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Riassunto esame letteratura inglese, Prof. Casella, libro consigliato Brave New World, Huxley

Riassunto per l'esame di letteratura inglese e del prof. Casella, basato su appunti personali del publisher e studio autonomo del libro consigliato dal docente Brave New World, Huxley, dell'università degli Studi Libera Università di Lingue e Comunicazione - Iulm. Scarica il file in PDF!

Esame di Letteratura inglese docente Prof. S. Casella

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Chapter 4

Lenina talks about herself with her friend Fanny about sexual promiscuity and all

their partners. There are a series of dialogues founded on their specific individual

point of view between Bernard and his friend Helmholtz Watson who works in the

Department of Persuasion (hypnopaedia) about hypnopaedia technique: listening

during your sleep to a serious amount of messages to fix them in your head.

Chapter 5

Divided into 2 parts:

1) Moment of entertainment between Lenina and her friend Henry, they go to

Westminster Abbey Cabaret (irony of the transformation of this place, what was

the most important Abbey is now an enormous disco). There is a concert for

the young people of the first two classes (Alphas & Betas). The Sexophonists

exhibit for Alphas and Betas and play a remarkable song: it’s a kind of

celebration of the prenatal state, the state before being “decanted”; in our

language before being born. People dance together, listen to the music and

take soma (the drug) in order to cancel any trouble and let people live free and

happy.

2) The second part is even more ironical and grotesque. Bernard, being a

member of the top Class, is expected to attend the solidarity service. What

does service mean? In a religious sense the meaning of service is Holy Mass

(ritual of religious celebration). He has to participate to this ritual at the Fordson

Community Singery (cantoria della comunità fordiana). In this new society the

Big Ben is called Big Henry (baptized after Henry Ford, Christian name).

He goes to the service, but fortunately he’s not too late because other people

are still missing. He meets Morgana Rothschild (one of the most famous and

rich families). Some of the people: Fifi Bradlaugh, Joanna Diesel (name: engine,

cars), Jim Bokanovsky (inventor of the embryo); Herbert Bakunin. In total they

are 12 people, 6 man and 6 women (like Christ’s apostles), around a table (the

round table of King Arthur) ready to be united and become 1 larger being. 12:

number linked to the humanity, it’s the most important number in mythology,

astronomy, astrology, zodiac, years, months, knight of King Arthur.

P. 60 — “President stood up, made the sign of the T...” - Parody of the sign of

the cross. Beating of drums —> synthetic music.

solidarity

First hymn —> 12 becoming one. The parody of the sacraments:

the dedicated soma tablets —> sharing of the holy bread; Cup of strawberry

drink “I drink to the greater being”. Vague connections with John Lennon song

“imagine”.

Second solidarity hymn —> parody of the doctrine, of the sad sacrifice in

Christian traditions. Soma starts to work, sense of fusion into a greater social

entity; in fact soma leads to a mental state of trance. Then various people

begin to talk believing they are perceiving the secret identity. P. 62 — One of

the protagonists, Morgana says “he’s coming” —> word with a deep

theological sense (coming of Messiah), that’s a kind of toxic connection. They

are being drugged (rituals, shamanic initiations) —> artificial ecstasy. Bernard is

still conscious and vigilant, he knows all of this is fake. “Round they went” -

Again the image of the circle. “Buttocks, Orgy-porgy...” - De-mythization of the

ritual, there’s a kind of final orgy among all the 12 participants of the ritual.

Pagina 8 di 14

P. 63 — “In the twilight it was as though some enormous negro dove...” - The

word negro was not yet censored when the book was published; the dove

represents in the Christian tradition the Holy Spirit, but here it has been

inverted, first of all because of its color and because there is noting sacred in

this ritual. The lexical choice was extremely meaningful and ironical; aim at

unifying the 12 in order to become a whole.

Chapter 6

Second part of the book 6th-10th chapter: the discovery of John and his mother

Linda —> the climax of the first part of the story.

Bernard asked permission to make this trip, and he had a permit because he

belonged to the Alpha class. The director is speaking to Bernard and he’s

recollecting a similar tourist Trip to the Reservation. Parallel situation: Bernard is

leaving with Lenina to the Reservation; the director went there 20 years before with

the girl of the moment; she got lost. Meteorological event which separated the

director form this girl. P. 72 — Director describes what happened.

All of a sudden the Director changes his attitude and his topic. Bernard will

succeed in avoiding going into exile for his heretical and anti social behavior.

P. 74 — Description of the journey and the location where Bernard and Lenina will

be received once they reach the reservation. Doesn’t this kind of service remember

anything? The civilized tourists exploring primitive country but expecting to find all

the comforts of their society. Huxley foresaw the habits of the contemporary

society.

He explains how to behave in this reservation; not to cross the fences; there is no

way to escape the Reservation —> electrified fences. Safeguard or incarceration?

It’s up to us. In the society of the World State everyone was predestined,

predetermined; in the Native Savage society of the Reservation they are not

allowed to escape from there, exception made for John and his mother Linda. This

is the typical attitude of the contemporary society towards the primitive society.

Then, from the helicopter they are approaching the reservation (Pueblos), Malpais

is the name of the rest house. The savages have been tamed with gas bombs.

Chapter 7

Contact between tourists and the savages (between civilized people and the

others). Lenina isn’t happy because the Indians smelled, she doesn’t like walking.

The Indians make their traditional dance, here we have the typical representation

of the Savages, more or less good, typical iconography. Lenina did not like it,

typical reaction of an hyper sophisticated person confronted with a more primitive

World: dirt, dust, rubbish and etc.

Civilization is sterilization, but here there is no civilization so there is no cleanliness.

P. 83 — Surprises to see old people, they look different to the old people in the

World State because of course they are preserved. The question is: would I prefer

to be like such people or would I like to grow old?

It’s indecent to breast feed, old people are horrible, she has no soma to help her

through the day. “What a wonderfully intimate relationship...” - This is Bernard

being provocative in order to shock his friend Lenina: being a mother, dead dogs,

rubbish, dark, lice, smelling of smoke, dirty clothes.

Pagina 9 di 14

P. 85 — Finally the typical dance: sound of the drums are reassuring for Lenina,

they evoke the traditional rituals made at the Solidarity Service. Priests, black

snakes, all the rituals performed in order to get the benevolence of the gods. Man

masked as the coyote —> Lenina was disgusted, she was sobbing “too awful, that

blood”.

P. 87 — Here’s finally the main character: this young man, John, speaks in

Shakespearian English, why does he do so? Because it was the only book

available to him. It’s double strange: people in his pueblo tribe don’t know anything

about Shakespeare, he’s a kind of phenomenon, nobody knew Shakespeare

except him, unhappy gentleman.

P. 88 — John describes himself and then the aim of the ritual, and his hole story.

Linda was the girl of the director who got lost in the reservation 20 years before.

Bernard has already caught the meaning of the story. Then they go and meet

Linda, she’s the mother of John; Lenina feels uncomfortable around her because

she looks ugly and smells.

P. 89/90 — Description of Linda’s suffering, it wasn’t her fault what happened. She

used to work where Lenina works now, she was a Beta, she had to get used to her

new situation. She became partly de-conditioned because of the experience she

had to have. This is the first meeting between the couples.

Chapter 8

Here we have the meeting between Bernard and John. John recollects some

moments of his youth thanks to some flashbacks. He tries to kill the Popé out of

his jealousy; Linda was considered a whore because she accepted any kind of

man coming from outside (because of the promiscuity reigning in the World State).

Violence against Linda.

Linda talks about all the technological comforts of New World, considered a

wonderful place. John explains the spiritual attitude of the natives and how he was

introduced into reading “The Chemical and Bacteriological Conditioning of the

Embryo”; but then he discovered Shakespeare “the complete world of William

Shakespeare”.

Chapter 9

Bernard must ask permission to Mustapha Mond, one of the Controllers of the

World State, to bring back these two savages discovered in the Indian reservation

and bring them back to London. The director discovers the existence of his real

natural son.

In this chapter there is a connection between chapters 8 and 10.

John the Savage expresses himself through the lines of Shakespeare’s plays.

Chapter 10

The four return to London. There is a first meeting with the Director of the

hatcheries and Bernard. The Director tries to have Bernard Exiled but he shows

Linda to everybody. .

Quite heavy accusation similar to Torquemada (leader of the ecclesiastical

inquisition) cruel and sadistic. First historical echo. Political processes carried on in

every time and under every regime against every form of dissidents, political

enemies and intellectuals. Ex: Stalin against intellectuals.

Pagina 10 di 14

Any form of rebellion against society or religion.

Bernard is not expected to be able to carry on his own defense. Witnesses: Linda

and John in the room where they have been accused. Repugnant and horrific

action.

P. 113 — Linda says: “You made me have a baby” —> true revelation of the

shameful secret. The situation has been completely reversed. The director who

wanted to expel Bernard has been unmasked and he’s compelled to self-exile from

this unbearable situation. John calls him “My father”, very serious accusation.

Chapter 11

Recognition of the Director’s fault. John becomes the most appreciated person in

London, the most searched. The savage, the son of a civilized influential person

(Director) now returns to civilization. Bernard acquires a certain degree of fame and

authority. A lot of girls offer sexual services to him because now he is an important

person. Linda is completely excluded because ugly, old, repellent, she is confined

to the hospital, taking soma, where she will spend the rest of her days, she

becomes a type of moribund. It’s like she was dead inside, slow death inside.

Bernard feels proud, important, full of honors and continues his secret criticism of

society. In a sense he has not learned his lesson from his ephemeral success over

the Director of the hatcheries. The savage is educated, he visits all the very

important structures and institutions of the World State. He is shown the “Brave

New World”, with hatcheries and conditioning; he cannot understand the way of

life of this world, it’s too remote for him. His culture is completely different so he

can’t accept this Brave New World in which he finds himself.

Bernard asks him: What happened? Are you sick? John replies: “Yes, because I

have eaten civilization, and it is too different from my culture” (a savage one).

There is also a kind of subplot technically speaking, it means a series of specific

and important episodes which represent a sort of secondary story which is related

to the main story. Example: Lenina falling in love with John is the subplot —>

ironical, a beautiful, free, emancipated girl from the Beta class falls in love with a

savage. She repeats by heart all the slogans of her social class and discovers she

has a kind of heart and she is not so conditioned or predetermined as we

expected, she can’t escape human passions, feelings and in particular love. She

assumed VPS (a kind of drug) to avoid these feelings, but they are too strong.

Bernard makes it possible for her and John to go to the Feelies, to the cinema, she

tries to attract John, he refuses her advances because his moral code is different

from hers. He was brought up in respect of human passions and love and in

particular that there must be a particular development, reciprocal faith, a traditional

family.

Chapter 12

John is the guest of honor at Bernard’s apartment. Bernard has organized a party

to let people see John but John refuses to leave his room even when Bernard asks

nicely. All the important people Bernard had invited felt outraged. Lenina thought it

was her fault that he didn’t come out.

Pagina 11 di 14

Chapter 13

The second part of the “love story” between John and Lenina is in this chapter,

with a seduction scene, with a kind of striptease from Lenina and a violent refusal

from John; John is attracted by Lenina, he had never seen such behaviors in the

reservation and his town Malpais. Even John is attracted by Lenina, but he’s super

ego prevent him from having physical contacts with her. When he feels he is

attracted by her, he flogs himself as personal punishment (si frusta per punirsi) —>

impure desire. John has a moral rigidity.

Four final chapters: conclusion of the plot and of the experiment of bringing back

savages to the civilized world.

Chapter 14

Dramatic chapter, it portrays the death of Linda, there is a strange discrepancy

between the habits of people of the World State and John’s habits.

P. 150 — Particular scene, John declares Linda is his mother. He walks by other

dying people but their face is still fresh in comparison to Linda’s. It goes with

saying to remark the omnipresence of the television in this particular situation, A

kind of comfort for the dying, but lack human relationship, something mechanical,

something impersonal, broadcasting sport, music.

This is the last meeting between son and his mother shaped after the recognition

of common memories, especially from John. He remembers the nursery rhymes

and that Linda explained him when his was younger what medicine to take

(vitamins and stuff like that). The mother had a repelling form, like an insect, she

was completely different form the other patients.

All of a sudden a nurse with a group of children comes in. They all look the same,

they are alarmed by Linda. Death conditioning —> children were educated in order

not to feel any kind of pity, mercy or pain in front of a dying person.

John succeeds in eliminating and making children go away to respect his mother.

She calls the name Popé (of Malpais), she is thinking of him in her mental agony.

After this final step of her agony Linda was dead.

Again, completely different attitudes towards death. Emotional pain and shock

from the son who had lost his mother.

Chapter 15

In this chapter we have a sort of continuation thematically speaking. Here we see

a parody of the figure of the Prophet and the Political agitator. John is a kind of

parody of John the Prophet (Giovanni Battista), the one who baptized him in the

river Jordan. The savage became like a prophet.

He finds himself in this particular place, another room of the hospital, and he

witnesses a distribution of soma to another group of employees of the hospital.

Soma pills are distributed as reward to the group of laborers.

He tries to persuade this group of people not to take soma because it’s dangerous,

he fails (in the meanwhile Bernard and Helmholtz are looking for him). He came as

savior to all these people who are like slaves. They have been predetermined since

before their birth, their conception, since the very beginning of their lives. They

have been deprived of Soma and became furious and attacked the savage. And all

of a sudden the police appeared and pushed him out of the place to make

everybody tamed and good. Everything was ready for every kind of circumstance.

Pagina 12 di 14

To calm down the Deltas: Soma vapor, and the Voice to make everybody good and

happy. After this failed attempt at becoming a social reformer, a prophet, the

Savage is brought in front of the highest authority Mustapha Mond —> content of

the three final chapters. Final confrontation between the Savage and Mustapha

Mond.

Chapter 16

They are in the Controller’s study. Detroit is the centre of the automobile industry.

Mustapha Mond can keep and read books unlike all the other people of the

society. This is the privilege of the power; he makes and destroys the laws. Other

people cannot act against the laws and remained unpunished.

Books and culture are labeled as old and old is useless. The principal of modernity

and consumerism: everything new is worth desire, while everything old is worth

elimination. Not only old, but it’s completely non understandable by these people,

they are illiterate, culturally speaking. Othello and Shakespeare are unrepeatable

nowadays. If it is modern it can’t be an Othello. The society in Shakespeare’s plays

is unstable, the new World State society needs stability. Apparent paradox: people

are happy because they don’t desire what they don’t own or know.

The first part of the dialogue between Mustapha and John is a kind of lesson on

political strategy and ideology that has been made in the World State. Something

must mean something else. Mustapha Mond and its auto-referentiality; principal of

autocracy —> self referential.

Also the Alphas are subjected to the decisions of the World Controllers. Explains

why it’s impossible to have a society of all Alphas.

As regards the organization of the work: another experiment gone wrong, the

theme of working hours has to do with the theory of Karl Marx, Mustapha Mond

explains all the theories. In the society of the New World there is no culture

because it’s a menace and no real science because it is threatening and

dangerous for the stability of the society, art too. By mixing special ingredients we

have the recipe of the stability.

Mustapha Mond himself had been a potential heretic of society, a potential

subversive. He renounced his experiments and was reabsorbed into the

establishment —> he chose the establishment and his own career to become the

Controller. They were completely faithful to the orders of the Controllers

themselves. Science is a public danger.

A kind of practical science dedicated to finding solution to practical and immediate

problems. The social change itself required the abandonment of truth, science, art

and culture, in favor of happiness, comfort and stability.

The masses must be kept quite and obedient, failure of Marx’s theories.

There is another episode at the end in which all the defenders of freedoms, culture

and science are completely eliminated in order to maintain stability. Mond paid his

dues by choosing to serve happiness. Helmholtz and Bernard are exiled.

Chapter 17

Both Bernard and Helmholtz have been exiled. The final scene is between

Mustapha and John, the only two real human beings left, but one is free and

unhappy, the other is happy but no more free. P. 175 — “religion, of course...” -

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I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher giorgiaaka1997 di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Letteratura inglese e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Libera Università di Lingue e Comunicazione - Iulm o del prof Casella Stefano.

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