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After Charles II, his son James II came to the throne but, differently from his father, he was opened to Catholic sympathies and, wanted to undermine parliament’s authority. For these reasons, in 1668 there was the Glorious Revolution (called so, because it was relatively non-violent) with which James was forced to accept the Bill of rights with which the king could no longer raise taxes, form an army or suspend laws without parliament’s consent. From this point followed another reforms such as the Toleration Act, which granted freedom of worship to protestant dissenters and, the Act of Settlement across which, parliament excluded James’s Catholic son from the succession. When William of Orange died childless, he was succeeded by his wife’s sister, Anne, whom led England in the war of Spanish succession against France. At the end of this war, Britain had Minorca and Gibraltar besides the virtual monopoly of the slave trade.

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