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Lingua inglese 2

Appunti di English language basati su appunti personali del publisher presi alle lezioni della prof. Zanfei dell’università degli Studi di Verona - Univr, facoltà di lingue e letterature straniere, Corso di laurea in lingue e culture per il turismo e il commercio internazionale. Scarica il file in formato PDF!

Esame di English language docente Prof. A. Zanfei



> the answer is not relevant because the discourse is different: the reference is the state of

mind “Outrageously happy”

pag 27

> in order to understand the verbal text is not enough we need to analyse the text as a multimodal


> kinetic mode useful to understand the feelings of the students > facial expressions and posture

> no spoken mode only written mode

> visual mode of language

pag 40

> multimodality

> advert

> informal > uneducated

> not specialized discourse

> product in the back

> speech bubble in the front

> between them there is the muscle of Popeye > he is showing his big muscle > KINETIC MODE

> spoken mode: “I sez …” > colloquial english

> on the air= on the radio

> iconic feature of Popeye

> our gaze goes to the product

> mode: kinetic, spoken mode, visual mode

> only 1 framing device: segregation of the speech bubble

pag 133

> multimodal text: written mode (grave) + spoken mode (speech bubble) + visual mode (image) +

kinetic mode (expression)

> segregation: > image has a boarder, and inside it 2 texts (speech bubble and grave)

> speech bubble

> grave that contains the text

> no given new information because there is only one panel (una vignetta)

> not contemporary people

> comic strip > based on a rhetorical device: anachronism: make fun by creating a situation in

which we find ourselves in a medieval time but they are making reference to the modern time

> the speech bubble > timeless expression

> regular grave with the name of the person who is dead

> anachronism: grave foregrounded is containing words that come from the contemporary slang +

pre modified by a hash tag typical of twitter

> “I’M OUT OF HERE” > colloquial expression

> metaphorical way to refer to Heaven: “Pearly gates”

> metafunction of the image

> relational metafunction > written text and spoken text

> recontextualization: 1) twitter

2) contemporary way of interacting which is recontextualize in a medieval


> linguistic and cultural resources > rhetorical resource: anachronism

> linguistic resource of the twitter

pag 21

> poem “Daffodils”

> salience

> repetition

> visual

> rhymes, assonance and alliteration > elements of the sound and rhetorical devices. Based on the

modality of the sound

> sound is a mode that is part of the text

> multimodal: sound and written mode

> project images > through metaphors, similes

> rhetorical devise: simile > we imagine the cloud

> high, hills, host > alliteration => mode of the sound

> image of nature > projective visual mode through description

> crowd is synonym of host

> visual personification > crowd of daffodils

> fluttering > rhetorical device + sound

> dancing > refers to person => personification

> visual metaphors > incandescent, fire, burning



pag 51

> subjective modality is explicit, open way of representing one viewpoint among others

> verbs > think, doubt, suspect

> persons > I

> objective modality > the subject is not explicit > it’s impersonal

> It’s typical in television:TG > in order to create the impression that we are listening to an

objective and real fact when in laity it’s only an opinion of the journalist

> high modality > certezza dei fatti

> low modality > incertezza

> negotiation between 2 people about the truth of their statement

> typical during interviews

PAG 131

A > Subjective modality => high certainty

> Objective modality => low certainty



> PAG 225

> in the second panel “subject”= refer to the context and discourse related to emails, twitters,

Facebook, messages

> how the discourse and the language have become commodities

> Facebook= a place where you an have e talk with your friends + place built in order to sell your

communication to specific corporation that are paying in order to know what are our


> commodities to sell and trade

> analysis based on discourse analysis

> interactivity= a way of talking to sb else or to interact and have a sort of communication

> verbal or not verbal

> social process: we communicate with some people

> communication in the interest most of the time we interact with other people but we are

using interactivity as a technical affordance (=all the feature that internet offers to the users)

> typical questions:

1) recontextualization element in this multimodal text

2) modes that are present in this text

3) what are the discourse features that are present

4) the modes and the framing devices (da pag 19 libro blu)

> segregation: because the is a black line between the 2 panel

> no overlapping, no separation

> the given and new information to create an illusion of a time sequence

> how we pronounce the tone of a sentence

> 1° panel there is the queen, the secretary who talks to the queen about fb

> 2° panel: the same people and situation are the given information while the new

information from he point of view of the visual mode are 2: the kinetic movement of the

queen and the posture of the secretary who is typing

> the given information: actors and situation

> the new information kinetic mode and the gesture

> 1° panel: thanks to the text we understand that there is a majesty with a new account on

fb and that sb takes care of it

> 2°: we talk about fb, queen of England, sending messages. The discourse of letters,

communication through written format: we need to write the “subject” in an email => context

of the email. When the majesty thinks about “subject” she thinks to sth else because she is

no used to send emails => RECONTEXTUALIZATION: changing meaning according to the

context: 1° discourse of fb the 2° discourse related to a kingdom

> pag 227:

> “congratulation for choosing product …”

> communication has become a commodity to sell for these corporations

> marketing strategy used: create communities > we have the possibility to follow the brand

of the product like everyone else => we become part of that community

> if we subscribe to this comment we don’t really interact but we are just follower of that

specific brand => we can react to the prompt/statement that the brand is posting on his

twitter account

> when we experience this > we become part of the community > there is no real

communication => no social process but only a technical affordance => they collect the

information we give them though our reaction

> graphic pag 14 > this is the actual difference between what happen in a “social process”

and in a “technical affordance” when we talk about a social community that is


> the politicians use twitter, fb but we cannot write to them => not real communication but

we can always comment to their statements

=> no social interaction but technical affordance

> rhetorical question: why should I follow my milk on fb?

> congratulation for choosing the product produced without antibiotics…

> targeting all those people who like to buy this kind of product

> join a community who share the same values

> construction of an identity, belonging to a specific community => the in-group (share the

same values) vs the out-group

> we respond to a prompt but we can’t ask questions

> “join farm friends and get coupons” + image of the track > the give us coupons if we

follow them => commodity

> desire to take part in a community that share the same values + give us coupons => I

should follow them

> MILK > example of interactivity > interaction with sb who belongs to a specific group

(people who are interested in organic products)

> a virtual community (not social) > technological affordance

> interdiscoursivity in the use of a typical style of the recipe (of a different discourse)

PAG 230 transcription of voiceover from Foursquare’s “learn more” presentation

> indirect interaction: rhetorical questions

=> dialogism even though the text is a monological text

> promotional presentation: convince us to get the app

1) “wish you were…” expository question and a rhetorical question

> emphasis: “incredible”

> they ask the question and they answer for us

> pseudo-dialog with the reader

> exclamation mark => emphasis through punctuation

> “happiness” => emphatic and enthusiastic language

3) typical language of recipes > ingredients to find happiness => dialogism with the reader +

interdiscoursive element which is the style of the discourse (same style of a recipe)

4) step 1= like recipe

> the use of this app as a commodity in order to buy our datas > the give us sth, the recipe for

happiness but then they ask the follower of our twitter account, about fb …

> they know everything about us

12) you can improve their application > “if the place…”

16) promotional language

> compensation for our fidelity

> we let the corporation control our datas and lives

24) evocative language “use foursquare wherever you go”

> transcription of voiceover from Foursquare’s “learn more” presentation

> how to use foursquare (> create to do the check-in so that we can let know to other

people who are following us that we have been to that specific place)

> the language is typical informal colloquial language

> algorithm not a real person > simulation of a conversational style => it’s easy to

empathize with this robot

=> TECHNICAL AFFORDANCE and not a social process

> it wants to create distance

> style of a recipe = indirect discourse

pag 230, 233: pseudo-social interaction because the interactivity is not a social process but

a technical affordance

> not a conversational style but the style of different discourses

> pag 232

> statistic that show us the kind of community that the corporation has create

> there are social voices on FB but they are not social > these corporations are only ways

to acquire enough information to create a better marketing plan

> pag 34 (LIBRO BLU)

> algorithm of Fb but here we respond: we accept or not

> interactivity, technical affordance create through FB an algorithm

pag 233 (DISCOURSE 2.0)

CONTINENTAL AIRLINE > visual image + typography (seems like a real sign) + written mode

> interactivity, dialogism but with an algorithm (Alex)

> specialized discourse of customer service

> multimodality

> formal register

> digital text

> it’s about interactivity= it’s not always a social process, it can be just a technical affordance like in

this case because there is no person but a “robot” => pseudo-social interaction

> the expert is Alex

> multimodal point of view:

> visual mode: image

> personification of the algorithm: young woman who is a good-looking smiling


> personification through the signature like a real one

> the style of an expert: specific kind of discourse, the discourse of an expert of customer service

> the language/register is formal

> no hyperbolic language, language is simple, appropriate and to the point

> WE= inclusive “we” > typical of the in-group referring to the continental airlines => create identity

thanks to the division between the in-group and out-group. Typical of the digital discourse

> she is polite and uses a formal register

> direct interaction: question and answer

> pseudo-social interaction

> the robot

> we ask Alex virtual expert

> try to create a personification but in reality it’s a rhetorical personification

> technical affordance

> she is very polite and detailed

> sometimes these kind of algorithms are even more interactive and social than a simple

prompt on twitter because you can ask questions and receive answers while on youtube

you can only react to a simple prompt and not ask answer

> with famous people you can’t install a communication

> wants to create a relation even if it’s a robot

> pag 234

> multilingual page

> political ideology of the new corporation

> the ideology is that of diversity (= cultural diversity, racial diversity, ethnic diversity) and

inclusion (= we need to learn to live with people of different culture/language/habit) => new

trendy ideology of the big corporation that nowadays are global

> what we see (multilingualism/multiculturalism) is only appearance

> global corporation that need these face of inclusiveness, multiculturalism…

last part of the chapter:

1) the fact that the news nowadays are characterized by big financial crisis => they not sell

as much as they used

> they are on internet

pag 238: the new ways of creating/spreading the news

> framing device: CREATE SALIENCE typical of newspaper article headlines

first picture

> online newspaper articles

> the industry of newspaper is in a a financial crisis => the feature of broadcasting will be


> technical affordance

> uprising= social uprising

> social media > change in this recontextualization: social media uprising and not just social


> the insert “MEDIA” between “social” and “uprising” => create salience because they

mixed 2 discourses: the discourse of the internet and a social discourse

second picture

> twitter and Tsunami are widespread and fast

> “FAST” and “WIDESPREAD” for Twitter and Tsunami: the discourse of the earthquake

and tsunami => natural disaster with an artificial affordance

2) related to schools and university

> pag 240 : the fact that internet can be used in teaching and learning is something that is

selling the product => captivating => people are shown as smile people

> empower teachers to change lives

> empower the next generation of innovations

> inspiring innovators > enabling entrepreneurs

> program of MCDM > the use of all these social media in the teaching

> 1° > example of the use text and images => OVERLAPPING: text above images

> separation: 3 different images

> visual rhyme: the 3 people belong to the same in-group

> the connection between the 3 slogans: repetition in the words “empower”, “innovators”

> the new information in the 1° image (empowering) became given information in the

2° and “innovators" that is new in the 2° became given in the 3°

> coherent and cohesion text

> lexical cohesion


pag 17

> advertisement for a video-game: this is a typical example of interdiscoursive language because it

seems a poster but in reality this show propaganda for video-games > mediation of satires taken

from films

> a group of men with a dead man lying on the floor and they are in New York > “Big Apple” =

nickname that has become the symbol of the city (New York)

MOBSTERES > interdiscoursivity

> video game > almost all the video games keep the same content of the film and transform

it into a video game


> DIRECT or INDIRECT discourse (or interdiscoursivity)

> direct references to other texts/discourses/topics/point of views: quotes, paraphrases,

negation, indirect speech => in order to create dialogism (= presence of different point of

views in the same text)

> indirect ways of referring to another discourse: assumptions, presuppositions

> another element of interdiscoursivity is the use of the style of the discourse that

is more indirect


EXERCISE E pag 138

> pag 99-100 similar exercise

> features typical of dialogism

> promotional text

> comparisons, contrasts, use of famous authors, modality values…= part of dialogism

> evaluative, remarkable phrase

> embeded (inciso)= “despite a powerful…gates”

> remarkable: the interior remains intact

> lexical items: amphitheater, arena, interior are linked to a specific discourse that of architecture

> linguistic register: architecture lexical

> word: earthquake, interior, destroyed… > formal words

> “most of” = comparative, frequency adverb

> “nowadays” = deixis + temporal connective

> “instead of” = contrast (part of dialogism)

> contrast= past: gladiator vs today: opera lovers

> performance > formal

> Verdi > famous + foreign word

> Aida > famous

> discourse of music, opera

> salient, prominent elements: “Verdi, Aida” because they re very famous and foreign

> repetition of amphitheater

> conception (concessione): even without

> “visit” > touristic sense

> most, best, quite remarkable, worth > comparisons

> repetition: view, perspective (=formal english)

> “historic” roman empire, gladiators

E1) composition= image in the article

> layout= impaginazione > the space of the page is organized in a specific way => coherence and


> framing device is part of the layout.

> Separation: space between the picture and the written text.

> The salience part is the picture which is linked through separation. The picture is part of

the meaning of the text

from the content point of view

> image > Arena, lovers. The view is the view of the Arena and of the city in the background. a

copule foregrounded => romantic city where young couple like to go as tourists

> the content of the picture is related to the content of the written text

> relation: Arena. There are 2 representation of the same represented architectural building and of

the same city: Verona and the Arena.

> there is coherence and cohesion

> The key element of the text is also represented in the picture

E2) Multimodal elements

> visual mode > photograph, separated through a white space from the written mode

> written mode > text

they are part of the same unit of meaning

> real elements: numbers, dates, addresses


> presence of formal language + specific discourses (historical, architecture, tourism) + modality

values and cohesive devices (salient devices: Verdi, Aida + lexical item specific of the historical

and architectonical discourse. Intensifiers: well, remarkable, powerful, completely, vast, sprawling)

> modality values: description through the use of past and present > when we refer to the past, it

has a lower degree of certainty than the present. Everything that has no time, or that is present =>

certainty => present tense => high modality, high certainty


> we are more specific when we write a text than when we speak about that topic: int terms of

names, dates, numbers, addresses

> formal linguistic register > typical of the written text


D1) Discourse > pag 5, pag 9 (there are various…)

> email, blogs, wikis, fb status are typical genres of the digital discourse

Interdiscoursivity: every spoken utterance written text or instance of computer mediated

communication always bears traces of text that came before it. Intertextuality refers to this

historic relation that exists among texts. Intertextuality has an important role in the meaning

making process

> construction of a new text and reinterpretation of given text

D2) INTERDISCOURSIVITY is related to intertextuality: appropriation of discourse conventions,

resources and practices from one genre to another

> example: the app “foursquare” and the use of word from another

group of knowledge)= genre mixing (like Tim Wise when uses militar

words in order to create metaphors)

> genre mixing

> hyperlinks (pag 113 > text with hyperlinks), links

> pag 11 > examples and definition

> photocopy with examples of text about interdiscoursivity

D3) > medium: radio, tv, computer screen, paper

> not a medium but a mode: visual, written, kinetic mode

> example: paper > visual mode + written mode

D4) Remediation: (chapter 2 + pag 32)

1) fb > remediation= recontextualization

2) Wikipedia

> it’s also resemiotization (pag 31,34,45) > change in the semiosis (basically the same thing

of remediation, it underlines that there is also a change of the mode)

> example of resemiotization > use of apps that help us keep in track our habits, health,

exercises > we write some entry/role date (age, weight, habits…) => the app use a

resemiotization of those datas because in that way all those datas are redefined in that

specific purpose. The data are collected and usually shown in a visual mode through a

specific graphic. Graphs use the visual mode not the written one. The algorithm reflect back

an image of our identity by recollecting all the data. It’s a virtual/social image. When we put

ourselves out on the internet we project our social identity => we will be categorized in

specific groups.

> RESEMIOTIZATION plays a role in creating our virtual/social identity

> pag 31 example of remediation/resemiotization from the spoken mode to the written mode.

Resemiotization form the written to the kinetic mode > the door that automatically close

> pag 34: resemiotization between mode and medium

> from the written mode to the spoken mode

> from the screen of the phone to the stage in a theatre

> we resemiotize the content, just a part of it. And we give new purpose to that.

> REMIXING= (video creativity is a remix Ted)

> new media created from old media > new song comprised old songs

> remix is a better way to conceive creativity

> copy, transform, recreate

> comix strips > words can have more than one meaning and therefore they can be

recontextualized to the reference of 2 different kind of texts

D5) When I look at a video on Youtube I have to use a multimodal approach because otherwise I

can’t do an accurate analysis. Coo deployment of more than one mode.

> pag 40: written mode + spoken + kinetic mode => in order to understand the meaning

D6) digital discourse is based not he virtual identity > social community, social network > we create

our identities. the more we interact with specific algorithm that ask us specific information, the more

we are creating a virtual identity. The self and the other are linked to ideology because we usually

express ourselves and thought whenever we interact through internet. The process is then

reflected as it were our personality

> pag 227 (discourse) + Tim Wise text

> pag 106

D7) comix strip (recontextualization of the same word in a different contest) + stage dialogue

(recontextualization of some notification and text messages to create a new message) + retweet

(repetition of the other text in order to recontextualize the old message in order to create a new

message) + email

D8) pag 99-100 + Tim Wise > contain the elements that challenge some common assumptions

> create comparisons

> create contrasts

> in order to reinforce the idea => making reference to more important text or authors =>

testimonials, quotation (intertextuality)

D9) > D4)

D10) pag 64/67

> pag 66 text + comment


ARGUABILITY > subjective modality

> pag 66/67 > R. Paul: “apparently” “I think” > in order to say that it seems like that

but I don’t have the proofs => medium-low modality. Subjective

modality= opinion > not proof BUT A WRITTEN DOCUMENT




172.58 KB


+1 anno fa

Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea in lingue e culture per il turismo e il commercio internazionale
Docente: Zanfei Anna
Università: Verona - Univr
A.A.: 2018-2019

I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher giuliabonamin di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di English language e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Verona - Univr o del prof Zanfei Anna.

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