“A Study in Scarlet” is the first Sherlock Holmes’ story. It was published in 1887 in Beeton's Christmas Annual and at first it Doyle didn’t reach success, his novel was unnoticed, but the second novel “The Sign of Four” published 1890 in Lippincott's Monthly Magazine went viral.
Arthur Conan Doyle had invented a new literary genre based on investigations in the Victorian era.
This novel begins in 1881 when Dr John Watson met an old friend, Stamford, in London. John Watson has just come back from Afghanistan, he was forced to leave because he had an injury, and he was looking for a place to leave. Stamford took Watson to St. Bartholomew’s hospital because he told him that he has friend who is also looking for an apartment: he is Sherlock Holmes. Sherlock Holmes was doing some strange chemical experiments and as soon as Watson arrived, Holmes guessed much information about Watson’s, who was of course astonished, and they decided to share an apartment at 221B Baker Street. Holmes revealed that he is a consulting detective and he received a message from Scotland Yard, they were investigating on a murder. Holmes observed the crime scene; the male corps has been already identified: he is Enoch Drebber, but there is a word written in blood the wall. This word is “Rache”, which in German means revenge and Sherlock Holmes was the only one who understood the real meaning because Scotland Yard and Lestrade, who is the most important detective of Scotland Yard thought it was an anagram. In the crime scene there was a wedding ring, which Sherlock Holmes used to find out who was the murderer. He bought the same ring and he wrote a message on a newspaper. An old woman replied to this message she says that the ring belonged to her daughter and Sherlock Holmes gives her the duplicate and follows her, but she took a cab and she disappears. Scotland Yard arrested a suspect but in the meantime another man was killed, he was Stangerson and above his body there was the same written “Rache”. Sherlock Holmes found out that the murderer was the cab driver: Jefferson Hope who forced his victims to swallow a pill, one was harmless and the other was full with poison.