Lingua e traduzione inglese II
the last level of analysis is the result of the words (prelocutionary effect):
-locution: is the form of the words uttered;
-locutionary act: is the act of saying something;
-illocutionary force: is the functions of the words;
-prelocutionary effect: is the result of the words.
Searle in 1976 classify speech acts in five groups:
-declarations: like “I declare”;
-representatives: like “describing”;
-commissives: like “promising”;
-directives: like “commanding”;
-expressives: like “congratulating”.
For Austin felicity conditions are that the context and roles of participants must be
recognized by all parites. For Searle there is a general condition for all speech acts,
that the hearer must hear and understand the language, and that the speaker must
not be pretending or play acting.
INDIRECT SPEECH ACTS:
Searle said that a speaker using a direct speech act (form and functions) wants to
communicate the literal meaning that the words express; there is a direct relationship
between the form and the function. On the other hand, Searle explained that someone
using an indirect speech act wants to communicate a different meaning from the
apparent surface meaning and the form and function are not directly related. Indirect
speech acts are part of everyday life.
Conversation is talking to each other. Conversation analysis is discourse mutually
constructed and negotiated in time between speakers. There are some studies:
-Sinclair and Coulthard: studied primary school lessons and found a regular structure.
They said that the lesson can be broken down into five levels or ranks:
- initiation (teacher), response (student), follow-up
(teacher comment and student answer.). This three movement are called
- is the combination of moves in the IRF
- exchange then combine to make the
- is the speech event that consist of combinations of
-transition relevance place (TRP): a point in a conversation where a change of turn is
Conversation analysis claim that as speakers are mutually constructing and
negotiating their conversation in time, certain sequences, which are stretches of
utterance or turns, emerge. We have:
-pre-sequences: prepare the ground for sequences (pre-invitation, request,..);
-sequences: insertion sequences and macro-sequences;
-opening structures: tend to contain for example a greeting;
-closing structures: just ending with a farewell.
8. THE COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLE.
The cooperative principle describes how effective communication in conversation is
achived in common social situations, how listeners and speakers must act
cooperatively and mutually accept one other to be understood in a particular way.
There are four maxims of the principle:
-quantity: which says that speake should be as informative as is required;
-quality: which says that speakers are expected to be sincere, to be saying something
that they believe
corresponds to reality;
-relation: which says that speakers are assumed to be saying something that is
relevant to what has been
-manner: which says that we should be brief and orderly and avoid obscutiry and
FLOUTING THE MAXIMS (that there are social conventions of elements that are
respected in the conversation) when speakers appear not to follow the maxims but
expect hearers to appreciate the meaning implied. There are four flouting of:
-quantity: the speakers who flouts the maxims of quantity seems to give too little or
too much informations
-quality: may do in several ways, Can use hyperbole, or metaphor, or euphenims, or
irony, or sarcasm.
-relation: they aspect that the hearers be able to imagine what the utterance did not
-manner: appearing to be obscure.
OTHER FORMS OF NON-OBSERVANCE OF MAXIMS:
-Grice: he listed two other ways to fail to fulfil a maxim: to infringe it and to opting out.
infringing a maxim and can happen if the speaker has an imperfect command
of the language
(like a child), if their performance is impaired (nervousness, excitement) or if
he is incapable of
speaking cleary. A speaker opting out of maxim cannot reply in the way
-Sperber and Wilson: say that all maxims can be reduced to the maxim of relation.
They propose relevance theory, governed by contextual effects (adding new
information) and processing effort (the less effort it takes to recover a fact).
-critical discourse analysis: based on Halliday’s systemic functional linguistic says that
the language is a “social act” and discourse is idealogically driven;
-spoken discourse: speaker and hearer are both present and no need to make explicit
reference to the environment. The speaker may monitor communicative event
thanks to immediate feedback from the audience. Is less structurated from a
syntactic, the utterance are
incomplete, there is limited subordination. There is a low lexical
density like prepositions, articles, pronouns, auxiliaries, modal verbs. We see
the prevalence of active constructions and there is a use of generalized
vocabulary. There are repetition
-written discourse: need to make explicit reference to the environment. Monitoring is
impossible. There is a prevalence of hypothetical style with use of logical connectors
(besides, however), temporal markers (when, while). The lexical density is high with
prevalence of context words, noun, verbs, adjectives, with use of NOMINALIZAZION.
We see a large use of passive constructions and there is a use of specific vocabulary.
There are avoid and no
Politeness is a key concept. In pragmatic, when we talk of “politeness”, we do not refer
to the social rules of behavior but we refer to the choices that are made in language
use, the linguistic expression that give people space and show a friendly attitude to
them. There are:
-politeness and face: Brown and Levinson said that in order to enter into social
relationship we haven show
an awareness of face, the public self-image. Avoid face
threatening acts (FTAs) and
when FTAs are unavoidable, speaker can redress the threat
with negative politeness
(or negative face) or they can redress FTAs with positive
politeness (or positive face);
-off record: with a indirect speech acts the speakers utterance are expressed aloud but
not addressed to
anyone in particular, as if he/she was speaking to him/her self;
-on record-baldly: is a direct speech. If a speaker makes a suggestion, request, offer,
invitation in a open an
negative politeness strategies:
- pay attention to negative face, by
demonstrating the distance between
interlocutors; positive politeness strategies:
- aim to save positive face, by
demonstrating solidariety and friendship;
-politeness maxims: according to Leech there are six maxims: tact, generosity,
approbation, modesty, agreement, sympathy and added by Cruse, consideration.
Is particulary important because the speaker/writer gives prominence to an element
by placing it at the beginning of the sentence. It is a stacing device.
Different kinds of discourse tend to structure topics differently:
a) ARGUMENTATIVE+INFORMAL DISCOURSE:
-usually identify the topic early on;
-provide reasons and solution;
-the topic is thematized.
b) INSTRUCTIONAL DISCOURSE:
-topic usually given as a headline or title;
-text: sequential steps in a process, in case of a recipe, the topic is usually not
repeated in the text and it
is really thematized. The topic structure depends mainly on the connection
sentence, each one of which answers the question “What do I do next?” (ex.
Recipe of French
c) DESCRIPTIVE DISCOURSE (THE PURPOSE IS DESCRIBING):
-the topic is usually named early on;
-the topic structure of the text is established through the normal ordering of
elements (ex. My guitar);
d) NARRATIVE DISCOURSE (NARRATE A SEQUENCE OF FACTS OR EVENT IN
-topic structure based on time sequences and consecutive events + possible
-high incidence of time clues (adverbs, adverbial phrases, time clauses) to enable
the interpreter to
arrange events in their chronological sequence (time markers);
-time is often thematized. Topic are hardly ever thematized; topics shifts in narrative
text may be
identifies through: identification, two paragraph.
4 mesi fa
I contenuti di questa pagina costituiscono rielaborazioni personali del Publisher alessandra_-095 di informazioni apprese con la frequenza delle lezioni di Lingua e traduzione inglese e studio autonomo di eventuali libri di riferimento in preparazione dell'esame finale o della tesi. Non devono intendersi come materiale ufficiale dell'università Calabria - Unical o del prof Oggero Renata.
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