control over the press;
- Altered the electoral law reducing the number of voters;
- Indicevano new elections.
The people of Paris then took to the streets clashing with the royal troops July 27 to 29 1830 - The three glorious days.
Philip was proclaimed King of the French according to the will of the nation. The last thing the Constitution was passed which gave to the parliament more powers of control on the government.
The birth of Belgium
The Congress of Vienna had joined Belgium and Holland in the Netherlands.
In 1830 a rebellion broke out in Belgium indipendista. The Netherlands asked the help of the great powers, but France and Britain refused to intervene and recognized the independence of Belgium, which was formed in a kingdom.
In central Italy (Emilia, Tuscany and the Papal States) a revolt in 1831 created a Provisional Government of the United Provinces. France, now opposed to interventions outside its borders, refused to support the insurgents. Were the Austrian troops to quell the revolt.
The independence of Latin America
The Latin America was divided between Europe and America. During the age of restoration, Latin America gained its independence from the Spanish and Portuguese. The main internal causes were:
- Minority of Creoles;
- Majority of Indians and blacks;
- Intermediate state of the Métis.
External causes were:
- Decline of the Spanish military and commercial;
- Crisis of the system of the Holy Alliance. London prevented the European powers to intervene in South America;
- The defense of the United States to any European interference in the new continent.
The formation of the South American states
Between 1809 and 1812 was the heyday of Napoleon. Taking advantage of the difficult situation he was living in Spain with Napoleon, the first riots broke out, but were still suppressed by the Spanish monarchy.
This caused the civil war between separatists and the peninsular faithful to the Bourbon monarchy.
Spain sent his troops only in 1815.
In the 20's Argentina, Peru, Paraguay, Brazil and so on. reached independence thanks to the heroic figures such as Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin.
A politically divided continent
After independence they came to create small states with small populations and weakened by the long war. Almost all they had democratic constitutions - Republican intended, however, to be undermined by authoritarian coups. The power was disputed between the caudillos. Since the economy was agricultural and export revolt, the continent continued to depend on foreign powers. Only at the end of 800, with authoritarian regimes, he began industrialization followed by political instability with continuous revolutions.
The backwardness of Italy
The backwardness of agriculture
Around half of the 800 in Italy, as in other European countries, there had been an increase in population. But compared with other countries, Italy still remained backward. Most of the Italian population was engaged in the primary sector, leaving the development of the secondary sector ie industries.
Italian agriculture was mainly extensive. That intensive (typical of small plots of land) was little practiced in the Po Valley.
Tuscany is still practiced sharecropping: the land belonging to one owner were divided into farms that were cultivated several genres. Each farm was entrusted to a peasant family, half the crop went to the owner and the other half to the family that cultivated it. In the '300 sharecropping was a great solution because the farmer was encouraged to produce more, while 800 tenant farmers did not have the economic means necessary for modernizing production.
A production still preindustrial
In the mid '800 small industries were operating especially in textiles, steel and mechanical. Usually they arose long rivers to exploit the driving force. He had formed an industrial proletariat as the workers were peasants who worked in the industry only when they had free time and did not have to look after the land. The major industry was textiles where they worked silk, wool and cotton.
The steel industry and mechanics were extremely late.
Because Italy was so backward?
The living condition of the citizens were not improved compared to the '600. The power was very poor and was mainly based on the consumption of starchy foods like polenta and corn. They were in fact spread diseases such as pellagra due to lack of vitamins and because of vast wetlands also malaria was widespread. Poor sanitation favored the spread of epidemics.
The backwardness of Italy, however, was more evident in the industrial field.
In fact the country:
- He did not have raw materials such as iron and coal;
- The road network was underdeveloped;
- The Italian states invested little on economic development;
- Banks did not support the agricultural and industrial development;
- Lacked investments from people willing to risk;
- Per capita income was low and prevailed own consumption.
This situation was aggravated by the political division of Italy in various states, each of which had its own currency, its duties, its taxes and its laws. This was an obstacle to the take-off of the industrial revolution.
The debate on the Risorgimento
The Risorgimento movement
In Italy it was spreading idea of national unity.
The process that led to the formation of a unified Italian state was defined by the politics of the time: the Risorgimento.
To spread this idea contributed to the debate on the Risorgimento. There were two main factions that were opposed:
- Moderate - right Risorgimento (Cavour) - The moderates wanted to involve the rulers and wanted to proceed gradually in the unification of Italy.
- Democratic - left Risorgimento (Mazzini) - The Democrats were suspicious about the reliability of the sovereign, in fact wanted to involve the people doing so become the new Italian state a true republic.
The democratic republic of Mazzini
Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872). Born in Genoa from a wealthy family, from his youth he came to the patriotic and democratic ideas. He joined the Carbonari, but in 1830 he was arrested and was exiled to Marseilles where he came into contact with other exiles as Filippo Buonarroti and the Piedmont Carlo White Saint-Jorioz. He wrote an essay in which he argued the need to apply to the Italian model of the Spanish uprising against Napoleon. Following the failure of the uprisings of the '20s and' 30s, Mazzini saw that the Carbonari had been overcome by now, so in 1831 he founded a new political organization: The Italian Giovine. The goal was to unite the country by freeing despotic rulers.
Italy: one state, free, independent and Republican
The approach was to insurrection, but first needed a wide propaganda that would make known the aims and educasse the people to revolt.
The spread of this new party was rather large. Most of the members were socially concentrated in urban middle and lower classes. He joined the Young Italy Giuseppe Garibaldi, who later distanced itself but the more radical positions of Mazzini.
God and the people
Mazzini had a vision of life far removed from the Christian religion. But the individual is naturally inclined to stretch into infinity, the divine element and inserting himself into that collective entity represented by the people. Mazzini also supported the principle of associations and criticizing individualism century. The individual to achieve freedom was to join the family, which in turn was part of the nation and all nations gives life to humanity.
Thought and action
Mazzini did not agree with the principle of Marxian class struggle as it broke the united spirit of the people. Mazzini was necessary to think, but also act, hence the combination of "thought and action".
All insurgencies that attempted the failed that year:
- In 1833 the Kingdom of Sardinia;
- 1834 Savoy and Genoa;
- 1844 for Calabria by Attilio and Emilio Bandiera (members of Young Italy);
- In 1843 and in 1845 the Papal States and Romagna.
Following these failures Mazzini was accused by moderate to influence the youth Italian pushing the sacrifice.
The Federal Republic of Cattaneo
Near Mazzini, to hope in the advent of a republic in Italy, there was Carlo Cattaneo. Unlike Mazzini, Cattaneo thought absurd speech on spiritualism and especially did not share the goal of building a centralized state, authoritarian vision. Cattaneo pointed to a federal republic, just so they would be granted freedom among different peoples.
Cattaneo looked at as a model the US and Switzerland.
According to Cattaneo methods to arrive at a federal republic were the political and economic reforms. Federal Italy would join then later to a larger confederation as "The United States of Europe".
The neo-Guelphism Gioberti
Within the moderate camp there was a federal vision supported by the priest Vincenzo Gioberti.
He advocated the establishment of a confederation of Italian states presided over by the Pope and supported by the force of arms of the Kingdom of Sardinia.
The moderation wire - Savoy
Cesare Balbo, considering the Austrian presence in Italy, believed that diplomacy Piedmont could hijack Austrian interests to the Balkans and to allow the birth of an Italian confederation under the Savoy.
According to Massimo D'Azeglio (Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia) the national cause had to be resolved through diplomacy and with the weapons of the House of Savoy, but not with the riots!
Only Camillo Benso knew specify the individual way to achieve the unification of Italy.