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Anteprima

ESTRATTO DOCUMENTO

particular the museum in Bilbao is an extravagant building that has played a crucial role in

reimagined the city because it needed a sort of postcard image to emerge to global attention.

The extraordinary success of Gerhy's museums meant that many minor cities in the world

called Gerhy's office hoping for a transformation of their own city, This shows how a very

iconic postcard image can attract attention.

FROM CONTAINER TO CONTENT: THE CONTEMPORARY MUSEUM

Bilbao museums looks more like as an art object than a container of art objects.

This tendency of modern architectures designed to house museums and art galleries, to be

conceived as strongly iconic, strongly recognisable, has become very strong, very recurrent on

the last decades, on the last century.

The idea is that the container of art objects tents to transform itself into a content, an art

object itself; and, in transforming itself into an art object, the modern museums are able to

convey very powerful messages and are able to attract mass consumption.

This tendency, finds its major expression in Ghery's Bilbao Guggenheim, which was build on

an economically depressed area.

Another example of contemporary iconic museums is "The Centre George Pompidou" by

British architect Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano in the late 1970. For the first time this

museums propose the idea that art galleries could be machines for expositions; in other words

a very functional, flexible container, which is designed to change its inner spaces in order to

adjust to the different exhibition or cultural events, art show.

The idea of very functional and very flexible place, is married with the idea of having at the

end a very iconic, recognisable, powerful image which can be sold on the global market.

These museums are a sort of hybrid entities mixed, halfway between a monuments and a

shopping centre, a mall. This museums come very close to the prediction of the 1979 that one

day all museums will became shopping centres and all shopping centres museums.

With its physical presence in metropolitan fabric, the monument museum describes a new

identity for the city or for the immediate surrounding neighbourhood in which it is located. In

this sense the modern museums, the modern art gallery has a function similar to the role

played by cathedrals and other important city monuments

This issue, "how the museum monument related to the surrounding space" is very interesting

and really important. A very useful example to explore this idea is "Tate Modern" in London.

It is a building located on the South Bank of the River Thames in the Bankside district of

London.

When it was decided in 1990 early, that this old power station could be turn into an important

art gallery, this building was not connected by public transports with the rest of the city. A sort

of an isolated and marginal area. Certainly very unappealing to tourists, that seldom cross the

river.

This means that if you want to use this building for important art gallery, you have to

reimagine, not just building, all the neighbourhoods.

This marginal and depressed area (similarity to Bilbao) had to be reimagined into a major

tourist and cultural place. A new centrality had to be imagined, created first of all through

public transports.

Today the building is mainly accessible by the Millennium Bridge, which is itself new. The

Millennium Bridge was conceived precisely as a major, very elegant access to the art gallery.

But also two new stations (Millennium Bridge and Southwark - Jubilee Line) were open in

1999, one year before the opening of the art gallery.

MUSEUMS AS AGENTS OF CULTURAL REGENERATION

"Tate Modern" was conceived as an instrument to reanimate an entire London neighbourhood,

giving to it new life and new identity.

The city itself looks very much like a sort of museum containing art objects.

It was the Swiss practise “Herzog and de Meuron” that won the competition to convert the

Bankside Power Station designed in 1891 by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott London's Tate Modern.

Other cultural regeneration

This project was a project of cultural regeneration, certainly not unique in Europe, during the

last decade of the last century, in fact there were many others example:

- Vienna's Museumsquartier;

- Paris's Grands Projects (under president Mitterand): the Louvre, the Opera-Bastille, Le

Defense and the Bibliothèque Nationale;

- Berlin's regeneration projects in Postzdamerplatz and Leipzigerplatz;

- Bilbao's Guggenheim (1997).

Sometimes this project had been state founded projects and this is very much the case of

Paris.

Signature architecture in the global context

The last decades of 20 century have seen the rise of what Saskia Sassen defined as "global

cities". "Global cities" are global financial hotspots (as New York, London, Tokyo, Paris; but

other cities are rising today in India, China, Dubai and Qatar).

In this global context of very powerful global cities, periphery once minor cities are strongly

hard to compete and in this struggle of competition, the role of architecture is clearly

instrumental in promotion of this cities, through the realization of flagship projects (progetti

faro) (Bilbao Guggenheim was the first major one).

Building was often designed by famous architects who's style was very recognisable and

fashionable, a sort of brand.

TATE MODERN

Tate Modern, unlike Bilbao, it's not exactly an example of signature architecture, because

something new happened there.

First of all, unlike Garin's building in Bilbao, Tate Modern was a conserved? with the

immediate context. The project of Tate Modern cooperated a strategy for the urban context in

Bankside.

What was this context like before the opening of the art gallery?

Southwark: the borough with a high number of council flats. So it was a working class

relatively poor area.

It closed in 1981 and it has been an empty building for a very long time.

This of course had a negative impact of the area and local surveys at the time, precisely

evidence testified to this. Before the opening of Tate Modern (2000) (the area was depressed

at strict level) the director of Jerwood Space, which is another art space near Tate Modern,

made an astute prediction on the impact Tate would have in following year, and he argued that

the "will first and foremost alter the art geography of London (and it was the case). Then over

a 5-year period, it will impact nationally and internationally an cause other institutions to

redefine their roles". In the sense that Tate Modern provide a new model of art gallery.

Tate now is viewed as a principle player in the global contemporary art world, but it is also a

model for education and community work. This success has meant new founding for the art

gallery from both central government and from art supporters.

TATE MODERN: A NEW MODEL FOR URBAN MUSEUMS?

This house station was an industrial building, an example of industrial archeology. This

project was conceived at the last decade of the century, when most Millennium architecture

were have been realised yet. At the time, the British had a very strong feeling against modern

architecture. This old Power Station appeared as an ideal building which could join the

modernity of art and the cultural memory of the past. The Old Power Station building was

ideal for its proximity to the city with possible regeneration effects comparable to the impact

of the Tate in Liverpool, the Burrell Collection in Glasgow or the National Museum of Film,

Photography and TV in Bradford.

In designing this art galleries, architect had look at previous models of museums of modern

art. The main available models for museums of modern art were three, and two of them were

urban:

- Moma in New York (in 1929) is structured in a series of quasi-domestic artificially lit rooms;

- the Centre Pompidou in Paris (in the late 1960s, and opened in 1977) a an open floors space.

The third model was no an urban one, but countryside one - Kröller-Mueller, Otterlo in

Netherlands has the idea of visually intersection of inside and outside (humanist, rural and

naturally lit).

A survey of the management consultants identified that most artists preferred day-lit

conversion of exhibiting buildings. This survey identified that most artists favoured neither of

the two celebrated urban model.

The finding of this survey validated the decision to placed modern galleries inside an ex-

industrial building, creating a new urban model distinct from the Pompidou or MOMA.

Tate Modern today represents a new alternative model distinct from Pompidou and Moma.

The winning project was ?the modern and he won precisely because it offers the idea of very

modest minimal intervention within the extracting frameworks of the building.

This created an enormous void which the architects compared to Milan's Galleria Vittorio

Emanuele. The concept was the idea of created a sort of covered Street, urban gallery. So this

is why this space is open freely accessible just like an urban gallery. From the very beginning

this project was conceived as a urban project.

THE TATE MODERN (continue)

This building act as a sort of filter which people can walk through in all directions and its aim

is to attract people that were not necessarily going to the museum. The idea is that the closed

power station should become a social and open landscape accessible to everyone and

therefore containing both art and people.

The power station lays in a sleeping area that was a working class industrial area of tightly

knit communities, of street patterns and railway ducts. The people working and living in the

area had a very negative image of this borough which was mainly determined by very poor

transport infrastructures and little life at street level. The perception (?) was that after the

power station had closed down, this empty space had a very negative impact on the life of the

area. The poor infrastructure was socially a question and this is why the opening of Tate

Modern was preceded by a strong war down on the local transport infrastructure. It is not an

accident that Tate Modern today is very well connected both to the city and to the southwards

towards Elephant and Castle.

The ambition of Tate modern project went beyond what we have seen in the case of Bilbao,

beyond mere signature architecture because in the case of Tate Modern there is not only a

global dimension which should be considered, but also an important project from a local point

of view. The idea was to have, above all, a sustainable project.

This sustainability received a powerful urge from this project which had a powerful and

positive influence on the whole neighbourhood which gradually transformed itself into a

cultural part.

This major cultural area is testified by the presence of roughly 20 culture organizations which

emerged as a consequence of Tate Modern.

THE TATE MUSEUM - THE TURBINE HALL

It is a huge space on the ground floor of the Tate Modern produced simply by the extraction of

the industrial apparatus inside. This space is accessible also to people that is not going to visit

the museum: it operate as a public space where institutional or spontaneous events can be

organized. It is perhaps an idealized version of a public space, it is devoid of violence, it

appears with no security and even the unusual social behaviours are accepted.

Part of this feeling is also due to the fact that there are no commercial signs inside.

The Turbine Hall also houses free exhibitions: the most famous are the Unilever Series

installations, annual commissions which invited every time an artist to make a work of art

especially conceived for this space. Some of these:

Rachel Whiteread, Embankment, 2005. She is one of the most British well-known

 artist.

Olafur Eliasson, The Weather Project, 2003.

 Ai Weiwei, Sunflower Seeds, 2010. Ai Weiwei is a Chinese artist. This installation is one

 piece of art which is composed of a hundred million sunflower seeds handcrafted. This

artwork is closely related to Chinese society and economy. This project alludes to

globalization and its relationship with mass production in China and the millions of

cheap workers working in huge factories. Each seed is a little worker submerged by a

hundred million others that look the same but they are not, because they are like the

seeds, each one is different because they are handcrafted.

HERITAGE, IDENTITY AND IDEOLOGY (theoretical part)

Heritage and the heritage industry are always inextricably related to the idea of identity, and

by identity we mean the identity of a nation, of a community, of a neighbourhood or of a group.

Ideological and political issues support the preservation, presentation and managing of

heritage.

Heritage as a form of knowledge of the past can be conceived simultaneously as a cultural

product and a political resource. The nature of this knowledge conveyed by heritage is not

objective, neutral, a given (un dato), firstly in the sense that the meaning of heritage is

subjected to interpretation and it can be manipulated; secondly in the sense that the meanings

associated to cultural heritage can change in time because they are always determined by

specific historical, cultural and social circumstances. This means that the meaning of heritage

can be also contested. For example, in the British context, the industrial heritage could convey

the idea of the greatness of the country's industrial past but it could also be made to convey

the ruthless exploitation of the working class. So, being subject of interpretation, the same

object, cultural heritage, can convey very different, sometimes opposed, meanings.

If heritage is never neutral there are some question that we certainly want to pose:

1) Why is the particular interpretation of heritage been promoted?

2) In what kind of political, social and historical context was that interpretation conceived

and communicated?

3) Whose interests have been advanced or retarded?

If heritage is central to the construction of the identity of a group it can be grouped together

with other elements that are usually instrumental to the creation of identity, so language,

religion and ethnicity. All these elements are used to construct and defined a community and

therefore they are instrumental to the cohesion of the group, to the sense of belonging.

At the end of the last century the phenomenon of globalization and of post-modernity have

produced and increased in mobility and in that past context the value of local and national

identities seemed to loose a bit importance: we all started to be cosmopolitan and feel citizens

of the world. In our new context a new, strong emphasis on identity is resurfacing and in our

European context it is very difficult to connect the sense of national identity with the sense of

the European identity. It is symptomatic of this that all cultural projects and research projects

founded by the European community place a strong emphasis on the idea of European

identity, so the European identity is something which needs being constructed, definitions. So

the identity is a culture construction, it is not something natural and heritage plays an

important role in this.

According to post-colonial critic Edward Said identity has nothing natural about it, it is

precisely a culture construction and in order to construct a sense of identity for a group, the

group needs to distinguish itself from other groups. So the sense of identity can be

constructed only through what he defines as the “discourse of the other”. Heritage offers an

extraordinary point of support of legitimations for actions and policy which claim to preserve

this sacred shared past.

The main actors which play a role in crafting heritage destination are:

Nation States: they are a major actors in the preservation, presentations and managing

 of heritage destination. They are a kind of political organizations based on imagined,

religious, ethnic and linguistic relationships. More than many other actors Nation

States hold dramatic, considerable powers to develop or impact on heritage tourism

practices and they use heritage as evidence of the authenticity of a certain national

identity. Heritage includes archeological sites, relics and cultural practices but also

landscapes: the idea is that all these things are “raw materials” to which specific,

cultural meanings are attached, meanings that often meant to reinforce the narrative of

national identity.

NGOs: they are international non-governmental organizations which play an important

 role in transforming natural and cultural objects into heritage. The major organizations

are UNESCO and ICOMOS and they attempt to preserve and develop sites that they

consider as essential to “global heritage”, to humanity.

Local and private actors: they are, again, instrumental in this function. Private interests

 can stimulate the construction of heritage tourism destinations, such as Colonial

Williamsburg. Colonial Williamsburg is a reconstructed american colonial town located

th

in Virginia. This is an early 20 century project where efforts were made to preserve a

town's colonial area and thanks to, mainly, funds that were donated by the wealthy

philanthropist John Rockefeller Jr. buildings were purchased. The idea of this project is

that the town should be returned to the authenticity of its colonial past and the project

involved the purchasing of several dilapidated buildings. All the buildings which were

th

not dated to the 18 century were destroyed and in that place other buildings imitating

the earlier colonial period were built. Today Colonial Williamsburg is one of the most

visited theme parks, a living history museum where visitors can walk the colonial

streets and watch re-enactments of historical events and listening to famous speeches

by actors. The prominent themes that are conveyed are connected to America's

political heritage. There are themes such as democracy, revolution and independence.

This is an example of how heritage can convey political and ideological messages and

these messages can serve the purpose of reinforcing national identity.

All the actors that play a role in the managing of heritage sites are local actors such as

neighbourhood organizations and preservation societies.

A minor actor can be visitors themselves that contribute to the transformation of a heritage

site through their responses and feedbacks of their experience.

CONFLICT IN HERITAGE TOURISM

Occasionally the presence of all these different actors in the development of heritage tourism

and destinations can give arise to problems, to conflicting interests, and this happens when, in

particular, a group defines objects and places as integral to their identity. Claiming a sort of

ownership of the site means that they require free access to it. For example, in the case of

Stonehenge, in order to perform rituals or pilgrimages. The visitors to the site, called New Age

travellers, believed that Stonehenge was an important ritual site for the summer solstice and

after several years of free festivals held on the site to commemorate the solar event British

authorities decided to put an end to these annual celebrations (1985) because they feared a

further deterioration of the site.

An other example of how conflicts can arise around the representation or the access to an

heritage site or object is when there are disagreements over the right representation of

heritage, about the kind of information that heritage should convey. The example in this case

is the representation of Enola Gay (the B-29 Hiroshima bomber). Conflicts over

representations are very common when certain topics are involved, such as nationalism,

religion or language. In the US different interests groups have debated over a decade on how

th

this aircraft should be exhibited; this debate started in 1994 in view of the 50 anniversary of

the dropping of the bomb. The Smithsonian institution (the National Air and Space museum in

Washington) attempted to describe this important war relic as part of America's military

heritage. Military veterans associations argued that the informations displayed with the plane

placed too much emphasis on the victims, that these informations did not foreground at the

same time the reasons why the attacks were justified at the time.

This debate involved scientists, scholars, veterans, politicians and it finally led to the

cancellation of the exhibition.

However Enola Gay is currently on exhibit at an other museum and only technical information

describing the play is displayed and the relic is protected from vandalism.

So heritage, when it is related to past conflicts, is very hard to manage; there have been

different strategies to handle this problem.

A useful example is the one of how contemporary Spain has managed his recent past and its

horrors, referring in particular to how post-civil war Spain has negotiated “pacts to forget”,

that is a silence about the terrors of the Spanish civil war (1936-1939) and the following

years. During this period hundred of thousand of people died with the atrocities committed on

both sides but apparently, according to recent studies, he victors (the part led by Francisco

Franco) went on to execute thousand of people after the war ended.

All this was forgotten from the conscious of the Spanish people until mass graves (fosse

comuni) have discovered and this discovering finally led Spanish people to confront this

traumatic past. The “pact to forget” was finally broken.

So if the peoples of German, Italy and France confronted the legacies at the end of the Second

War World, Spanish took much longer and only recently begun to revisit their troubled,

uncomfortable past.

There are sometimes justifications for strategies of collective amnesia, that can be a voluntary

agreement or an official policy. The justification can be the fact that if the memory of violence

is relatively fresh it may be too painful, not just for the victims but also for the perpetrators

(ex. re-united Germany). Opinion on the future of the Berlin wall after 1989 remains today

polarized between those who favour complete demolition, those who wish to preserve the

parts still standing and those who want to rebuild it as a monument to the victims and a

warning for the future (or, more superficially, as a tourist attraction). It becomes very

controversial specially when the enemy was inside, in the same country. An agreed amnesia, a

temporary suspension of memory, was very much the case in post-war Germany, referring in

particular to the physical relics of the nazi period, including the bodies of nazi victors, that

were mostly destroyed by the survivors.

What happened with the defeat of nazi Germany was that buildings and spaces associated to

the nazi regime were destroyed or unmarked (no signs to indicate what place that was) and

officially ignored for a generation. That was a way of suspending memory for some time to let

the trauma be elaborated and the history had to be forgotten and only later it was reaccessed ,

interpreted and preserved.

So much of the past was violent that a wide variety of traumatic events have been

memorialised: wars, natural catastrophes, man-made disasters, atrocities and violent crimes.

Of course violent events are more noticeable ( 9/11, the holocaust) and for this reason they

have a strong emotional impact on us and this is why they are more memorable. This

emotional side of culture memory is very important: affect can become a major instrument in

culture memory which can be used in order to facilitate memory. So memory ca be better

transmitted through generation through the use of affect and emotion; we should no longer be

informed about past events through book but involved emotionally because emotion facilitate

memory and as human beings we can be made to empathize with other human beings who

suffered in the past. In museums this empathy is facilitated by an immersive multi sensory

experience: for example, visitors standing in front of panels with big faces of Jews victims of

the holocaust and reading their story is an image of very strong impact, it is a very intimate

experience because it is a sort of silent dialogue.

Holocaust is the perfect example of a large scale violence that is very difficult to understand,

so a valid method to understand is to reduce it in a more comprehensible scale by

personalizing. This is called the “Anna Frank phenomenon”.

The memorialisation of violence can be an instrument, a way for the legitimation of dominant

groups and ideologies.

For example if the political goal is to achieve a cohesion of a national group, this aim (achieve)

can be facilitated if this group feels it has been a victim of violence in the past, a violence

perpetrated by an external enemy.

In this sense, Said said that "identity it's the discourse of the other".

The political legitimation of dominant groups and ideologist, within society is strongly

reinforced by the existence of a heritage freedom struggle. This freedom struggle it's always

accompanied by a pantheon heroes and villains (almost an essential condition for the "birth of

the nation").

The memorialisation and violence can be also, nut not only a national, ideological resource,

but also tourist resource. There is for example what is generally refers to as "hot-spot"

tourism, which focus on the sites of Britain dramatic, violent and newsworthy events.

• A most recent example is the beginning of the age global terrorism which was marked by

Ground Zero in New York. This event was repeated worldwide on television and it's became

itself a major visitor attraction. And also from their start a kind of heritage which awaited

physical memorialisation.

• A further example of the memorialisation of violence as a tourist resource is "killing fields"

tourism developed for first time in Cambodia in the early 1980 and then in other sites of well-

known large-scale massacre (referring for example to Rwanda and Bosnia).

In all this places markers you find victim documentation centres, ossuaries and mass graves

which can be visited and are indeed attractions as part of tourism pack time).

.

(This close the chapter about last time)

UNESCO AND INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE

Material heritage are all that thing that are physical and need a preservation - monuments,

archeological sites, document.

But there is also an heritage that is immaterial that is a very recent concept and conquest.

Cultural heritage is not limited to materials, physical manifestations; heritage can and does

also include living traditions, oral traditions, an these can be found in countless communities

around the world.

This tradition, have been transmitted through generation. Many years of research, undertaken

by UNESCO, (no government organisation) had opened he door to new approaches of the

understanding of the cultural heritage of humanity.

Recent conquest which derives the identification of an intangible heritage which is mainly

represented by living traditions that imply this kind of immaterial heritage it's also very

fragile.

It's safeguarding, its preservation has become one of the priorities of international

cooperation.

Examples of an intangible cultural heritage are:

- the Kutiyattam Sanskrit Theatre in the southern Indian province of Kerala → the only

surviving specimen of the ancient Sanskrit Theatre;

- the Mystery Play of Elche, Spain → has been stage largely unchanged every year, since the

late Middle Ages.

As said previously this is a recent achievement:

• in the mid 1990s the UNESCO Section for Intangible Cultural Heritage created a collection of

world traditional music from around the world. It was the original idea.

• 1998 UNESCO starts a programme for the proclamation of masterpieces of the oral and

intangible heritage of humanity. So not just collecting music, but also try to save oral tradition

by proclaiming some of them as the heritage of humanity.

• 2003 the International Convention (an agreement among all states) for the Safeguarding of

the Intangible Cultural Heritage (a legal framework) is adopted by UNESCO's general

assemble. The Convention became the first international instrument to provide a legal

framework.

• UNESCO's List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage is based on the well-known UNESCO World

Heritage List.

The Proclamation Programme and the New Convention are contended as a means of

protecting local cultural tradition in modern times, of social change and in face of

modernisation process (imply also redevelopment); so in times of great social change we need

to protect.

The genesis of these UNESCO's activities: in other words the events and ideal which led to this

concepts. The main impulse, that not come from isolated body of experts, it was much more

accident process.

For example the case of Jemaa el Fna Square in Marrakech, Marocco. Jemaa el Fna Plays special

role in the genesis of the UNESCO's concept Intangible Cultural Heritage. It is kwown for its

musicians, storytellers and many other actors who perform daily in front of local audience and

increasingly tourists.

• In performing this ancient traditions, this street artists ensure the survival of this traditions

as living traditions (not something fix, but living) and reproduce and modify cultural

traditions (existing culture activities on the square) dating back from the 17th century.

• This means to subjects to exposed to increasing pressures in the interest of commercial and

urban development.

• In the mid 1990s the Spanish writer Juan Goytisolo who occasionally lived in Marrakech,

became concerned by the threat of this cultural site. The local authorities were planning to

built a new tower block, and an underground ?park. This development in the opinion of the

Spanish author would destroy the tradition of the square and that would be a serious loss for

humanity (he had only an intuition). For that reason, Juan Goytisolo proposed to placed the

square under the protection of the UNESCO.

This triggered the idea of globally regulated protection of cultural traditions. This idea was

formulated in 1996-1998.

• The case of Jemaa el Fna square which was so important, led UNESCO to the conclusion that

other similar intangible comparable traditions (to be proclaimed masterpieces), would also be

referred specific places. In fact this is very rarely the case in global term, because intangible

traditions are usually related to ill-defined (very more defined) much larger areas (Aboriginal

Songlines in Australia).

When the awareness of this became stronger, the spacial (spaziale) component of this concept

(Intangible Cultural Heritage) became less important.

INTANGIBLE HERITAGE DENIED: THE CASE OF ABORIGINAL SONGLINES

• And an example of this is the Aboriginal Songlines in Australia. The Australian native

inhabitant are a nomadic people; they move across the land over the year to better use the

natural resources. This nomadic life has a religious dimension because according to native

inhabitants, at the origin of the work their mythical ancestors travelled themselves across the

land and so doing, they created the natural world and the laws and customs Aboriginal people

live by. And they created this world by singing it into life.

The story of this creation is contained in a series of narratives. In English they are best know

as songlines; there are stories that native sing while travelling across the land, along trucks.

• Songlines are therefore a sort of oral map of the territory, that defines the trucks that should

be followed and express the relationship between the land, sea and people. They involved a

deep knowledge of a very large and complex ecosystem they are a form of "organic memory",

deeply rooted in the knowledge of the territories.

• To possess a songline, means that you have to know a lot about the stars, or single animal.

And each songline is related to specific areas and trucks which cross them. An indigenous

person who knows this tradition can then navigate across the area just by remembering the

words of the songs. This is an example Intangible Cultural Heritage and a form which is very

ill-defined, complex.

It is also an example of Intangible Cultural Heritage which hasn't received so far legal

recognition. To date, the Australian government has yet to ratify the convention for the

Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (2003).

ECOMUSEUMS

They are also part of community museology. New museology (something that tries to involve

community) was born in the early 1970s and was a response to concerns that museums were

failing to interact with local communities, and to represent development and sustainability.

1970s and 1980s witnessed a revolution of society goals such as global peace, civil rights.

Society in general began to reexamine itself and so did the museum world. The idea was that

the museums shouldn't only preserve heritage (its traditional role), but also assist local

communities in their development (an active social role). This was first voiced in 1968 at the

general assembly of the international council of museums (ICOM) and in this occasion

museum were recognised for the first time as major institutions in the service of social

development. A traditional concept of museum was constituted for the first time: local

communities too need to be involved in the preservation of heritage. This involvement was

considered essential to better protect the local environment and, at the same time, to promote

economic and social benefit for the community. So, in this sense, they started talking about

(with society, environment and other organization on the territory).

integrated museums

These new ideas were considered mainly in Mexico and South America countries: they were

welcomed there more than anywhere else. This new idea of community museology recognised

the need to aid sustainable development in disadvantaged communities.

In English speaking countries these idea was largely ignored and, in the case of UK, this

museology expressed a totally different idea, which was the marketing of heritage.

Ecomuseum comes from a culture climate of the 1970s, a time when environmentalism was

achieving great comments and words such as “ecosystem”, “ecology” had entered the common

usage. Ecomuseum is symptomatic of the impact of the green movement throughout the

society of the time, it is not limited to building and site but it tries to embrace everything near

to where it is located. It is more than cultural heritage, it includes intangible heritage (music,

local skills, behaviours, social structures and traditions). All those elements are summarized

and collected in the ecomuseum museology.

Ecomuseum has been conceived as a mechanism that enable not only conservation of cultural,

natural elements but also the democratization of the museum. It is a process that provides

means for local people who become conscious of their culture memory, means to identify,

celebrate and interpret their local heritage. So ecomuseums are important in the transmission


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DETTAGLI
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea in lingue e culture moderne
SSD:
Università: Genova - Unige
A.A.: 2016-2017

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher yasmina.sharafeldin di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Linguaggi settoriali inglese e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Genova - Unige o del prof Colombino Laura.

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