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After Cromwell’s death, the monarchy was restored and, Charles I’s son became King Charles II of England. Even if the power actually remained in the hands of Parliament. In this period there were two political parties: The Tories and The Whigs. The Tories, composed by landed gentry, supported the king while, the Whigs supported the power of parliament and were mainly supported by the urban middle classes. In Charles II’s England began to have strength the French tastes against those Puritan, especially with the Act of Uniformity of 1662 which penalized all kinds of Puritan opinion. Another important event of this period was the foundation of the Royal Society (association of the illustrious scientists) that supplied a scientific explanation on many fields of knowledge, reflecting the attitude of the rationalism. During Charles II’s reign London was struck by two great calamities: the Plague in 1665 which caused the death of about 100.000 people and, the Great Fire in 1666 which destroyed a large part of London, than reconstructed (by the surveyor Christopher Wren) thanks which the urban landscape changed considerably.

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