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immediately access), the main feature is that their information is selected and

designed to attract attention.

Web as allowed the potential tourist to take on a central role in the selection of the

 tourist destination → no passive role but they have become producers in fact, they are

the authors of the very same texts they share or comment on the Net.

Search engine optimization (SEO)→ the process of affecting the visibility of a

 website or a web page in a web search engine's unpaid search. It' an internet

marketing strategy and it considers how search engines work, what people search for,

which engines are preferred...


The British Tourist Authority has been involved in the promotion of British tourism. Britain is

one of the top ten-tourist destinations in the world. has decided to adopt

strategies in order to promote tourism in Britain. They have promoted Britain with the GREAT

Britain campaign, using 2 different kinds of strategies:

1. ONLINE (Facebook, Twitter)

2. OFFLINE (Print, outdoor, cinema, TV)

The main function of is to attract the potential tourist and redirecting him/her

to the web pages. : features:

- Visual and verbal elements appear to be well balanced;

- Balanced colours (mainly blue and orange) to avoid any striking or disturbing


- Clear, captivating sections;

- Photo with the skyline of London placed in the ideal section of the text→

harmonious view as far as perspective is concerned.

- Web-links to spot not immediately recognizable places such as Blackfriars or

Southwark Bridges, leading to a map showing the most famous tourist attractions

(real). LINKS→ divide the page into IDEAL (photo) and into REAL (links);

- Promotional sections organized in the typical given/new structure.

- Hidden treasure map→ the tourist is invited to explore the “treasure island”.

- Choice between different languages→ no language problems.

The message conveyed is that London is a metropolis which traditions, the arts, and cultural

events are interestingly mixes: it’s up to the tourist to discover them.


- The analysis of the web-pages over a period of time suggests that the layout has

changed from a static quality to a very interactive one→ hyper-textual dynamism

reflects that of the city.

- All the web-sites invite the on-line tourist to read the texts, which in order to be


- The language of tourism has to be persuasive appealing to the audience’s

emotions → if reality is described as authentic and genuine tourists have the illusion

of experiencing the holiday. It also plays on the concept of authenticity: a

destination is authentic when the expectations the tourist has about the holiday and

the pleasure s/he gets from experiencing the holiday coincide.

- To achieve authenticity → exploitation of emotive words/keywords which must

fulfil the tourist expectations. The clever use in particular of pre-modifies fires the

tourist’s imagination while reflecting the consumer’s taste. To make this possible,

keywords must belong to consumer’s own language.


KEYWORDS are formed by NOUNS (predominance of nominal groups):

1. Proper and common nouns;

2. Locative adverbs;

3. Personal pronouns I and US;

4. Modals

5. Infinitive forms

6. Adverbs introducing appositional constructions (for example, e.g.)

1. PERSONAL NOUNS→ they generally refer to the destination being described;

COMMON NOUNS→ used when practical information is given to the

prospective tourist; “Please note that…”, “Please call us

2. ADVERBS→ used to mitigate directives


LOCATIVE ADVERBS→ deictic functions, since they guide the reader meta-

see above, the

discursively within the text or refer to the described location (

information are given below);

3. PERSONAL PRONOUNS I→ when the narrative voice of the e-text coincides

with that of the reader; US: is used to represent the tourist board staff.

4. MODAL VERBS→ indicate the possibilities and opportunities the tourist can

take advantage of in selecting the described destination, SHOULD and MUST:

suggestion, WILL: instructions to follow in order to avoid a negative outcome

of holiday;

5. INFINITIVE FORMS→ are used to make suggestions or give practical


6. FOR EXAMPLE→ instructions about how to surf the page.


- The semiotic multimodal analysis reveals a pattern in which usual and verbal

elements alternate so as to create a harmonious effect.

- The main goal of the text is not to inform but to sell.

- Factual information is presented as a fundamental element in order to establish

contact with the real world.

- Evaluation and persuasion, realized by guiding tourist through the text and virtually

leading them to the destination.

- Active role of the tourist because of interactivity.

Why are slogans so difficult to translate?

Slogans→ double meaning of a word or a cultural idiom. Local language nuances or other

meanings for words can affect the translation of a slogan as well. They rely on emotional

responses in the audience to be successful, but what evokes a positive response in one

culture may not have the exact same effect in another.

The translator→ needs to understand the message and desired effect the phrase should have,

then they can follow the process of transcreation (combination + creation) to create a

slogan that will produce that effect.

What kind of tourism?

Holiday maker: is someone who goes on holiday and does very little. They spend their

 time relaxing on the beach or by the pool during the day and in restaurants, by the bar

or in a nightclub at night. They may even go on organised excursions to nearby

attraction. They are usually found in purpose built resorts. Where they go is irrelevant.

Tourist: go on an organised tour and will visit different places with a guide and even

 stay in different towns and hotels. Travel everywhere often by a coach with several

other people to form a tour group. The tour group will be taken to see sights of

historical or cultural interest and do activities where often they will be given guided

tour. Unlike the holiday maker, the tourist will see much of the country they are visiting.

Traveller: is somebody who travels independently without any help from a travel

 agency. They will travel on a different budget (some stay in a 5 stars hotel, other in

youth hostel). They will be open minded about the destinations they are visiting and

will take a keen interest in it. A traveller can be found in just about any country in the

world be their own, countries frequented by holiday makers and tourists or the most

unusual destinations. A traveller will often travel by public transport and mix with local


LIBRO II (slide 5^)


Definition of translation: the skilful art of re-creating an equivalent message of a work of art

originally created in one language in another language.

So, Newmark defines translation as “a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written

message and/or a statement in one language by the same message and/or statement in

another language”. Ovvero come un mestirere che consiste nel tentativo di sostituire un

messaggio scritto in una lingua con lo stesso messaggio e la stessa dichiarazione in un’altra

lingua. This ought to be simple, as one ought to be able to say something as well in one

language as in another. On the other hand, you may see it as complicated, artificial and

fraudulent, since by using another language you are pretending to be someone you are not.

A translator works in 4 levels: implica) (conoscenza)

1) Translation is first a science, which entails ( the knowledge


2) Is a skill which calls for appropriate language and acceptable usage

3) Is an art, which distinguishes good from undistinguished writing and is the creative, the

intuitive level of the translation

(una questione di gusto)

4) A matter of taste

A satisfactory translation is always possible, nut a good translator is never satisfied with it. It

can usually be improved. There is no such thing as a perfect, ideal translation.

Newmark’s Translation Process Diagram

comprehension formulation

SL Text TL Text

(source language) (target language)

Analysing a text, means:

- Reading the text: scopi);

you begin the job by reading the original for two purposes ( first, to

 understand what it is about; second to analyse it from a “translator’s point of

view”, which is not the same as a linguist’s or a literary critic’s. then, you

have to determine its intention and the way it is written for the purpose of

selecting a suitable translation method and identifying particular and

recurrent problems

discourse analysis

 ovvero ottenere

understanding the text requires both general (to get the gist,

 il succo , the core meaning; here you have to read encyclopedias, textbooks,

or specialist papers to understand the subject and the concepts) and close

reading (is required in any challenging text; for example, finding TL

equivalents for acronyms used in the SLT and making sure what the SL author

means by them)

- The intention of the text: in reading you search for the intention of the text. For

example, two texts may describe a battle or a debate, but the type of language

used and even the grammatical structures in each case may be evidence of

different points of view. The intention of the text represents the SL writer’s

attituded to the subject matter. You must pay attention to each and every word

used by the SL author, to the grammatical structure in order to determine the

aspect from which the SL author sees the matter and deliver the same message and

arouse same feelings “reaction” in the TL readership.

- The intention of the translator: usually is identical with that of the author of the SL

text. But she may be translating a manual of instructions for a less educated

readership, so that the explanation in his translation may be much larger than the

“reproduction”. We can talk also about question of foreignization or domestication

- Text types: he distinguishes 4 types of text:

Narrative: a dynamic sequence of events, where the emphasis is on the

 verbs

Description: which is static, with emphasis on linking verbs, adjectives,

 adjectival nouns

Discussion: a treatment of ideas, with emphasis on abstract nouns, verbs of

 thought, mental activity

Dialogue: with emphasis on colloquialism and phaticisms

 (lettori):

- The readership a translator has to characterize the readership of the

original and then of the translation, and to decide how much attention he has to pay

to the TL readers. In summary, translators have to know who the target receivers

are, they may have to conduct same research on them and inquire about them.

- Setting: you have to decide on the likely setting; where would the text be published

in the TL? Or who is the client you are translating for and what are their

valutare se il lettore...)

requirements? Assess whether the readership ( is likely to be

motivated, familiar with the topic and the culture and the variety of language used.

Consider whether you are translating for the same or a different type of TL

readership. Finally, if you are translating a poem or an important authoritative


- Connotations and denotations: all texts have connotations, an aura of ideas and

feelings suggested by lexical words, in a non-literary text the denotations of a word

normally come before its connotations. In a literary text, you have to give

precedence to its connotations, since, if it is any good, it is an allegory, a comment

on society, at the time and now, as well as on its strict setting.

- The last reading: finally, you should note the cultural aspect of the SL text; you

should underline all neologisms, metaphors, cultural words and institutional

terms, proper names, technical terms. Then you have to see the

untranslatable words, which are the ones that have no ready one-to-one

equivalent in the TL. They are likely to be qualities or actions, descriptive verbs

or mental words. It is often helpful to study such an item first in context, then in

isolation, and finally in context again.

Now we are going to analyse the COMPREHESION and FORMULATION

The comprehension is the first milestone of a translation, and means to decode and fully

understand the text before moving to the following step, which is formulation (or recreation).

The formulation is the recreation or reproduction).

There are different types of translation.

SL emphasis

1) Word-for-word translation: this is demonstrated as interlinear translation, with the TL

immediately below the SL words. The SL word-order is preserved and the words

translated singly by their most common meanings, out of context. Cultural words are

translated literally. It is like a pre-translation process.

2) Literal translation: the SL grammatical constructions are converted to their nearest TL

equivalents but the lexical words are again translated singly, out of context. As a pre-

translation process, this indicates the problems to be solved.


3) Faithful translation: attempts to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of

the original within the constraints of the TL grammatical structures. It transfers cultural

words and preserves the degree of grammatical. It attempts to be completely faithful to

the intentions and the text-realization of the SL writer.

4) Semantic translation: differs from “faithful translation” only in as far as it must take

more account of the aesthetic value, that is the beautiful and natural sounds of the SL

text, compromising on “meaning” where appropriate so that no assonance, word-play

or repetition jars in the finished version. It may translate less important cultural words

by culturally neutral third or functional term but not by cultural equivalents. The

difference between “faithful” and “semantic” is that the first is uncompromising and

dogmatic, while the second is more flexible.

TL emphasis

5) Adaptation: this is the “freest” form of translation. It is used mainly for plays (comedies

and poetry). Plots are usually preserved, the SL culture converted to the TL culture and

the text rewritten.

6) Free translation: reproduces the matter without the manner, or the content without the

form of the original. Usually it is a paraphrase much longer than the original, a so called

“intralingual translation”.

7) Idiomatic translation: reproduces the “message” of the original but tends to distort

nuances of meaning by preferring colloquialism and idioms where these do not exist in

the original.

8) Communicative translation: attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the

original in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and

comprehensible to the readership.

In principle, a translational analysis of the SL text based on its comprehension is the first

stage of translation and the basis of the useful discipline of translation criticism. You have to

study the text not for itself but as something that may have to be reconstituted for a different

readership in a different culture.

semantic communicative translation

Differences between and

In order to learn the difference, you first need to know that according to Buhler, language has

three main functions: expressive, informative or vocative.

Expressive: is to do with the mind of the speaker, writer, the original of the utterance

 which he used to express his feelings. Expressive text types are imaginative,

autobiographies, essay and personal correspondence

Informative: is to do with the external situation. They’re considered with any topic of

 knowledge and often have standard formats such as textbooks, technical reports,

scientific papers. Informative texts convey information

Vocative: is to do with the readership, the addressee. The readership is called upon to

 act, think or to react in the way intended by the text. For example, notices, publicity,


Semantic translation attempts to render as closely as the semantic and syntactic structures of

the second language, allow the exact contextual meaning of the original. Communicative

translation attempts to produce on its readers an effect as close as possible to that obtained

on the readers of the original. A semantic translation is more likely to be economical than a

communicative translation, unless, for the latter, the text is poorly written. Semantic

translation is used for “expressive texts”, communicative for “informative and vocative” texts.

The description of communicative translation resembles Eugene Nia’s dynamic equivalence,

in the effect it is trying to create on the tt reader, while, semantic translation has similarities

to Nida’s formal equivalence.

- Dynamic translation: sense for sense translation; is the quality of a translation in

which the message of the original text has been so transported into the receptor

language that the response of the receptor is essentially like that of the original

receptors. Suggests not just that the equivalence is between the function of the

source text in the source culture and the function of the target text in the target

culture, but that “function” can be thought as a property of the text. It is possible to

associate functional equivalence with how people interact in cultures.

- Formal equivalence: word-for-word translation

più liscia), simpler,

A communicative translation is likely to be smoother ( clearer, more direct,


more scomodo),

A semantic translation tends to be more complex, more awkward ( more detailed,

more concentrated. It tends to over translate, to be more specific than the original, to include

more meanings in its search for one nuance of meaning. A semantic translation is more

source text focused. Not necessarily a literal translation. A communicative translation is

focused on the target text and aims to ensure that the reader will understand the message of

the text.

Distinction between faithful and semantic translation: is that the first is uncompromising and

dogmatic, while the second is more flexible and allows for the translator’s intuitive empathy


with the original. Only semantic and communicative translation fulfils ( the two main

aims of translation which are first accuracy and second economy. A semantic translation is

more likely to be economical than a communicative translation unless the text is poorly


In general, a semantic translation is written at the author’s linguistic level, while a

communicative at the readership’s. Badly and inaccurately written passages should be

corrected in communicative translation. A semantic translation is normally inferior to its

original, as thee is both cognitive and pragmatic loss. A communicative translation is often

better than it’s original. Semantic translation is accurate, but may not communicate well;

whereas communicative translation communicates well, but may not be very precise.

Newmark’s semantic and communicative translations could be considered as medium

restricted. Text type restricted and problem restricted theory, as it deals with human

translation only, is restricted to the translation of expressive, informative and vocative texts,

and is concerned with the problem of matching text type with translation method.

It has been said that the overriding purpose of any translation should be to achieve equivalent

effect; for example, to produce the same effect as close as possible. This is also called the

“equivalent response” principle. Nida calls it DYNMIC EQUIVALENCE.

As I see it, 'equivalent effect1 is the desirable result, rather than the aim of any translation,

bearing in mind that it is an unlikely result in two cases: (a) if the purpose of the SL text is to

affect and the TL translation is to inform (or vice versa); (b) if there is a pronounced cultural

gap between the SL and the TL text.

However, in the communicative translation of vocative texts, equivalent effect is not only

desirable, it is essential; it is the criterion by which the effectiveness, and therefore the value,

of the translation of notices, instructions, publicity, propaganda, persuasive or eristic writing,

and perhaps popular fiction, is to be assessed.

In semantic translation, the first problem is that for serious imaginative literature, there are

individual readers rather than a readership.


Dynamic equivalence “tries to relate the receptor to modes of behavior relevant within the

context of his own culture”, so “without insisting that he understand the cultural patterns of

the source-language context. According to him problems may vary in scope depending on the

cultural and linguistic gap between the two (or more) languages concerned.

- L’equivalenza dinamica cerca di collegare il recettore a modalità di comportamento rilevanti

nel contest della propria cultura, così “senza insistere sul fatto che egli comprende I modelli

culturali del contest della lingua di origine”. Secondo lui, i problemi possono variare in base al

divario culturale e linguistico tra le due (o più) lingue interessate. -

TRANSLATION: the cultural turn

Cultural turn, 1978: Even Zohar and in 1980 by Toury.

Polysystem Theory

“Even-Zohar. Quest’ultimo coniò la definizione di per riferirsi alla rete di

sistemi correlati in un rapporto dialettico all’interno del quale egli inserisce anche il sistema

della letteratura tradotta (Veschi 1998, p. 6). Secondo Even-Zohar, la letteratura non è che un

elemento di quel complesso di sistemi integranti che si definisce cultura. Determinanti

diventano fattori sociali, culturali, ideologici, oltre che letterari e linguistici. La traduzione, in

questa cornice, è dunque vista sempre più come fenomeno di comunicazione interculturale e

sociale (Even-Zohar 1995). Le teorie di Even-Zohar e Toury prendono, tra l’altro, spunto dalle

considerazioni di Juri M. Lotman (1922-1993) per il quale “il testo in generale non esiste in se

stesso, esso è inevitabilmente incluso in un contesto storicamente determinato o

convenzionale” (Lotman 1995, pp. 88-89).”

They dismiss the linguistic kind of theories of translation and go beyond language and focus

on the interaction between translation and culture, on the way culture impacts and

constraints translation and on the larger issues of context, history and convention. Therefore,

the move from translation as a text to translation as culture and politics.

Bassnett and Lefevere in 1990: Cultural Turn is the metaphor adopted by Cultural Studies

oriented translation theories to refer to the analysis of translation in its cultural, political, and

ideological context.

In the mid 1980s Vermeer introduced skopos theory which is a Greek word for “aim” or

“purpose”. It has entered translation theory as a technical term for the purpose of translation

and of action of translating. Skopos theory focuses above all on the purpose of translation,

which determines the translation method and strategies that are to be employed in order to

produce a functionally adequate result.

Vinay and Darbelnet view equivalence-oriented translation as a procedure which replicates

the same situation as in the original, whilst using completely different wording.

They also suggest that, if this procedure is applied during the translation process, it can

maintain the stylistic impact of the SL text in the TL text. According to them, equivalence is

therefore the ideal method when the translator has to deal with proverbs, idioms, clichés,

nominal or adjectival phrases and the onomatopoeia of animal sounds. With regard to

equivalent expressions between language pairs, Vinay and Darbelnet claim that they are

acceptable as long as they are listed in a bilingual dictionary as “full equivalents”.

For example: take one is a fixed expression which would have as an equivalent French

translation Prenez-en un. However, if the expression appeared as a notice next to a basket of

free samples in a large store, the translator would have to look for an equivalent term in a

similar situation and use the expression Echantillon gratuity.

Jakobson’s equivalence in difference:

Roman Jakobson’s study of equivalence gave new impetus to the theoretical analysis of

translation since he introduced the notion of “equivalence in difference”. On the basis of his

semiotic approach to language and his aphorism “there is no signatum without signum”, he

suggests three kinds of translation:

Intralingual (within one language; for example, rewording or paraphrase);

 Interlingual (between two languages) in the case of interlingual translation, the

 translator makes use of synonyms in order to get the ST message across. This means

that in interlingual translations there is no full equivalence between code units.

According to his theory, translation involves two equivalent messages in two different

codes. He acknowledges that whenever there is deficiency, terminology may be

qualified and amplified by loanwords or loan-translations, neologisms or semantic

shifts, and finally, by circumlocutions.

Intersemiotic (between sign system)

Equivalence that can appear at word level and above word level, when translating from one

language into another. Baker acknowledges that, in a bottom-up approach to translation,

equivalence at word level is the first element to be taken into consideration by the translator.

The translator should pay attention to a number of factors when considering a single word,

such as number, gender and tense.

Grammatical equivalence , when referring to the diversity of grammatical categories

across languages. She notes that grammatical rules may vary across languages and this may

pose some problems in terms of finding a direct correspondence in the TL. In fact, she claims

that different grammatical structures in the SL and TL may cause remarkable changes in the

way the information or message is carried across. These changes may induce the translator

either to add or to omit information in the TT because of the lack of particular grammatical

devices in the TL itself. Amongst these grammatical devices which might cause problems in

translation Backer focuses on number, tense and aspects, voice, person and gender.

Textual equivalence, when referring to the equivalence between a SL text and a TL text in

terms if information and cohesion. Texture is a very important feature in translation since it

provides useful guidelines for the comprehension and analysis of the ST which can help the

translator in his or her attempt to produce a cohesive and coherent text for the TC audience in

a specific context. It is up to the translator to decide whether or not to maintain the cohesive

ties as well as the coherence of the SL text. His or her decision will be guided by three main

factors, that is, the target audience, the purpose of the translation and the text type.

Pragmatic equivalence, when referring to implicatures and strategies of avoidance during

the translation process. Implicature is not about what is explicitly said but what is implied.

Therefore, the translator needs to work out implied meanings in translation in order to get the

ST message across. The role of the translator is to recreate the author’s intention in another

culture in such a way that enables the TC reader to understand it clearly.


Spivak: broad cultural approach to the study of power relation between different

 groups, cultures or peoples in which language, literature and translation may play a

role. The linking of colonization and translation is accompanied by the argument that

translation has played an active role in the colonization process and in disseminating an

ideologically motivated image of colonized people.

VENUTI in 1995 used the term INVISIBILITY to describe the translator situation and activity

in Anglo-American culture. He said that this invisibility is produced by:

1) The way the translators themselves tend to translate fluently into English, to produce

an idiomatic and readable TT, thus creating illusion of transparency.

2) The way the translated texts are typically read in the target culture: a translated text, is

judged acceptable by most publishers, reviewers and readers when it reads fluently,

when the absence of any linguistic or stylistic peculiarities makes it seem transparent,

giving the appearance that it reflects the foreign writer’s personality or intention or the

essential meaning the foreign text; the appearance, in other words, that the translation

is not in fact a translation, but the original.

He discussed invisibility hand in hand with two types of translating strategies:

- Domestication: as dominating Anglo-American (TL) translation culture, since it

involves reduction of the foreign text to the target language cultural values. This


entails translating in a transparent, fluent, invisible style in order to

minimize the foreignness of the TT. Venuti believed that a translator should leave

the reader in peace, as much as possible, and he should move the author toward


- Foreignization: entails choosing a foreign text and developing a translation

method along lines which excluded by dominant cultural values in target language.

The foreignizing method of translating, a strategy Venuti also termed “resistancy”, is

a non-fluent or estranging translation style designed to make visible the persistence

of translator by highlighting the foreign identity of ST and protecting it from the

ideological dominance of the target culture.

In 2002 Hervey and Higgins believed in cultural translation rather than literal one. According

to them, accepting literal translation means that there’s no cultural translation operation.

There are obviously some obstacles bigger than linguistic ones. They are cultural obstacles

and here a transposition in culture is needed. According to them, cultural transposition has a

scale of degrees which are toward the choice of features indigenous to target language and

culture rather than features which are rooted in source culture. The scale here is from an

extreme which is mostly based on source culture (exoticism) to the other extreme which is

mostly based on target culture (cultural transplantation).

Exoticism- calque- cultural borrowing- communicative translation- cultural


1) Exoticism: the degree of adaptation is very low here. The translation carries the cultural

features and grammar of SL to TL. It is very close to transference.

2) Calque: includes TL words but SL structure therefore while it is unidiomatic to target

(quindi mentre è unidiomatico per il lettore di

reader but it is familiar to a large extent

destinazione, è familiar in larga misura ). parola per parola)

3) Cultural borrowing: it is to transfer the ST expression verbatim ( into

the TT. No adaptation of SL expression into TL forms.

4) Communicative translation: is usually adopted for culture specific clichés such as

idioms, proverbs, fixed expression … The degree of using this strategy sometimes

depends on the license which is given to the translator by commissioners and also the


purpose of translation

5) Cultural transplantation: the whole text is written in target culture. The TL word is not a

literal equivalent, but has similar cultural connotations to some extent. It is another

type of extreme but toward target culture and the whole concept is transplanted in TL.

A normal translation should avoid both exoticism and cultural transplantation.

In 2004, Nico Wiersema, in his essay “globalization and translation” stated that globalization

is linked to English being a lingua franca. Globalization and technology are very helpful to

translators in that translators have more access to online information, such as dictionaries of

lesser-known languages. Such comments can be extended to the readers of translations. The

internet can help him understand foreign elements in the text.

He mentioned a relatively new trend where in culturally bound elements are not translated.

He believed that this trend contributes to learning and understanding foreign cultures.

Context explains culture, and adopting a selection of words enriches the target text, makes it

more exotic and thus more interesting for those who want to learn more about the culture in

question. These new words may find their way into target language dictionaries. Translators

will then have contributed to enriching their own languages with loan words from the source


Cultures are getting closer and closer and this is something that translators need to take into

account. In the end it all depends on what the translator or the publisher wants to achieve

with a certain translation. In his opinion by entering SL cultural elements:

a) The text will be read more fluently

b) The text remains more exotic, more foreign

c) The translation is closer to the source culture

d) The reader of the target text gets a more genuine image of the source culture


(slide 7)

The translation of proper names

 You have to look up all proper names you do not know; first, geographical terms.

Consider giving classifiers to any town, mountain or river likely to be unknown to the

readership. Check the existence of any place name used in a work of fiction. Do not

take sides on any political disputes about place-names. As for names of buildings and

man-made structures in the form of EPNs, the general rule applies according to which

the descriptor part is translated. There are exceptions, however. A PN may be a

converted common noun like “l’Arc de Triomphe”, in which case the name is translated

as a whole into most languages. Names of well-known buildings and other man-made

structures usually have conventional names in foreign languages.

(Esempi nella diapositiva 5)


 Translating titles of articles: if the SL text title adequately describes the content, and is

brief, then leave it. But a sub-title, may not suit the English house-style. Translating title

of books, films, quotations: always check already existing translations.


 Is an essential aspect of discourse analysis; it gives a semantic indication of the

relationship between sentences and clauses, which may vary according to languages.

For example in French, suspension points indicate pause, where in English indicate the

omission of a passage. Semi-colons indicate cohesion between sentences. French tends

(ricordiamo altri esempi English and Italian-slide 8

to use commas as conjunctions ).

 Sound- effect

Should be taken into account, not only in poetry, but in jingles. The effect is more

important than the meaning.


 The most common forms these take are connectives denoting addition, contradiction,

contrast, result. These connectives are tricky when they are polysemous. These words

can only be over-translated and therefore they are often rightly and deliberately

omitted in translation. Note here English’s tendency to turn SL complex into co-ordinate

sentences on the lines of “si tu marches, je cours”: tou can walk but I’ll run.

(guardare esempi slide 11).

Referential synonyms

 Sentences cohere through the use of referential synonym, which may be lexical,

pronominal or general. In many cases, are used to avoid repetition rather than to

supply new information. The translator should not be afraid of repetition, in particular of

repeating the most specific terms or the proper name to avoid any ambiguity.

Functional sentence perspective

 The translator has to reconcile the functional, semantic and syntactic aspects of each

sentence. Emphasis means some sort of degree of deviation from standard.

Nominalization of the verb has gone further in English than it has in other languages.


 (guardare esempi slide 15)

Can change the emphasis.


 climax or focus can also be marked by a negative-positive sequence, where the


negative is likely to introduce an opposite or a heightened ( meaning


The sentence is the “natural” unit of translation, just as it is the natural unit of comprehension

and recorded thought. Unless a sentence is too long, it is unusual to divide it. If it is unusually

short, it is likely to be for a special effect. If long sentences are a part of a writer’s style in an

expressive text, they have to be preserved.


There are 5 possible sub-units of translation. One of them the morpheme, the smallest unit of

meaning; it is not particularly problematic, except in the cases of prefixes such as -post-,

-inter-, or suffixes such as -ism-. Then we have the clause and the group, which are

grammatical. The other two, colocation and the word, which are lexical. When you translate,

you have to be looking at the grammatical and the lexical. It is not possible to give the one

nor the other sub-unit priority, since they all have to be considered, where they exist.


There are well recognized ways of translating or transposing clauses and grammatical phrases

which are set out in one-language grammars and refined in contrastive grammar and books

on translation. Many of them invite the choice of converting grammar to lexis or turning a

clause to a phrase or even a word.


Everything is translatable up to a point according to Newmark, sometimes with enormous

difficulties. Being able to distinguish between faithful and false friend.


We never translate in a vacuum, we always translate words in context. The re-creative part of

translation is often exaggerated, and the literal part underestimated, particularly in literary

translation, but also in other types of texts which have nothing linguistically wrong with them,

which are competently written. I cioccolatini B sono un prodotto

“B are a unique confection, often copied, never equaled.”:

senza eguale spesso imitato, mai eguagliato.

The context is omnipresent, but is relative. It affects technical terms and neologism less than

general words. It permeates a structure text and touches disjointed texts rather lightly. Here a

writer deliberately innovates, the translator has to follow him, and blow the context.

A good translation must be effective in its own right. If it shows SL interference, that must be

the translator’s conscious decision. The translator unconscious of SL interference is always at

fault. The less context-bound the words, the more likely a literal translation (colloquialism,

idioms, stock), the less likely is a literal translation.


Elegant variations: when the translator wishes to write in a style that is natural to

 him/her

Back-translation test: establishing the validity of a translation by translating it back

 to the ST. it is not valid if there are lexical gaps between ST and TT.

Accepted translation: some transparent institutional terms are translated literally in

 at least Western European languages even though the TL cultural equivalents have

widely different functions. Concept -words such as “radicalism” or “realism” are

translated literally and often misleadingly, as their local connotations are often

different. Any “core” denotative meaning is swamped by the connotative pragmatic


Constraints on literal translation: the SL word may: a) be used more frequently; b)

 have a wider semantic range than the corresponding TL word, or a different connotation

Natural translation: resisting literal translation is sometimes necessary when it feels

 unnatural, especially when there are no satisfactory one-to-one equivalents.

re-creative translation: the last resort is interpreting the sense, not the words. First,

 (fight)

we struggle with words, then we get to the sense.

The sub-text: another reason might be the search for the “hidden agenda”, the

 pursuit of the sub-text or the intention of the text. The meaning behind the meaning. To

an intelligent reader, the true meaning behind the meaning is clear, and the translator

must word the sentence in such a way that the sub-text is equally clear in English.

Untranslatable words


a) At a lexical level:

The use of positive adjectives to give beauty and distinction to the text

 (spectacular, exotic)

The use of superlatives, either with adjectives or with the morphological form, is

 very high.

The very careful lexical choices of keywords as a way, adventure, dream,

 imagination, pleasure, escape to comply with the tourist’s expectations about


holidaying together with a technique called languaging, which refers to

the use of foreign and invented words in tourist’s texts to induce a sense of

exotic feeling in the tourist.

The use of cultural references, called realia which do not have any equivalent in the

target language.

b) At a syntactic level:

Preference for nominalization

 benefit)

Imperatives, in order to urge the tourist to avail ( him/herself of the

 opportunities which are on offer

The use of the present simple tense in order to make the times of the holiday still

 and everlasting

c) At a functional level:

Is always the main function, since the objective of tourist texts is to inform and

 describe a country, a region, a community.

These are Spanish terms which have no equivalents in other languages, hence

 they need some explanation, but it loses part of its meaning.

The persuasive or vocative function is the other predominant function; the major

 aim of language of tourism Is to “aim, persuade, transform them from potential

into actual clients”

Expressive function, connotative function, and poetic function are secondary

 functions

Slide 28 (descrizione della Puglia, ed Ediburgo): per esercitarsi


Other translation Methods

Transference: is the process of transferring a SL word to a TL text as a translation

procedure. It is the same as Catford's transference, and includes transliteration.

Generally, only cultural objects or concepts related to a small group or cult should be

transferred; the trend for transferring so called “national characteristic” should be


However, when the translator has to decide whether or not to transfer a word unfamiliar in

the target language, he usually complements it with a second translation procedure.

In principle, the names of SL objects, inventions, devices, processes to be imported into the TL

community should be creatively, preferably “authoritatively”, translated, if they are

neologisms, although brand names have to be transferred.

The following are normally transferred:

- names of all living (except the Pope and one or two royals) and most dead people;

- geographical and topographical names including newly independent countries such

as (le) Zaire, Malawi, unless they already have recognized translations (see

Naturalisation below);

- names of periodicals and newspapers;

- titles of yet untranslated literary works, plays, films;

- names of private companies and institutions;

- names of public or nationalized institutions, unless they have recognized

translations; (rue Thaibaut\

- street names, addresses, etc. lin the Rue Thaibaut').

The argument in favour of transference: it shows respect for the SL country’s culture.

The argument against of transference: it is the translator’s job to translate and to explain.

Naturalisation: This procedure succeeds transference and adapts the SL word first to the

normal pronunciation, then to the normal morphology (word-forms) of the TL. Also, grammar


is naturalized (e.g. English loans in Italian lose the plural

Cultural equivalent: This is an approximate translation where a SL cultural word is

translated by a TL cultural word;


- is translated as “(the French) "A" level”,

Abitur (Maturità)

- as “(the German/Austrian) "A” level”;

Palais Bourbon

- as “(the French) Westminster”;


- as “(the Italian) Westminster”;

charcuterie –

- “delicatessen” (now English “deli”);


- – Solicitor.

They are approximate cultural equivalent and they have a greater pragmatic impact than

culturally neutral items.

Occasionally, they may be purely functionally, hardly descriptively, equivalents, like saying

“calcio” as a metaphor for national sport.

However, the main purpose of the procedure is to support or supplement another translation

procedure in a couplet.

Functional equivalent: This common procedure, applied to cultural words, requires the use

of a culture-free word, sometimes with a new specific term; it therefore neutralizes or

generalizes the SL word; and sometimes adds a particular:

baccalauriat -

- French secondary school leaving exam


- - Polish parliament;

- Zanichelli – Italian dictionary.


This procedure, which is a cultural componential analysis, is the most accurate way of

translating i.e. decentralizing a cultural word.

Descriptive equivalent: In translation, description sometimes has to be considered against


function. Thus, for the description is a “Latin American broad, heavy instrument”,


the function is “cutting or aggression”; description and function are combined in “

Samurai is described as “the Japanese aristocracy from the eleventh to the nineteenth

century”; its function was “to provide officers and administrators”.

Description and function are essential elements in explanation and therefore in translation.

In translation discussion, function used to be neglected; now it tends to be overplayed.

Synonymy: This procedure is used for a SL word where there is no clear one-to-one

equivalent, and the word is not important in the text, in particular for adjectives or adverbs of

persona gentile, difficile;

quality: thus, “kind” person; awkward' or “fussy”,

Synonym is only appropriate where literal translation is not possible and because the word is

not important enough for componential analysis. Here economy precedes accuracy.

A translator cannot do without synonymy; he should make do with it as a compromise, in

order to translate more important segments of the text, segments of the meaning, more

accurately. But unnecessary use of synonyms is a mark of many poor translations.

Through-translation: The literal translation of common collocations, names of caique

organizations, the components of compounds and perhaps phrases; is known as or

loan translation.

The most obvious examples of through-translations are the names of international

organizations which often consist of universal words: they are often known by their

acronyms, which may remain English and internationalisms (UNESCO, UNRRA, FAO) or French


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Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea in lingue e culture per il turismo
Università: Torino - Unito
A.A.: 2018-2019

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher aydy.musyc di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Lingua inglese II e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Torino - Unito o del prof Salusso Daniela.

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