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Lingua Inglese 2 - Organizing a website (Appunti) Appunti scolastici Premium

Appunti di Lingua inglese su Organizing a website basato ùùi su appunti personali del publisher presi alle lezioni della prof.ssa Petroni dell’università degli Studi di Tor Vergata - Uniroma2, Facoltà di Lettere e filosofia. Scarica il file in formato PDF!

Esame di Lingua inglese docente Prof. S. Petroni



Appunti Mod.A Lingua Inglese2


.) Two skills to organizing information on a web site are:

- you know how to structure information so that the flow of content is logical and coherent;

- you've learned to write/edit with the reader constantly in mind.

These skills when combined are extremely important.

.) What we need to know is not more information but the ability to present the right information to

the right people at the right time, in the most effective and efficient form.

.) Fleming notes that organizing information is about demonstrating the relationships among items

in such a way that they're easy to find.

Wurman says that while information may be infinite, the ways of structuring it are not.

.) Five ways of organizing information:

- Alphabet

- Time

- Category

- Location

- Hierarchy

.) Shedroff states that just as data can be transformed into meaningful information, so information

can be transformed into knowledge and then, further, into wisdom. Knowledge is a phenomenon we

can build for others, and as we can build information for others from data.

Web sites deliver informations through 3 technology routes:

- Without database = few pages coded with HTML

- Database supported = middle size in HTML, but supported by DB

- Database generated = big size, information compiled in pages create by DB

.) Web sites allow users to access information through different underlying technologies. All sites

are composed of three major elements that contribute to the user's ability to access content easily :

the information architecture (IA), navigation design, graphic user interface (GUI).

.) IA is the organizing of information into logically related groupings so users can navigate

effectively through the content and find the information they seek.

IA is what we do to develop a document (or communication) that works for its users. According to

this definition, information design is the overall process of development.

.) Navigation design is the connection between IA and the design of the graphical user interface

(GUI). The production team determines the pathways, from the simple to the intricate, that will

allow users to move easily among groupings of information.

That works by using:

Main navigation links = provide pathways to and from the main site sections. Such links must be

clearly visible and have short, informative titles.

Shortcut links = allow users to access important information without drilling down through the

site.These links provide significant information.

Converging links = bring users from different locations to the same point.

Hypertext links = create additional connections both down and across a site's sections and add

layers of information.

Redundant links = are links that are duplicated on one web page.

.) The graphical user interface (GUI) is what the user sees on his screen from the “Home” page

and throughout the site. It acts as a shield, representing the architecture and navigation of the site

and providing access to the site's information without actually revealing the organization of

information behind it.

The GUI has three major functions:

- help users develop a mental map of the structure of the site;

- provide a good overall look-and-feel to the site;

- assist users in reaching the information they want.

Elements of a well-designed GUI include :

- visual metaphors → that users can understand immediately;

- internal consistency in the look-and-feel of different sections;

- consistency in the use of icons throughout the site;

- lack of clutter → so that users can find the content and links that they need.

.) All organizations are essentially unique, but, they fall within generic categories. And he generic

categories of organizations have information that falls within typical content groupings that are

relevant to users. Each content grouping has the potential of becoming one of a web site's major

sections. The more you know about an organization and its competitors on the Web, the more

focused, directed and efficient you'll be in discussing the client's or team's needs.

Navigation priorities

.) Persistent navigation = navigation elements that should or could appear on every page of a site.

Krug's five elements of persistent navigation are:

- the organization's ID or logo;

- a way home;

- a way to search;

- the web site sections;

- utilities that provide assistance such as “Help”.

.) You may have a model in mind that would suit the client's content. However, that content is still

in a raw form. It may be:

- grouped into categories, but these categories aren't appropriate to the web site;

- not grouped in any way, and the client expects you to create the organizational structure;

- a mixture of above.

There is a priority among navigation elements:

Obligatory: Home – Main menu – Site map – Index – Contact us – Shopping cart or equivalent

High pr.: Search – Language section – Plug in – Help

Medium pr.: What's new – Useful links – Search(for small sites)

Low pr.: Chat – Faq – Glossary – Users surveys

Nice to consider: Print button

One of the best ways to make sense of content is to use a technique called mind-mapping, which

was created by learning expert Tony Buzan. Buzan explains that a mind map is a powerful graphic

technique which provides a universal key to unlock the potential of the brain. The mind map can be

applied to every aspect of life where improved learning and clearer thinking will enhance human


Mind-mapping is a technique that allows you to build a graphical display of information in an

informal way that encourages creativity and innovation. In terms of a web site, mind-mapping can

bring you from the major site sections, through subsections, to individual page information quickly

and easily. Mind-mapping can be a powerful tool for organizing information into a logical pattern,

and is based on associative thinking.

.) A tree model starts with a central topic and then organizes subtopics down through multiple


-Narrow trees = web sites with a narrow tree model provide limited menu items selections, usually

less than six, so that users need to drill down to deep content.

-Wide trees = sites with this model have many content areas. A web site with this structure is useful

when: the audience includes many different types of users; there's a great deal of content that is

difficult to group into only a few areas; and/or huge volumes of content are generated by different

underlyng databases.

.) Linear models reflect equality among related chunks content as opposed to a hierarchical


-Book-style = Linear pattern like a book, from previous to next

-Book-style with alternative choice = like upper, but users occasinally have a choice between two

paths; used in educational sites anc e-commerce(many models of same item)

-VCR style = linear pattern where users can move freely, it's common in educational site where

users con move back or forward in a tutorial

.) Mixture models is the most common, no site falls entirely within a tree or linear model. Rather,

they're mixtures of tree and linear models, allowing developers to organize content in a way that

provides users with the flexibility to jump from web page to web page, site section to site section,

and even leave the site.

There three main types:

-Composite/Hybrid model = allow to travel through the site using many information paths.

Sometimes bring to a dead end or pages already visualized.

-Web model = it's like a spider web, users often need a signal to position themself in the site

-Grid model = conset to move in every direction, but users can lost rapidly their way in the deep of

the site

.) Navigation patterns begin to emerge at the IA's early development stages. The current trend in

GUI design includes the following basic elements:

- the top navigation bar for links to corporate information, search engines and site maps;

- the left-hand navigation bar for main content site sections;

- bottom-of-the-page links for utility items such as policy links, privacy links and so on;

- the right-hand navigation bar for add-ons as advertising, sponsors, surveys ecc.

.) Navigation links.

Visually, a link can either be a word or words, a graphical icon, or an icon with words. Farkas notes

that potentially, icon links offer some significant advantages over text links. Many icons

communicate across language barriers. Whatever type of links your team creates on a web site, here

are some rules of thumb that your team should follow:

- text links should be visible and noticeable: underlining is the current convention;

- graphical links should be visible and noticeable;

- link text titles should be informative and brief;

- unusual links should provide special instructions.

.) How many clicks to content? In our experience, the three-click rule is an ideal to keep in your

mind, but it may not work in practice.




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+1 anno fa

Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea in lingue nella società dell'informazione
A.A.: 2017-2018

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher phila76 di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Lingua inglese e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Tor Vergata - Uniroma2 o del prof Petroni Sandra.

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