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letteratura inglese - Inglese I

Appunti di Inglese I nella materia di Lingua e letteratura inglese. Nello specifico gli argomenti trattati sono i seguenti: Ancient human practice that pre-dates writing, The word ‘dragoman’ can be traced back to 1200 b.c. = ‘one who interprets’, Greek word hermeneus means mediatoror go-between, ecc.

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Anteprima Testo:
Mediazione lingua inglese I Introduction to interpreting
Origins 



Ancient human practice that pre-dates writing The word ‘dragoman’ can be traced back to 1200 b.c. = ‘one who interprets’ Greek word hermeneus means mediator or go-between. Latin interpres means one who mediates betweeen people
dragoman An interpreter or guide in countries where Arabic, Turkish, or Persian is spoken. Middle English dragman Old French drugeman Medieval Latin: dragumannus Medieval Greek: dragoumanos Arabic: tarjuman Hebrew: targûm
dragoman
hermêneus Hermes messenger, go-between, negotiator,mediator, bargainer, deal broker, middle-man.
interpres The Latin word ‘interpres’ ‘inter’ ‘pres’
between catch, grasp, lay hold of (understand)
definitions of interpreting 
Conventional dictionary defintition as ‘oral translation’ is inadequate since it excludes sign language, sight translation and live sub-titling.
Kade’s criteria Otto Kade - professor at the University of Leipzig in the 1960s 

the source text is presented only once and thus cannot be reviewed; the target utterance is produced under time presssure with no chance for revision or correction.
Interpreting is a form of translation in which the
first and final rendition in another language is produced orally on the basis of a one-time presentation of an utterance in a source-language.
Earliest inter-social settings 
Trade, exchange of goods

Political relations between separate cultural communities,for example, diplomatic/military relations
Earliest intra-personal setting In multi-ethnic socio-political entities, such as the Roman Empire, different linguistic communities needed to communicate within the institutions of government.
Interpreters were needed to ensure that even those who did not speak the language of the authorities could be held responsible under the law.
First official provision for the presence of courtroom interpreters was made in Spain in the 16th century.
modernday multi-ethnic society interpreters are essential in many fields of community
relations:
healthcare, immigration, employment, education, the law and justice system
Forms of Interaction
bilatareal multilateral
Bilateral interaction 
three-party interaction:

a bilingual interpreter assumes the pivotal role between two monolingual clients. liaison interpreting; community interpreting

Multilateral interaction 


a one-to-many form of interaction one interpreter produces target utterance for many listeners conference interpreting
Conference Interpreting began in the early 20th century with Paris Peace Conference 0f 1919 and the League of Nations and has become increasingly more important because of the European Economic Community
Working modes in conference interpreting  Consecutive  Simultaneous  Whispered
(chuchotage)  Sight translation
Consecutive interpreting Interpreter listens to about 10 mintues of source language utterance, during which time he is taking notes. At the end of the ten minutes he immediately gives the target language version.
CONSECUTIVE INTERPRETING 
The most important aspect of consecutive interpreting is concentration. The tiniest slip in concentration can be fatal. Therefore you need to make sure that there is nothing which impairs your full concentration during the sessions.
CONSECUTIVE INTERPRETING 

Since the interpreter will be in full view of an entire international gathering appropriate clothing is very important. Interpreter’s note-taking skills must be of a very high standard because there is no chance for revision.
What is note taking 
 
Note-taking is a method of recording information heard. It is largely non-language specific It often consists of little “pictures” which convey an idea rather than an individual word.
What is note-taking 

It is an aid for the interpreter’s memory but it does not replace listening. Consecutive interpreters must learn to listen carefully while they are taking notes
Simultaneous Interpreting
definition 


Simultaneous interpreting is given alondside of the origianl utterance While the speaker continues his speech the interpreter begins delivering the target language version. The amount of time between the source utterance and the interpreter’s utterance is called the “décalage”
What is the interpreter doing  
 
Taking in and memorising information Transferring the information into the other language Rendering Taking in and memorising new information
Simultaneous intepreting Equiptment used
Simultaneous interpreting 


Interpreters work in a sound-proof booth with headsets. They listen to the speaker and simultaneously translate what he is saying into a microphone. Only a few seconds pass between hearing and giving the utterance in the target language.
Whispered interpreting Simultaneous interpreting without equiptment 

In situations where there is no equiptment interpreters may engage in ‘whiEspandi »spered interpreting’ which is also called ‘chucotage’ The interpreter sits just to the side of the person for whom he is interpreting, listens to the source language utterance and then whispers the target language version into that person’s ear.
Sight translation 

Another form of simultaneous interpreting is sight translation. The interpreter is called upon to read and simultaneously translate a document which he is seeing for the first time.
Simultaneous interpreting 

Conference interpreters who are working simultaneously are sometimes given a written copy of the speaker’s speech as an aid to their interpretation. This can be helpful but the interpreter should be aware that speakers often change what they have planned to say, add other remarks or shorten their speech.
The working modes of conference interpreting are: 
C……………

S……………

W…………..

S…………….
Review questions  
 

What does the word ‘dragoman’ mean Where was interpreting first regulated by govenment authorities What is multilateral interpreting Explain the difference between simultaneous and consecutive interpreting. What is décalage
Language directionality  
The AIIC (Association des Interprètes de Conference or International Association of Conference interpreters) has established a number of guidelines regarding the ways in which conference interpreters should be employed depending on their levels of language proficiency.
‘A’ language = mother tongue or best active langage. ‘B’ language = active language commanded with near-native proficiency. ‘C’ language = passive language allowing complete understanding.
Western tradition of conference interpreting 

An interpretor listens to utterances in his B or C language and then gives them in his A language. This means the target language version is always given by a mother tongue speaker
Mediazione lingua inglese I Introduction to interpreting
Origins 



Ancient human practice that pre-dates writing The word ‘dragoman’ can be traced back to 1200 b.c. = ‘one who interprets’ Greek word hermeneus means mediator or go-between. Latin interpres means one who mediates betweeen people
dragoman An interpreter or guide in countries where Arabic, Turkish, or Persian is spoken. Middle English dragman Old French drugeman Medieval Latin: dragumannus Medieval Greek: dragoumanos Arabic: tarjuman Hebrew: targûm
dragoman
hermêneus Hermes messenger, go-between, negotiator,mediator, bargainer, deal broker, middle-man.
interpres The Latin word ‘interpres’ ‘inter’ ‘pres’
between catch, grasp, lay hold of (understand)
definitions of interpreting 
Conventional dictionary defintition as ‘oral translation’ is inadequate since it excludes sign language, sight translation and live sub-titling.
Kade’s criteria Otto Kade - professor at the University of Leipzig in the 1960s 

the source text is presented only once and thus cannot be reviewed; the target utterance is produced under time presssure with no chance for revision or correction.
Interpreting is a form of translation in which the
first and final rendition in another language is produced orally on the basis of a one-time presentation of an utterance in a source-language.
Earliest inter-social settings 
Trade, exchange of goods

Political relations between separate cultural communities,for example, diplomatic/military relations
Earliest intra-personal setting In multi-ethnic socio-political entities, such as the Roman Empire, different linguistic communities needed to communicate within the institutions of government.
Interpreters were needed to ensure that even those who did not speak the language of the authorities could be held responsible under the law.
First official provision for the presence of courtroom interpreters was made in Spain in the 16th century.
modernday multi-ethnic society interpreters are essential in many fields of community
relations:
healthcare, immigration, employment, education, the law and justice system
Forms of Interaction
bilatareal multilateral
Bilateral interaction 
three-party interaction:

a bilingual interpreter assumes the pivotal role between two monolingual clients. liaison interpreting; community interpreting

Multilateral interaction 


a one-to-many form of interaction one interpreter produces target utterance for many listeners conference interpreting
Conference Interpreting began in the early 20th century with Paris Peace Conference 0f 1919 and the League of Nations and has become increasingly more important because of the European Economic Community
Working modes in conference interpreting  Consecutive  Simultaneous  Whispered
(chuchotage)  Sight translation
Consecutive interpreting Interpreter listens to about 10 mintues of source language utterance, during which time he is taking notes. At the end of the ten minutes he immediately gives the target language version.
CONSECUTIVE INTERPRETING .. « Comprimi
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