letteratura inglese - Inglese I
Appunti di Inglese I nella materia di Lingua e letteratura inglese. Nello specifico gli argomenti trattati sono i seguenti: Ancient human practice that pre-dates writing, The word ‘dragoman’ can be traced back to 1200 b.c. = ‘one who interprets’, Greek word hermeneus means mediator or go-between, ecc.
Ancient human practice that pre-dates writing The word ‘dragoman’ can be traced back to 1200 b.c. = ‘one who interprets’ Greek word hermeneus means mediator or go-between. Latin interpres means one who mediates betweeen people
dragoman An interpreter or guide in countries where Arabic, Turkish, or Persian is spoken. Middle English dragman Old French drugeman Medieval Latin: dragumannus Medieval Greek: dragoumanos Arabic: tarjuman Hebrew: targûm
hermêneus Hermes messenger, go-between, negotiator,mediator, bargainer, deal broker, middle-man.
interpres The Latin word ‘interpres’ ‘inter’ ‘pres’
between catch, grasp, lay hold of (understand)
definitions of interpreting
Conventional dictionary defintition as ‘oral translation’ is inadequate since it excludes sign language, sight translation and live sub-titling.
Kade’s criteria Otto Kade - professor at the University of Leipzig in the 1960s
the source text is presented only once and thus cannot be reviewed; the target utterance is produced under time presssure with no chance for revision or correction.
Interpreting is a form of translation in which the
first and final rendition in another language is produced orally on the basis of a one-time presentation of an utterance in a source-language.
Earliest inter-social settings
Trade, exchange of goods
Political relations between separate cultural communities,for example, diplomatic/military relations
Earliest intra-personal setting In multi-ethnic socio-political entities, such as the Roman Empire, different linguistic communities needed to communicate within the institutions of government.
Interpreters were needed to ensure that even those who did not speak the language of the authorities could be held responsible under the law.
First official provision for the presence of courtroom interpreters was made in Spain in the 16th century.
modernday multi-ethnic society interpreters are essential in many fields of community
healthcare, immigration, employment, education, the law and justice system
Forms of Interaction
a bilingual interpreter assumes the pivotal role between two monolingual clients. liaison interpreting; community interpreting
a one-to-many form of interaction one interpreter produces target utterance for many listeners conference interpreting
Conference Interpreting began in the early 20th century with Paris Peace Conference 0f 1919 and the League of Nations and has become increasingly more important because of the European Economic Community
Working modes in conference interpreting Consecutive Simultaneous Whispered
(chuchotage) Sight translation
Consecutive interpreting Interpreter listens to about 10 mintues of source language utterance, during which time he is taki